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National Liberation Front formed

National Liberation Front formed


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North Vietnam announces the formation of the National Front for the Liberation of the South at a conference held “somewhere in the South.” This organization, more commonly known as the National Liberation Front (NLF), was designed to replicate the success of the Viet Minh, the umbrella nationalist organization that successfully liberated Vietnam from French colonial rule.

The NLF reached out to those parts of South Vietnamese society who were displeased with the government and policies of President Ngo Dinh Diem. One hundred delegates representing more than a dozen political parties and religious groups–both communists and non-communists–were in attendance at the conference. However, from the beginning, the NLF was dominated by the Lao Dong Party Central Committee (North Vietnamese Communist Party) and served as the North’s shadow government in South Vietnam. The Saigon regime dubbed the NLF the “Viet Cong,” a pejorative contraction of Viet Nam Cong San (Vietnamese Communists).

The NLF’s military arm was the People’s Liberation Armed Forces (PLAF). In February 1965, the PLAF attacked U.S. Army installations at Pleiku and Qui Nhon, which convinced President Lyndon B. Johnson to send the first U.S. ground troops to South Vietnam a month later. Ultimately, more than 500,000 U.S. troops were sent to Vietnam to fight the PLAF and the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN, or North Vietnamese Army).

The NLF reached the height of its power during the 1968 Tet Offensive, when the communists launched a massive coordinated attack against key urban centers throughout South Vietnam. Although the Viet Cong forces were soundly defeated during the course of the offensive, they achieved a great psychological victory because the attack prompted many long time supporters of the war to question the Johnson administration’s optimistic predictions.


Moro National Liberation Front

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Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), Muslim separatist movement in the southern Philippines that has employed guerrilla tactics and violence in its campaign for the creation of an independent democratic, Islamic state.

Taking its name from the Muslim Moro peoples of Mindanao and other southern islands of the Philippines, the MNLF led an insurgency against the Philippine government that began in 1973, soon after President Ferdinand Marcos imposed martial law. The MNLF’s well-organized and sophisticated military force, known as the Bangsa Moro Army, had 30,000 fighters at the time of its greatest strength in the 1970s. In 1975 Marcos conceded that the Moros’ economic grievances, at least, were justified, particularly against Christian landowners but government offers of regional autonomy were rejected by the MNLF, which continued to demand complete independence for the Moro islands. The MNLF boycotted elections in Mindanao, giving legislative control to the National Society Movement. The organization subsequently was weakened by a series of factional splits, including breaks in the 1970s that resulted in the formation of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and the Bangsa Moro Liberation Organization.

Although martial law was lifted at the beginning of 1981, guerrilla activity continued. In February 1981 the MNLF attacked government forces, killing more than 120 troops on the island of Pata. In addition to violent attacks, the group also kidnapped Roman Catholic bishops, foreigners, and others and made ransom demands for their hostages.

In 1986 Marcos was forced from power by a popular revolution. The new president, Corazon Aquino, and the leader of the MNLF, Nur Misuari, quickly arranged for a cease-fire, and in January 1987 the MNLF agreed to drop its demand for an independent state in return for regional autonomy. However, the MILF refused to accept the agreement, and discussions between the government and opposition groups broke down. In 1988 the MNLF officially lifted its cease-fire. Despite the breakdown in the talks and the continued fighting, the government held referendums that led to the establishment of an autonomous region for Muslim Mindanao in 1990.

After several more years of skirmishes, Philippine President Fidel Ramos and Misuari concluded a peace accord in 1996. Later that year, Misuari was elected governor of the autonomous region. However, clashes between the MNLF and the government continued into the 21st century. During the last three decades of the 20th century, the fighting between Moro guerrilla groups and the government resulted in about 100,000 deaths.


National Liberation Front

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National Liberation Front, French Front de Libération Nationale (FLN), the only constitutionally legal party in Algeria from 1962 to 1989. The party was a continuation of the revolutionary body that directed the Algerian war of independence against France (1954–62).

