The story

Argos Timeline

Argos Timeline

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  • 1400 BCE - 1300 BCE

    Mycenaean fortifications, palaces and tombs constructed at Argos.

  • 1200 BCE - 1100 BCE

    Argos takes over from Mycenae as most important regional power in the Argolid.

  • 700 BCE - 600 BCE

    King Phiedon leads Argos to its greatest expansion.

  • c. 700 BCE

    Sparta, Argos and Paros hold the first documented musical competitions in Greece.

  • c. 660 BCE

    Pheidon is tyrant in Argos.

  • c. 580 BCE

    The kouroi of Argos, thought to represent Cleobis & Biton, are sculpted.

  • c. 545 BCE

    Sparta takes control of Thyrea from Argos.

  • 494 BCE - 493 BCE

    Spartan forces under Cleomenes I attack the city of Argos.

  • 494 BCE - 493 BCE

    Telesilla of Argos defends her city against the Spartan forces with an army of women.

  • c. 468 BCE

    Tiryns is destroyed by the Argeians.

  • 451 BCE

    Sparta and Argos sign a peace treaty which endures for the next 30 years.

  • c. 430 BCE - c. 420 BCE

    Sanctuary of Aphrodite constructed at Argos.

  • 418 BCE

    Sparta, led by Agis II, defeats Argos and her allies at the battle of Mantinaea.

  • 415 BCE - 330 BCE

    Nemean Games relocated to Argos.

  • c. 400 BCE

    The large theatre is constructed at Argos.

  • 395 BCE - 386 BCE

    The Corinthian Wars between Sparta and an alliance of Athens, Corinth, Argos, Boeotia and Thebes.

  • 330 BCE

    Athletic Games return from Argos to Nemea.

  • 272 BCE

    Death of Pyrrhus of Epirus in a street battle in Argos.

  • 269 BCE

    Nemean Games definitively moved to Argos.

  • 267 CE

  • 395 CE

    Argos is definitively destroyed by the Visigoth invasion.

The local economy in Argos is mainly laid on the agriculture. You can find a lot of citrus production in Argos.

Facts about Argos 2: the village

For more than 7000 years, Argos has been included as one of the significant villages. If you want to call the people who live in Argos, call them Argive. Actually the term was often used to call the people who took part during The Trojan War.

First / Second Edition

    Enshroud: A Harbinger can temporarily cloak themselves in shadows. Phantom Wings: A Harbinger can grow wings to glide through the Tempest and Shadowlands. Flicker: A Harbinger may bend the Tempest to teleport themselves to another location. Jump: A Harbinger may rapidly travel to any of their Fetters. Oubliette: A Harbinger may send another wraith directly into the Tempest.

20th Anniversary Edition

Basic abilities were dropped in the 20th anniversary edition.

The standard powers of Argos are the same as previous editions, with the following exceptions, which replace the skills of the same level or where noted.

    Weather Eye: A Harbinger is always aware of current conditions in the nearby Tempest, and can take shortcuts between two Shadowlands locations. Stormreader: A Harbinger gains an intuitive sense of the Tempest, allowing them to cut travel times when traveling to or from a location in the Tempest, and to navigate so as to avoid a Maelstrom or mitigate its effects.

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From dedicated account managers for larger clients, a specially-business trained contact centre team for queries and advice, to our customer delivery colleagues. We’ve got real life humans on-hand to help. Every step of the way. So whether you need to buy products for your business, or Gift Cards for your customers or colleagues, we have a team who understand your specific business needs. And are ready to help.

Argos Timeline - History

The theatre and odion at Argos

The ruins of two distinct theater sites, situated just 100 meters from each other, have been excavated in Argos. The first recorded date for excavation of a theater here was 1892, when I. Kophiniotis partially unearthed the larger, Hellenistic theater. Although it is unclear when, exactly, the theaters fell into disuse, changes made to the theater, the odeum, and other Argive sites point to sustained activity as late as the fourth and fifth centuries A.D. These theaters could have been buried for as many as 1,400 years ( Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites ).

