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Pyramids of Giza

At Pyramids of Giza They are monumental structures built of stone. They have a rectangular base and four triangular (sometimes trapezoidal) faces that converge to a vertex. These three majestic pyramids were built as royal tombs for the kings Kufu (or Cheops), Chefren, and Menkaure (or Miquerinos) - father, son and grandson.

The largest, 160 m high (49 floors), is called the Great Pyramid, and was built around 2550 BC for Kufu, at the height of Egypt's ancient reign, and is located in the city of Giza, which is part of Cairo in the Egypt. They are the only ones of the ancient wonders that have survived time.

The great pyramids of Giza: Cheops, Chefren and Miquerinos. They were built about 2,700 BC, from the beginning of the old reign until near the Ptolemaic period. The time when they reached their peak, the period of the pyramids par excellence, began with the 3rd dynasty and ended with the 6th dynasty (2686-2345 BC).

The Giza Pyramids are one of the most famous monuments in the world. Like all pyramids, each is part of an important complex comprising a temple, a ramp, a funerary temple and the smaller pyramids of queens, all surrounded by tombs (mastabas) of priests and government people, an authentic city for the dead

To the Egyptians, the pyramid represented the rays of the sun, shining toward the earth. All the pyramids in Egypt were built on the west bank of the Nile, toward the setting sun. The Egyptians believed that by burying their king in a pyramid, he would rise and join the sun, taking his rightful place with the gods.

The Giza Pyramids were not considered isolated structures but integrated into an architectural complex. About 100 pyramids have been found in Egypt but most of them are reduced to small mounds of earth.

To set up the three pyramids, it is estimated that about 30,000 Egyptians worked for 20 years, and every three months there was a change of men. A large part worked on cutting and transporting stone blocks. However, there were not only manual workers, but also architects, doctors, bakers and brewers, as it is believed that the men who worked there were paid with beer and food, despite the various controversies.

The Pyramid of Cheops, also known as the Great Pyramid, is the heaviest monument ever built by man. It has approximately 2.3 million blocks of rock, each weighing around 2.5 tons. More than 146 meters high.

Cheops was a pharaoh of the ancient empire of ancient Egypt. He reigned from about 2551 BC to 2528 BC… He was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty. Cheops was the son of King Snefru and, unlike his father, was remembered as a cruel and merciless pharaoh. Cheops had several children, one of whom, Djedefré, was his immediate successor. He had a daughter named Queen Hetepheres II.

Pharaoh Cheops was also responsible for building the largest pyramid in Giza - which is the only one of the seven wonders of the ancient world still in existence - bearing his name: the Cheops pyramid.

Chefren was an Egyptian pharaoh of the fourth dynasty. He built the second largest of the Giza pyramids, the Chephren Pyramid, the Giza Sphinx, and a temple, which is the only remaining temple example from the period of the Ancient Egyptian Empire. Your name, Khaf-re, means "from the crown of Ra" to some translators and "go up Ra!" for others; the most likely meaning is the first, because the hieroglyphics representing his name have such a crown.

Menkauré was a king of the fourth Egyptian dynasty. In Portuguese, it is also known as Mykerinos, which comes from the Hellenized version of its name. Menkauré means "stable are the kau de Ré" (being bye the plural of ka, constituent element of the human being in the Egyptian mentality).

He was the son of Khafré (also known as Chefren, king of the second pyramid of Giza) and Queen Khamerernebti I. He was married to his sister Khamerernebti II and had two more wives. Mikerinos had at least two male children: one died and the other, Chepseskaf, was his successor.

The details concerning the reign of Mikerinos are unknown. Herodotus describes him as a "pious" and just king who had the shrines reopened. This description of the Greek historian is based on popular accounts of dubious credibility.

Its pyramid in Giza is smaller than the three. However, it was lined to a third of its height with a nobler material, the Aswan granite. His tomb was restored at the time of the XXVI dynasty. Inside it was found in modern times a sarcophagus that was sent to London, but the boat carrying it sank off the coast of Portugal.

Theories about the emergence of the Giza Pyramids

  • The theory that best explains the construction of the pyramids without encountering logistical contradictions and without invoking extraterrestrial elements is chemistry, more precisely one branch of it, geopolymerization. The blocks were produced from dolomitic limestone, easily aggregated on site using compounds very common at the time, such as lime, saltpeter and sand. All the mass of the blocks was carried by men carrying baskets of dough put to dry in wooden molds. The human effort in this case would be much less and the nesting of the blocks perfect.
  • Against the theory of geopolymerization weighs in particular the fact that the ancient Egyptians specialized in the extraction and transport of huge blocks of stone, such as granite obelisks that weighed more than 300 tons. Even today it is possible to see, in an abandoned quarry, in Aswan, the famous unfinished obelisk, with more than one thousand tons, which has served as a source of information on the techniques used in the extraction of granite blocks.


  • The word pyramid does not come from the Egyptian language. Graduated from the Greek "pyra"(which means fire, light, symbol} and"kids"(which means measurements).
  • There is an Arabic proverb that refers to the Pyramids:

"Man fears Time, yet time fears the Pyramids."

  • Although of a mystical nature, for the construction of these pyramids, a series of trigonometry knowledge focused on the dimensions of the round earth and celestial projections was used. If the meridian from its point to the intersection of the Indian with the African continent were divided into 6,666,666 units, each unit would be equivalent to the standard meter and the entire sixth part of the round earth circumference. Similarly to the equator line if measured in Chinese units.
It is observed that the angle of inclination of its sides caused each side to be carefully oriented by the cardinal points.


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