The FLN was created by the Revolutionary Committee of Unity and Action (Comité Révolutionnaire d’Unité et d’Action [CRUA]), a group of young Algerian militants, organized in March 1954. The CRUA sought to reconcile the warring factions of the nationalist movement and to wage war against the French colonial presence in Algeria. By the middle of 1956 almost all the Algerian nationalist organizations had joined the FLN, which was then reorganized so that it resembled a provisional government, including a five-member executive body and a legislative body, which consisted of all the district heads.

During the Algerian war for independence, the National Liberation Army (Armée de Libération Nationale [ALN]), under the command of Col. Houari Boumedienne, acted as the military arm of the FLN. From camps stationed behind Tunisian and Moroccan borders, the ALN’s external contingent provided logistical support and weaponry to ALN forces within the country. The war for independence continued until March 18, 1962, when the French at last signed a cease-fire agreement with the FLN at Évian-les-Bains and made provisions for future economic and social cooperation. In a referendum held July 1, 1962, the Algerians voted overwhelmingly for self-determination and approved the Évian Agreement.

The proclamation of Algerian independence on July 3, 1962, was immediately followed by a power struggle within the FLN. The Political Bureau of the FLN was created in July 1962 by Ahmed Ben Bella, Boumedienne, and Muhammad Khidr in opposition to Belkacem Krim. It attracted a broad popular following through its socialist-Islamic ideology and effective propagandizing, enabling Ben Bella to become premier in May 1963. In 1965 Ben Bella was overthrown by Boumedienne, who held tight control of the leadership of the party and government until his death in December 1978 during his rule (1965–78), the FLN party functioned mainly as an ideological apparatus, while power effectively rested in the hands of Boumedienne himself and his Council of Revolution.

Despite the convening of various congresses throughout the 1980s, the role of the FLN was not significantly increased under the presidency of Col. Chadli Bendjedid. A new constitution approved in February 1989 eliminated both the country’s socialist ideology and its one-party political system, in effect signaling the further decline of the FLN (see Algeria: Bendjedid’s move toward democracy). A number of parties subsequently emerged, several of which—including the Islamic Salvation Front (Front Islamique du Salut [FIS]), Front of Socialist Forces (Front des Forces Socialistes [FFS]), and Hamas—soon challenged the FLN.

The FLN lost greater presence in the midst of the political turmoil and violence of the 1990s as the National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Démocratique), formed in 1997, took a leading role. In the early 21st century, however, despite a number of internal crises, a revived FLN performed well in parliamentary and regional elections. In addition, the election of FLN member Abdelaziz Bouteflika to the country’s presidency in 1999, as well as his subsequent appointment to the largely honorary position as head of the FLN in 2005, both laid the foundation for closer links between the party and the presidency.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Laura Etheredge, Associate Editor.


Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)

The Moro National Liberation Front is a revolutionary organization that spearheaded the Muslim separatist movement in the Philippines in the 1970s.

This was the largest Islamic separatist group in the Philippines from 1971 to 1996. Having proposed negotiations with the Philippines government, the Moro National Liberation Front seeks an independence Islamic state.

Organized in 1969 by a group of ninety Moro youths it was made public only in the early 1970s, when martial law was declared by president Ferdinand Marcos. In 1972, Nur Misuari a political professor at the University of the Philippines in Manila assumed control of the group.

In 1973, the Moro National Liberation Front had a military force do 15,000 combatants and Nur Misuari launched military operations.

By 1975, the fighting between the Moro National Liberation Front and the armed forces had escalated into large scale, conventional warfare.

In December 1976, the Moro National Liberation Front and the Marcos government signed the Tripoli Agreement. Part of the agreement mandated a referendum that would allow for political autonomy in 13 provinces and 9 cities in the southern Philippines.

The Muslim, dissatisfied with way Marcos implemented the agreement and disagreement inside the Moro secessionist movement caused the Moro National Liberation Front to split into two factions: Moro National Liberation Front headed by Nur Misuari and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front headed by Hashim Salamat. Moro Islamic Liberation Front was formed by Hashim Salamat in 1984 to continue the struggle, for both regional independence and the formation of an Islamic state.

By 1979, a number of the Moro leaders stated that they no longer sought autonomy but that their goal was independence.