After the initial work by Kophiniotis, seven excavations were undertaken at Argos under the aegis of the French School of Archaeology (Ecole Francaise d'Athenes) by C. Wilhelm Vollgraff: five between 1902 and 1912, and two more in 1928 and 1932. In 1952, French School excavations were taken over by G. Daux and P. Courbin and from 1954 to 1956 by J. Bingen and G. Roux. New excavations were undertaken in 1981 and 1982 by C. Abadie and J. Des Courtils and finally for four consecutive years, between 1986 to 1989, investigations (including tests and cleaning which revealed the proskenion foundations to be homogenous) were being conducted by A. Pariente and J.-Ch. Moretti (Catling 18). In 1993, the European Union Commission included the Argos theater site in its allocation of the Delors II budgetary package for Greece for the period 1993-1999. According to the Hellenic Ministry of Culture, this money was earmarked for "consolidation and restoration of the Theatre" however, it is unclear whether new information can be added to the history of this site based upon work accomplished via the Delors II funding. The oldest of the two theatres was carved into the lower rocky slopes of the Larisa in the fifth century B.C. Smaller than the adjacent, Hellenistic theater, it seated approximately 2,500. This archaic theater at Argos is one of only two surviving theater structures (with Thorikos) that can be dated earlier than the mid-fourth century B.C. and that would have had wooden skene. The wooden skene, "known mainly through vase paintings[,] have left no physical traces beyond some stone sockets into which wooden posts or beams were inserted" (Ashby 17). It is possible that Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, or Aristophanes might have known this theater. During the reign of Hadrian, the archaic theater was renovated and roofed by the Romans to form an odeum. It is now often conventionally referred to as "odeum" instead of as "theater". The site is "unusual because approximately three-fifths of the seats nearest the stage were lost (reworked) when this portion of the auditorium and stage" were renovated. The Roman odeum seat bank is a steeper-raked brick (opus incertum) and was faced with mosaic. The upper two-fifths of seats which survived the renovation show no evidence of having been reworked and have been determined to represent the original, archaic construction (Izenour 11). Along with the theater at Chaironeia, this archaic theater at Argos provides "perhaps the most conclusive evidence of rectilinearity in Greek theatre spaces." The seats from the original theater construction appear to be straight-rowed but "have a slight curvature not apparent to the naked eye, a characteristic shared with the seating at Thorikos" (Ashby 32-33). Although the real function of the archaic theater has not been determined, Tomlinson speculates that its small size suggests it as a "meeting place of a restricted gathering. This could be an indication of political, or perhaps religious, exclusiveness" (19). It could also have functioned as a music hall. Pausanias makes no mention of this structure in his descriptions of Argos. The construction of the larger, Hellenistic theater at Argos-also cut into the rock of the Larisa's slopes, just behind the Roman baths and north of the archaic theater-is dated variously as taking place during the third or fourth centuries B.C. According to the Hellenistic Ministry of Culture, it was constructed in the third century, in conjunction with the transfer of the Nemean games and the Heraia to Argos. Tomlinson dates it to the last part of the fourth century B.C., when other permanent theaters with stone seating were being built in Greece. Moreover, he speculates that the theater existed in some simpler form prior to that date (19). Among the largest theaters in Greece, it originally held about 20,000 spectators-although the ruins would only accommodate only half that number today. At the time of its construction, this theatre had 90 steps (83 remain), which is a considerably greater number of steps than theaters such as Delphi (35) and Epidauros (55). Tomlinson describes the seating divisions as follows: "The seats were divided into an upper, middle and lower section, and into eight blocks from side to side, separated by flights of steps reaching from the bottom to the top. The positions of the steps does not conform to any regular plan, and the blocks are consequently of varying sizes" (19). Izenour provides another excellent description of the seating cavea and orchestra, with greater detail and relative measurements (13):

At one time, a high wall situated at the top of the auditorium prevented unauthorized entry and likely improved acoustic quality. However, reports indicate that the acoustic quality at the site remains excellent today even without the resonance provided by this wall.

