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Monarchy is a system of government in which the monarch, emperor or king, governs a country as head of state. The government is for life, until it dies or abdicates. The transmission of power occurs in a hereditary manner (from father to son), so there are no elections to choose a monarch.
This system of government was very common in European countries during the Middle and Modern Ages. In the latter case, the monarchs ruled without limits of power. The monarchy became known as absolutism. With the French Revolution (1789), this system of government declined and was replaced by the Republic in the vast majority of countries.
Few countries today use this system of government, and those who still use it give little power to the king. In this regard, we can cite the Constitutional Monarchies of the United Kingdom, Australia, Norway, Sweden, Canada, Japan and Denmark. In these countries, the king has limited powers and represents the country as a decorative and classic figure.
The monarchical period in Brazil occurred between 1822 and 1889, with the reigns of D. Pedro I and D. Pedro II.
Parliamentarism is a system of government in which the legislative power (parliament) provides the political support (right or indirect support) to the executive power. Thus, the executive power needs the power of parliament to be constituted and also to govern. In parliamentarism, executive power is most often exercised by a prime minister.
The parliamentary system can present itself in two ways:
- In the Parliamentary Republic, the head of state (with the power of government) is a president elected by the people and sworn in by parliament for a fixed time.
- In parliamentary monarchies, the head of government is the monarch (king or emperor), who takes hereditary role. In the latter case, the head of state (who actually governs) is a prime minister, also called a chancellor.
Parliamentarism has its origin in Medieval England. In the late thirteenth century, English nobles began to demand greater political participation in the government, led by a monarch. In 1295, King Edward I made official the assemblies of the noble representatives. Thus was born the English parliamentarism.
Parliamentary countries today: Canada, England, Sweden, Italy, Germany, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Belgium, Armenia, Spain, Japan, Australia, India, Thailand, People's Republic of China, Greece, Estonia, Egypt, Israel, Poland, Serbia and Turkey.
The parliamentary system is a more flexible system than the presidential one, because in case of political crisis, for example, the prime minister can be replaced quickly and the parliament can be overthrown which in the case of presidentialism, the president fulfills his mandate until the end, even in cases of political crises.
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva - 35th President of Brazil
Presidentialism is a system of government in which the president is the Head of State and Government. This president is responsible for choosing the ministers who assist him in the government.
In the presidential system, the president exercises executive power, while the other two powers, legislative and judiciary, have autonomy.
Brazil is a Presidential Republic of this 15 of November of 1889, when the Proclamation of the Republic occurred.
In Brazil the parliamentary system existed between September 7, 1961 and January 24, 1963, during the government of President João Goulart.
Military Regime / Dictatorship
Military dictatorship is a form of government in which political power is effectively controlled by the military, suppressing civil rights and repressing those who are against this regime of government. This regime can be official or unofficial, or mixed, where the military exercises strong influence without being the dominant one.
Most military regimes are formed after a coup d'état, toppling the previous government.
In Brazil, the military regime existed from 1964 to 1985, characterized by a lack of democracy, suppression of constitutional rights, censorship, political persecution and repression of those who were against the military regime.