In 1996 Moro National Liberation Front made new peace with the Philippines government, and Nur Misuari became governor of the Autonomous Region for Muslim Mindanao.

The Moro Islamic Liberation Front signed a cease-fire in 1997, but more radical splinter movements continue the armed struggle in the name of Islam.
Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)


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How was the ONLF formed?

The ONLF formed in the wake of the Western Somali Liberation Front (WSLF), which lost the support of Somalis living in Ogaden after the 1977-1978 war in which Ethiopia crushed Somali government forces attempting to gain control of areas with large ethnic Somali populations. WSLF members helped found the ONLF and then recruited their former colleagues to join them. By the time the WSLF was disbanded, the ONLF had gained increased support among ethnic Somalis residing in Ethiopia. In 1991, the ONLF joined the political process, and performed well in regional parliamentary elections. The group’s political wing later merged with another political party to form the Somali People’s Democratic Party, which remains a powerful political force in the region.


Postage Stamp Chat Board & Stamp Forum

The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-1976)

Post by Eli » 14 Dec 2015 23:46

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 14 Dec 2015 23:56

During the Vietnam War, a communist guerrilla force began to form in South Vietnam. This force was formally established on December 12, 1960 and called the "National Liberation Front for South Vietnam", also known as the Vietcong.

On October 5, 1963, North Vietnam issued the first set of stamps for the "National Liberation Front for South Vietnam" (Vietcong) for use by the Vietcong forces in South Vietnam. The stamps were printed in Hanoi and distributed by the official governmental agency, Xunhasaba. From October 1963 until June 1976, 69 stamps were issued for the Vietcong.

Several changes occurred in the Vietcong stamps over the years:
Until 1969 the inscription on the stamps read: Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam ("The National Liberation Front for South Vietnam"). The stamps’ denominations were valued in North Vietnamese Dong.

From June 6, 1969, when the "Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam" was established by North Vietnam, the inscription on the stamps read: Cộng hòa Miền Nam Việt Nam ("Republic of South Vietnam"):

In April 1976, after the fall of the Rebublic of Vietnam (what we call South-Vietnam), the Provisional Revolutionary Government of South-Vietnam started to plan the official unification of the two parts of Vietnam. On June 24, 1976, the last stamps of North Vietnam and the Vietcong were issued, to commemorate the first conference of the National United Assembly. On July 2, 1976, the two parts of Vietnam officially reunified to become one state named "Socialist Republic of Vietnam". New stamps were issued with the inscription Việt Năm Bưu Chính (Vietnam Post). At the end of 1977, the distribution of the North Vietnamese and Vietcong stamps was ceased and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam stamps became the only postage stamps in use.

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 14 Dec 2015 23:59

3rd Anniversary of the Establishment of the National Liberation Front (I)
October 5, 1963
Michel 1-3

Independence, Democracy, Peace, Neutrality


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Independance, Democratie, Paix, Neutralite


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Independencia, Democracia, Paz, Neutralidad


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 00:02

3rd Anniversary of the Establishment of the National Liberation Front (II)
October 5, 1963
Michel 4-5


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Battle of Ap Bac - January, 1963


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 00:06

4th Anniversary of the Establishment of the National Liberation Front
December 20, 1964
Michel 6-8

Demonstration for Vietnam Unification


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Attack on USS “Card” in Saigon Seaport (May 2, 1964)


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 00:09

1st Anniversary of the Execution of Nguyễn Văn Trỗi
October 15, 1965
Michel 9-10

Nguyễn Văn Trỗi was a Vietcong fighter captured when trying to assassinate US Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and Ambassador Henry Lodge who were visiting South-Vietnam. Since Văn Trỗi became the first executed fighter of the Vietcong, he became a symbol of the North Vietnamese campaign for Vietnam unification and of many leftist groups in the world.