Argos Timeline - History

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10 Oldest Cities in Europe

Europe has a well-documented and studied history and many of its cities have been inhabited for thousands of years. This is true of all of the cities on this list, which have served as important economic, political, and cultural centers during various time periods. All of these cities are home to historical landmarks and remains left by their previous rulers and are some of the most popular tourist destinations in the world.

10. Chania

Year Founded: c. 1600 BCE
Location: Northern Coast of Crete
[ Historical Region: Crete
Area: 351.3 km² (135.6 sq mi)-municipality 12.56 km² (4.85 sq mi)-municipal unit
Current Population: 108,642-municipality 53,910-municipal unit (2011)

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

Chania is the one of the most important cities in Crete and was the site of a Minoan settlement that the Greeks called Kydonia (or Cydonia). Many architectural remains from this time period can be seen around Chania today. Chania has been ruled by the Byzantines, Arabs, Venetians, Ottomans, and of course the Greeks.

Did You Know?

During World War II, Chania was invaded and occupied by German forces and many of the city’s citizens were imprisoned or executed for their resistance against German rule.

9. Mantua

Year Founded: c. 2000 BCE
Location: Lombardy, Italy
[ Historical Region: Po Valley
Area: 63.97 km² (24.70 sq mi)
Current Population: 49,308 (2017)

photo source: Wikimedia Commons via ildirettore

Mantua is typically known for its status as one of the jewels of Italy’s Renaissance period and its ties to the noble Gonzaga family, who ruled the city for several centuries. However, Mantua has been around since at least 2000 BCE and is one of the oldest cities in Italy.

During its height, Mantua one of the main artistic, cultural, and especially musical hubs of Italy. Additionally, Mantua is the birthplace of opera as the oldest opera still regularly performed, Claudio Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo was composed for the Court of Mantua in the early 17 th century. For its historical importance to culture and art, Mantua was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Did You Know?

Mantua is featured in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet as the city where Romeo is banished to.

8. Nicosia

Year Founded: c. 2500 BCE
Location: Mesoria Plain, Republic of Cyprus
[ Historical Region: Mycenaean Greece
Area: 111.01 km² (42.86 sq mi)
Current Population: 116,392-capital city (North and South) 326,739-urban (North and South)

photo source: Flickr via sk12

Nicosia has been the capital of Cyprus since the 10 th century CE, but the city’s history dates back to around 2500 BCE. It is the only Bronze Age settlement in Cyprus that has survived to this day. Like all of the ancient cities on this list, Nicosia has been occupied by many different people over the years.

Today, Nicosia is still facing some conflict as the city is split in half and claimed by the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities. Technically, Nicosia is the capital of the internationally recognized Republic of Cyprus. However, Nicosia also serves as the capital of Northern Cyprus, which is only recognized by Turkey and seen as occupied territory by the rest of the world.

Did You Know?

Culturally, Cyprus is Greek, however, the country is actually an independent nation and a part of the European Union.

7. Thebes

Year Founded: c. 3000 BCE
Location: Boeotia, Central Greece
[ Historical Region: Mycenaean Greece
Area: 830.112 km² (320.508 sq mi)-municipality 321.015 km² (123.945 sq mi)-municipal unit
Current Population: 36,477-municipality 25,845-municipal unit (2011)

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

Along with Athens, Thebes is one of the greatest historical cities in Greece. Thebes is about as old as Athens and has been inhabited since around 3000 BCE. Not only does Thebes boast real Greek history, the city was the setting for many Greek myths, including the stories of Cadmus, Oedipus, Dionysus, Heracles (Hercules), and many more.

With Athens as its rival during ancient times, Thebes was also influential. Thebes peaked in the early 4 th century when it was the most powerful city in Greece. This dominance was short-lived, however, and today Thebes is a much quieter city than cosmopolitan Athens.

Did You Know?

During the second Persian invasion of Greece led by Xerxes during the late 5 th century BCE, Thebes actually sided with the Persians and famously ended the power of Sparta the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BCE.