Attack on USAF Aircrafts in Biên Hòa Air Base


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Nguyễn Văn Trỗi (1940 - 1964)


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 00:13

5th Anniversary of the Establishment of the National Liberation Front
December 20, 1965
Michel 11


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 00:27

7th Anniversary of the Establishment of the National Liberation Front
December 20, 1967
Michel 12-14

Vietcong Fighters on US Tank


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


Demonstration for Vietnam Unification


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 00:33

"Fight for Freedom", Paintings by Long Châu and H. P. Dông
-, 1968
Michel 15-18

"Vietcong Fighter", by Long Châu


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


Woman Fighter", by H. P. Dông


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


"In the Face of the Enemy", by H. P. Dông


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 03:49

8th Anniversary of the Establishment of the National Liberation Front
December 20, 1969
Michel 19-22


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


Indépendance, Démocratie, Paix, Neutralité, Prospérité (Vietcong Slogan)


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


Independence, Democracy, Peace, Neutrality, Prosperity (Vietcong Slogan)


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


Michel numbers 21-22 were issued as se-tennant


This is the last set with the inscription Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam ("The National Liberation Front for South Vietnam"). On June 6, 1969, the "Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam" was established by North Vietnam. From the next set, issued in 1970, all issued Vietcong stamps bear the inscription: Cộng hòa Miền Nam Việt Nam("Republic of South Vietnam").

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 03:55

Birth Centenary of Vladimir I. Lenin
April 22, 1970
Michel 23-26

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870-1924) was a Russian revolutionary, a communist politician, the main leader of the October Revolution, the first head of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic and the first leader of the Soviet Union.

Lenin was born in 1870. He was influenced by the revolutionary political views and the ideas of Karl Marx. He started his political actions as a socialist and developed his Marxist-Leninist Theory while a young student. He left Russia in 1900 and became the head of the Russian Social-Democratic party. In 1917, he returned to Russia and led the revolution in Petrograd against the Russian Government. The revolution gave the power to the Soviets and led to the creation of the Soviet Union which headed by Lenin until his resignation in 1922.


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 03:59

80th Birth Anniversary of Hồ Chi Minh
May 19, 1970
Michel 27-30

Hồ Chi Minh (1890 - 1969) was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary and statesman. He served as prime minister and president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

In 1929 he founded the Indochinese Communist Party. Later, he established the Viet Minh movement that struggled against the Japanese occupation regime and the Vichy French Government members. In 1945, after the Japanese surrendered, the Viet Minh established the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and elected Hồ Chi Minh as president. The French Union refused to recognize the new state, hence the Viet Minh fought them resulted in the French withdrawal from Indochina after their defeat in Dien Bien Phu. The Geneva conference decided to divide Vietnam to North Vietnam and South Vietnam. The former remained under the Viet Minh control headed by Hồ Chi Minh.

Hồ Chi Minh leaded his country in the Vietnam war aimed to unified both parts of Vietnam. As the war continued, he became less involved in the war’s decisions and served more as a highly visible figurehead president for the Vietnamese people until his death in 1969.


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by David Smitham » 15 Dec 2015 09:42

Readers may also be interested in a much earlier post made in 2008:

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 16:40

10th Anniversary of the Establishment of the National Liberation Front
December 20, 1970
Michel 31-34

Symbolic Anti-American Design


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 16:42

10th Anniversary of the foundation of the People's Liberation Armed Forces (PLAF) of South Vietnam
February 15, 1971
Michel 35-38

Farmers, Workers and NLF’s Fighters


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 16:50

2nd Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam
June 6, 1971
Michel 39-43

The “Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam” (PRG) was established by North-Vietnam on June 8, 1969 as an alternative Communist government opposed to the South Vietnamese government headed by President Nguyen Van Thieu. The PRG was recognized as the legal government of South-Vietnam by USSR, PR China and other communist and non-aligned states.

The PRG was envisioned as a political counter-force that could influence international public opinion in support of the unification of Vietnam and in opposition to the Republic of Vietnam (South-Vietnam) and the USA. The declared purpose of the PRG was to provide a formal NLF governmental structure and enhance its claim of representing the Southern Vietnamese people.

In 1973, the PRG delegates signed the Paris Peace Treaty. Following the military defeat of South-Vietnam and the surrender of Saigon on April 30, 1975, the PRG became the government in South-Vietnam and participated in the reunification process of the two parts of the country. On July 2, 1976, the PRG and the North Vietnam were unified and formed the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 16:56

5th Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam
June 6, 1974
Michel 44-49

Nguyen Thi Binh
Nguyen Thi Binh was a Vietnamese Communist leader. She joined Vietnam’s communist party in 1948 and took part in various movements against the French colonists. She was arrested and jailed by the French colonial authority for her activities. During the Vietnam War she became a member of the Vietcong’s central committee and in 1969 she was appointed foreign minister of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam. In 1973, she participated in the Paris Peace Conference on behalf of the Provisional Government and signed the Paris Peace Accords, an agreement on ending the war and restoring peace in Indo-China. After the Vietnam War, she was appointed Minister of Education and later, as Vice President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Michel numbers 44-48 were issued as se-tennant

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 18:15

Definitive: Hồ Chi Minh
February 28, 1975
Michel 50-51


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 18:18

85th Birth Anniversary of Hồ Chi Minh (I)
May 7-19, 1975 and July 16, 1975
Michel 52-53, 54a, 54b


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Michel 54b - second printing, different colors and shade

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 18:22

30th Anniversary of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam: Hồ Chi Minh
September 2, 1975 and January 28, 1976
Michel 55-58


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Same design as Michel 50-51 but small format

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 18:26

85th Birth Anniversary of Hồ Chi Minh (II)
October 6, 1975
Michel 59-60


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 23:05

Fruits of South Vietnam
March, 1976
Michel 61-63


Purple Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)


National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 23:07

1st Anniversary of the Liberation of South Vietnam
April, 1976
Michel 64

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 23:10

General Elections for the Unified National Assembly
April 25, 1976
Michel 65-67

Elections and map of unified Vietnam




National Liberation Front Vietcong Stamps

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 23:39

First Session of the Unified National Assembly
June 24, 1976
Michel 68-69

Map of unified Vietnam and patriotic slogans

Nước Việt Nam là một, dân tộc Việt Nam là một!
“Vietnam – the Homeland, the People!”


Đọc lập thông nhất chủ nghĩa xã hỏi!
"Vietnam – Independent, United, Socialist!"

This set of two stamps is the last one issued for the Vietcong. At the end of 1977, the distribution of the North Vietnamese and Vietcong stamps was ceased and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam stamps became the only postage stamps in use.

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 15 Dec 2015 23:53

I created a printable album pages for these stamps. The pages are fully illustrated by high resolution images and include spaces for the stamps. The pages fit to A4 paper size so you can print them in your home printer and mount your stamps. The album file is available for download here:

Please, read the instructions in the site before you print the album.

I have created a centered version of the album PDF for storing in document protectors that I can send to collectors need to use this version.

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by kemese1 » 16 Dec 2015 07:14

Very nice thread Eli - thanks for creating it.

As an extra little tidbit that may be of interest: North Vietnam issued a set of exactly the same design as the last set issued by the NLF - only inscribed 'Vietnam Dan-Chu Cong-Hoa' for 'Democratic Republic of Vietnam'. Which makes sense as the sets were issued at the occasion of the first gathering of a unified national assembly.

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by DJCMH » 17 Dec 2015 09:16

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by kemese1 » 17 Dec 2015 18:34

Re: The NLF (Viet Cong) Stamps - A Visual Catalogue (1963-19

Post by Eli » 18 Dec 2015 00:58

In addition to kemese1 answer, here is a paragraph from my article "The Propaganda Stamps of the National Liberation Front for South Vietnam (Vietcong)" published in L’Écho de la Timbrologie and in ICP:

Postal Use of the Vietcong Stamps

The Vietcong forces established a widespread telecommunication system of telephone, telegraph and post in their control zones in South Vietnam. The Vietcong stamps were aimed to be used by its forces. In actuality, letters sent by the Vietcong fighters were stampless. The letters were checked by censors and marked by the letter K (Kiem Duyet – Censor).