6. Athens

Year Founded: c. 3000 BCE
Location: Attica, Central Greece
[ Historical Region: Mycenaean Greece
Area: 38.964 km² (15.044 sq mi)-municipality 412 km² (159 sq mi)-urban 2,928.71 km² (1,130.784 sq mi)-metro
Current Population: 664,068-municipality 3,090,508-urban 3,781,274-metro (2012)

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

Athens is undoubtedly the most historical city in Greece and one of the most important cities ever in Western history. It is considered the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy. Athens has been continuously inhabited for over 5,000 years and became a powerful center of the Mycenaean civilization by 1400 BCE.

While Athens has had many transformations, the city has always been a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime, political, and cultural life in Greece. Additionally, Athens is home to countless ancient landmarks and is one of the most visited cities in the world.

Did You Know?

Athens has the most theatrical stages in the world, with 148 stages across the city.

5. Varna

Year Founded: c. 4600 BCE
Location: Gulf of Varna, Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria
[ Historical Region: Thrace
Area: 238 km² (92 sq mi)
Current Population: 336,505 (418,108 urban area) (2017)

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

Varna, which is situated on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast has always been an important important port city due to its strategic location. Like a few of the other cities in the region, people have settled in Varna since prehistoric times.

Eventually, Varna became a major urban center when it was established as a seaside settlement by the Thracians. Since then, Varna has been a major hub for business, transportation, education, tourism, entertainment, and healthcare. Varna is also the maritime capital of Bulgaria and is home of the headquarters of the Bulgarian Navy and merchant marine.

Did You Know?

The oldest gold treasure in the world was discovered in Varna Necroplis and dates to 4600 – 4200 BCE.

4. Bratislava

Year Founded: c. 5000 BCE
Location: Southwestern Slovakia
[ Historical Region: Pannonia
Area: 367.584 km² (141.925 sq mi)
Current Population: 432,864 (2018)

photo source: Good Free Photos

Due to the nature of Slovakia’s history of being dominated by other nations, most notably the Soviet Union, Bratislava, the country’s capital city, is technically the youngest capital in Europe. However, Bratislava’s history goes back much further than when Slovakia was formed in 1993. Like a few of the other cities on this list, Bratislava was home to a permanent Neolithic settlement from around 5000 BCE.

Over the years, Bratislava was conquered and influenced by the Austrians, Bulgarians, Croats, Germans, Hungarians, Jews, Serbs, Czechs, and Slovaks. With such a rich history, Bratislava has become one of the richest regions of the European Union.

Did You Know?

Bratislava is a pretty popular tourist destination and receives more than 1 million visitors each year.

3. Nitra

Year Founded: c. 5000 BCE
Location: Nitra River Valley, Slovakia
[ Historical Region: Pannonia
Area: 100.48 km² (38.80 sq mi)
Current Population: 76,655 (201)

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

Along with Bratislava, Nitra is one of the oldest cities in Slovakia and has been continuously inhabited since Neolithic times (5,000 to 7,000 years ago). In fact, Slovakia considers Nitra to be the country’s oldest city. There is even archaeological evidence that suggests people have lived (on and off) in the area around Nitra as far back as 30,000 to 25,000 years ago.

Many different peoples have lived in Nitra and the first Slavs arrived in the 5 th century CE. Nitra has had various levels of importance over the years and it is currently the seat and political center of the Nitra District.

Did You Know?

Similar to Rome, Nitra is located in a valley surrounded by seven hills: Zobor, Castle Hill, the Calvary, Čermáň, Borin, Vŕšok, and Martin’s Hill.

2. Argos

Year Founded: c. 5000 BCE
Location: Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece
[ Historical Region: Mycenaean Greece
Area: 138.138 km² (53.33 sq mi)
Current Population: 22,209 (2011)

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

While the entire country of Greece has a rich history, Argos was one of the first city-states or polis of Ancient Greece and has a history stretching back even further. Near the foot of Aspida hill is evidence of a late Neolithic village, which shows that the Argos has been continuously inhabited since at least 5000 BCE.

Argos became a major Mycenaean settlement in the Late Bronze Age and remained an important city throughout the Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman periods. The Visigoths sacked and destroyed Argos in the 4 th century CE, but people continued to live in the city. Today, Argos is a major center in southern Greece.

Did You Know?

Argos is featured in many Greek myths and was named for King Argus (or Argus), the son of Zeus and Niobe.

1. Plovdiv

Year Founded: c. 6000 BCE
Location: South-Central Bulgaria
[ Historical Region: Thrace
Area: 101.98 km² (39.37 sq mi)
Current Population: 346,893 (675,000 in the greater metropolitan area) (2018)

photo source: Wikimedia Commons

People have been continuously living in Plovdiv since at least 6000 BCE, making Plovdiv the oldest city in Europe. There are archaeological remains all over Plovdiv that show people have settled in the area for over 8,000 years. During the city’s long history it has been conquered by several different peoples, including the Thracians, Macedonians, Romans, Byzantines, Ottoman Turks, Persians, Slavs, Huns, Celts, and Bulgarians. Each one of the these groups left a lasting impact on Plovdiv, which was, and still is an important cultural, economic, and educational center as well as transport hub.

Did You Know?

One of Plovdiv’s most famous landmarks is the Ancient Roman Theatre, which was built over 2,000 years ago and is still used as a concert venue today.

The planet only has one known settlement, with its Stargate inside the main temple. The settlement is located on a beach. The planet's climate resembles the same as the Mediterranean on Earth, warm and dry. The Argosians were descended from the Minoan civilization, which was based in the Mediterranean. The planet features an ideal climate with beautiful skies and landscapes, fresh water and delicious, seductive foods. A definitive Greek ancestry decorates the structures, as well as the clothing of the Argosians, the planets occupants who preferred to call themselves the Chosen. (SG1: "Brief Candle")

For some time, Pelops operated on the planet, experimenting on the human population, much like Nirrti has done, attempting to expand their lifespan. However, when Pelops did not return, he had left the entire population in a condition which limited their lives to one or two months in length, accelerating their life-cycles at an incredible velocity. SG-1 team leader, Colonel Jack O'Neill, falls victim to the nanites and ages rapidly before Captain Samantha Carter came up with a solution that ultimately restored O'Neill back to his original age. The solution was given to the population, ensuring that the population themselves would not suffer a fate that had befallen them for years or generations. (SG1: "Brief Candle")

After SG-1 visited the planet, they managed to halt the mechanism Pelops used to accelerate their growth, and they now lead long and productive lives. O'Neill mentioned that he was thinking about retiring on Argos. (SG1: "Politics")


In Greek mythology, King Gelanor (Ancient Greek: Γελάνωρ ), of Argos welcomed Danaus and his daughters. When an oracle told him to give Danaus his kingdom, he did so. He wanted to sell the Danaides into slavery following their murder of their husbands, but Danaus and the gods dissuaded him. He is simply called the "King" in Aeschylus's Suppliant Maidens. Alternatively, it was not an oracle, but an omen, that induced Gelanōr to renounce his kinship in favor of Danaos. The omen was of a wolf attacking a herd of cattle grazing beside the city-wall, and killing the leading bull. His real name was Pelasgus, the name /Gelanōr/ is a literary devise meaning 'laughter' : he was so called because he had initially laughed at the claim to kingship over Argōs by Danaos. Ώ] Gelanōr was son of Sthenelās. ΐ]

In Helen of Troy, a novel by Margaret George, Gelanor is a fictional character who acts as an advisor to the Spartans under Menelaus. He accompanies Helen when she goes to Troy.

Polykleitos (Polyclitus) (5th century BCE)

A Greek sculptor of the High Classical Period, Polykleitos (Polyclitus) is considered one of the most important and greatest sculptors of classical antiquity, along with Phidias (488-431) and Myron (480-444). He created mainly bronze sculpture and his most famous works, none of which survive today except in replica, include his Kanon of Polykleitos and his Amazon figure.