Letters franked with the Vietcong stamps, sent until May 1975, are very rare. From personal communication I had with J. C. and J. Ca., members of the Society of Indo-China Philatelists, specialists in Vietnam philately, I learned that few covers franked with Vietcong stamps from 1973-1974 are known. The covers were sent from Quang Tri district and the stamps were overprinted with the local currency. All the known covers were sent from the same Vietcong unit. In addition, a cover franked with Vietcong stamps sent from North Vietnam in 1970 is known. It seems that the Vietcong stamps were used more as propaganda for the North Vietnamese Communists regime than as postage stamps for postal use.

In April 1975, the Vietcong forces took control of South Vietnam. The issuing, distributing and use of South Vietnamese stamps ceased. From the partition of Vietnam until 1975, 600 stamps were issued by South Vietnam. Until today, many Vietnamese don't recognize them and several catalogues and web sites call them "Saigon puppet government stamps".

In May 7, 1975, the post office in Saigon, renamed Ho Chi Minh City, was reopened. Due to the fact that the two parts of Vietnam weren’t formally unified, more stamps were issued for the Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam by North Vietnam. These stamps were in use in the Southern area of Vietnam until the end of 1977. The use of Vietcong stamps that were denominated in dong, ended in 1976. The last 5 stamps, denominated in Xu, continued to be used through 1977.

There were many covers sent from the Southern provinces franked with these stamps in this period. Usually, the postmark bears the settlement name from which the letter was sent, in addition to "M. N. Viet Nam" (Mien Nam Viet Nam). Such covers are not rare and can be obtained for a reasonable price.


THE REVOLUTION

By late 1978 the long awaited national insurrection began and many of Somoza ’ s supporters abandoned him. To take advantage of this opportunity the Sandinistas reunited early in 1979 and created a single nine member National Directorate with three representatives from each faction. The members were Daniel Ortega, Humberto Ortega, and V í ctor Tirado (Terceristas) Tom á s Borge, Bayardo Arce, and Henry Ruiz (GPP) and Jaime Wheelock, Luis Carri ó n, and Carlos N ú ñ ez (Proletarian faction). On July 19, 1979, the Sandinista Revolution triumphed, ousting Anastacio Somoza Jr. ’ s regime in a mass popular insurrection.

Once in power the Sandinistas embarked upon ambitious political and economic programs designed to democratize Nicaragua and lift the country out of under-development. Their political agenda called for reforming the country ’ s institutions, including disbanding Somoza ’ s National Guard, and enfranchising the country ’ s vast rural and urban poor through mass organizations affiliated with the FSLN. In 1984 they carried out the first democratic national elections in the country ’ s history, which the Sandinistas won with 66 percent of the vote. Though derided by U.S. president Ronald Reagan ’ s administration as a “ Soviet style farce, ” the elections were designed with the technical assistance of the Swedish Electoral Commission and observed by credible international organizations and European governments. The newly elected Constituent Assembly, with the help of open “ town meetings ” around the country, promulgated a new constitution in 1987. Simultaneously, the Sandinistas launched aggressive economic reforms to combat the twin evils that had historically plagued Nicaragua: poverty and inequality. To this end they implemented an agrarian reform to distribute land confiscated from Somoza and his cronies (one-fifth of the country ’ s arable land) to individual peasants, cooperatives, and collective farms. In the cities they passed popular economic reforms, such as raising the minimum wage and introducing price controls and subsidies on basic goods and services, and embarked on public works programs to increase employment. These coincided with the Sandinistas ’ desire to implement a mixed-economy in which private property, state property, and cooperative property would co-exist. Sandinista social policy was equally ambitious, especially in the areas of education, health care, and housing.