As with so many artists from Classical Antiquity, little detail is known of Polykleitos' life. Born in Sicyon or Argos, according to Pliny, he was taught the art of sculpture by Ageladas of Argos - the same teacher who taught both Phidias and Myron. According to Greek opinion at the time, he was considered the equal of Ageladas.

For details about the origins
and development of the "plastic
arts", see: History of Sculpture.

For biographies of the main
artists known to us from the
sculpture of ancient Greece
please see the following:
Callimachus (Active 432-408 BCE)
Praxiteles (Active 375-335 BCE)
Leochares (Active 340-320 BCE)

For different types of 3-D
carving, see:
Stone Sculpture
Granite, limestone, sandstone
and other rock-types.
Marble Sculpture
Pentelic, Carrara, Parian marbles.

For the world's top works, see:
Greatest Sculptures Ever.

Polykleitos consciously worked to create a new approach for Greek sculpture and wrote a treatise (Kanon) to explain his methods and principles. Using these principles he designed the 'perfect' sculpture known as the Kanon of Polykleitos. The sculpture emphasised a counterbalance of tension and relaxation through shoulder and hip movement - known as chiastic balance. The bronze has not survived but references to it in antiquarian books imply that its main principle was the expression of the Greek word 'symmetria'.

Standard Proportions For Sculptures

Polykleitos insisted that a statue should be composed of clearly definable parts, all related by a system of ideal mathematical proportions and balance. He expressed it in terms of ratios established by Pythagoras for the perfect musical scale: 1:2 (octave), 2:3 (harmonic fifth), and 3:4 (harmonic fourth). Polykleitos theories became the standard proportions for sculptors for generations. Although the original no longer exists, a copy, called the Doryphorus or Spear-Carrier can be seen in the National Archeological Museum in Naples. Another copy of Polykleitos' work, which represents the same use of athletic, muscular proportions, includes Diadumenus, at the National Museum, Athens.

One of Polykleitos’ major works, his Amazon figure for Ephesus, was regarded as superior to those by contemporary sculptors Phidias and Kresilas. Another of his works, which was praised in classical times and compared favourably with Phidias' Zeus, was his colossal gold and ivory statue of Hera made for a temple at Argos. Today we only have a description by Pausanias and a rough representation on Roman coins as to the look and pose of the statue. Other art works attributed to Polykleitos include Hermes, at one time placed in Lysimachia (Thrace) and Atragalizontes (Boys Playing a Knuckle-bones) which was bought by the Emperor Titus and set in a place of honour in his atrium.

Note About Sculpture Appreciation
To learn how to judge Greek classical sculptors like Polykleitos, see: How to Appreciate Sculpture. See also our review: Venus de Milo.

Polykleitos, along with his contemporary Phidias, were the first generation of Greek sculptors to have a school of followers. Polykleitos' school lasted for at least three generations and was mostly active in the late 300s and early 200s BCE. The Roman writer Pliny identified several notable artists who were defined, at the time, for their adherence to Polykleitos' principles of art and form. His best known pupils were Skopas (395-350 BCE) and Lysippos (4th century BCE). Polykleitos' son, Polykleitos the Younger was also a popular sculptor but won acclaim in the field of architecture. He designed the grand theatre at Epidaurus. While the principles Polykleitos applied to his art were much appreciated in his time, today's audience may be forgiven for thinking his fleshy figures lack charm or interest. Ancient critics sometimes reproached Polykleitos for the lack of variety in his works - he sculpted very few notable statues of deities. Although his field was narrowly limited - it was agreed, even in his own time, that in his field, he was unsurpassed.

• For the history of antique sculpture, see: Homepage.
• For information about classical art from Ancient Rome, see: Roman Art.

Watch the video: 4ος ΔΡΟΜΟΣ ΑΞΙΩΝ 23022020 1ο Σύστημα Προσκόπων Άργους (June 2022).


  1. Haris

    Cordial to you thanks for your help.

  2. Eorlson

    It's the right information

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