From 1979 until Ronald Reagan ’ s inauguration in 1981, U.S.-Nicaraguan relations were cool but nonconfrontational. However, shortly after entering office President Reagan signed a secret executive authorization to begin trying to overthrow the Sandinista government, which the United States accused of supporting the guerrillas in El Salvador, being too closely allied to Cuba, and being Communists. U.S. coercion ranged from diplomatic pressures and economic sanctions to supporting the rebel force known as the Contras and threatening direct U.S. military action. These policies put a huge economic strain on the Nicaraguan economy, and the Sandinistas were forced to respond by shifting much of their trade to Europe and the Soviet Union. Similarly since the early 1980s, sales of weapons from Western countries were also embargoed pushing the Nicaraguans to import most of their weapons from the Socialist Bloc. While the Sandinistas claimed that these weapons were for defensive purposes to fight the U.S.-supported Contra rebels, the Reagan Administration pointed to them as proof that the FSLN were Communists and presented an eminent threat to other countries in the region and ultimately the United States. However U.S. public support for military intervention, whether indirectly by supporting the Contras or directly by U.S. troops, was the most unpopular U.S. foreign military policy of the 1980s. Indeed widespread domestic opposition led to strong public pressure on Congress to limit aid to the Contras. It also eventually led to the outlawing of lethal aid for the Contras from 1984 to 1985.

In turn this led members of the Reagan Administration, notably Oliver North of the National Security Council, to engage in the illegal and covert funding of the Contras by giving them money received from selling arms to a hostile country, Iran, in exchange for the release of U.S. hostages held by Lebanese Hezbollah. When this back-channel funding was uncovered it became known as the “ Iran-Contra scandal. ” An independent counsel, Lawrence E. Walsh, was appointed to investigate the affair. Eventually several members of the Reagan Administration were prosecuted and convicted. However, these convictions were later overturned on appeal or through presidential pardons.

From 1984 through early 2007 the electoral system that the Sandinistas put in place peacefully transferred power four times. The first was in 1990 when the Sandinistas were voted out of office. For the next sixteen years, three conservative administrations held power. However, on November 5, 2006, Sandinista candidate Daniel Ortega was reelected president of Nicaragua on a social democratic platform. The 2006 elections were widely scrutinized by international observers including delegations from Europe, the Organization of American States, and the Carter Center in Atlanta, Georgia. By all accounts they were, with the exception of a few minor irregularities, fair and transparent. In January 2007 Ortega began his new term in office.

SEE ALSO Anticolonial Movements Development, Rural Iran-Contra Affair Land Reform Marxism Peasantry Reagan, Ronald Revolution Socialism


National Liberation Front

The National Liberation Front (NLF) was a Marxist-Leninist mass political organization in South Vietnam which existed from 20 December 1960 to 2 July 1976 as the political wing of the Viet Cong.

The National Liberation Front was formed on 20 December 1960 by the government of North Vietnam to foment revolution against the fanatical Catholic dictator Ngo Dinh Diem in the South. The People's Revolutionary Party, the Radical Socialist Party, and the Democratic Party of Vietnam collaborated to form the NLF, which ostensibly embraced all shades of opposition to Diem's government. It included former Viet Minh resistance members, leaders of outlawed political parties and organizations, intellectuals driven to desperation by the suppression of liberal thought, peasants who were alienated by the Strategic Hamlet Program, members of the Hoa Hao, Cao Dai, and Binh Xuyen armed religious sects, persecuted Buddhist leaders, and ethnic minorities who were oppressed by Diem's government. The NLF represented a vast array of different ethnic, political, and social groups, and the First Congress of the NLF was held from 16 February to 3 March 1962. The NLF operated clandestinely under leadership not openly communist, but long associated with the Viet Minh resistance, and it was organized on the national and local level, paralelling South Vietnam's political structure. The NLF had its own flag, radio and press services, and a liberation army nicknamed the "Viet Cong" ("Vietnamese communists"), and it engaged in semi-governmental activities in rural areas and abroad, seeking international support. It commanded considerable rural allegiance, forced or voluntary, but attracted few supporters from the non-communist opposition. The NLF called for the South Vietnamese to overthrow the American-backed South Vietnamese regime throughout the 1960s and the first half of the 1970s, and its Viet Cong guerrillas worked hand-in-hand with the North Vietnamese PAVN regulars to fight against the US, the ARVN, and their allies during the Vietnam War. In 1969, it merged with the urban Alliance of National, Democratic, and Peace Forces to form the Provisional Revolutionary Government, a communist shadow government of South Vietnam. In 1976, after the reunification of Vietnam, the NLF merged with the Communist Party of Vietnam to form the Vietnamese Fatherland Front.


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