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20 March 1940

20 March 1940


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20 March 1940

March 1940

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France

Daladier replaced as French Prime Minister by Reynaud. Daladier remains in the government.

General

Finland forbidden to ally with Sweden and Norway by the Soviet Union



Pakistan Day

Pakistan Day is a public holiday in Pakistan to commemorate the 23rd March Lahore Resolution adopted in 1940 at Lahore Minto Park, And also the adoption of Pakistan’s First Constitution on 23 March 1956 that marked the successful transition – from the Dominion of Pakistan to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

The day commemorates the passing of the 23 March 1940 Pakistan Resolution, that demanded greater Muslim autonomy of Muslim majority states within British India. The day is a public holiday in Pakistan.

The real significance of this day for today’s Pakistani Muslims, and the endless struggles of Pakistani National Heroes such as Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah who with his tireless hard work turned the vision of a separate Muslim majority state into a reality.


Life in Italy from 1900 to 1940

The recently unified country of Italy in the early 1900s faced several issues continuously. Italy had a very large debt, very few natural resources, and almost no transportation or industries. This combined along with a high ratio of poverty, illiteracy, and an uneven tax structure weighed heavily on the Italian people in the country. Regionalism was still strong at the time, and only a small fraction of Italians had voting rights. The Pope was also angry because of the loss of the city of Rome and the Papal States and so refused to recognize the state of Italy. So that’s how life in Italy in the early 1900s begun.

March 1922, Rome, Italy

In the Italian rural areas, banditry and several other problems resulted in repression by the government. The new Italian government was also known to be often brutal. During the 1880s a new movement started developing among the city workers. The already existing differences between the impoverished, rural south of the country and the wealthy, industrialized north increased even more.

The government did not do much to solve these problems. Throughout the liberal period from 1870 to 1915, the country was governed by a series of liberal politicians who were not able to form a majority. Despite the fact that a little progress did happen before World War I in social and economic forms, Italy was at the time a nation in crisis.

Development of Italy

Since the Nationalist Movement had begun in the country, leaders dreamed about joining the modern World Powers. In Northern Italy, industrialization and modern infrastructure facilities had begun to be built in the 1890s. The railway lines in the Alpine region connected the country to the rail networks in Austria, Germany, and France. Two other coastal lines were also developed in the southern part of the country.

The larger industries and businesses were first founded with large investments from countries like France, Britain, and Germany. Over the years, the government decided to help start various heavy industries in the country like shipbuilding, steelworks, and car factories. It even adopted a trade policy. Agriculture in the northern part of the country had been modernized, which started bringing larger profits, and were backed by many powerful co-operatives. However, the southern regions of the country remained ignored and undeveloped for a long time.

Early Colonialism in Italy

During the 19th and the early 20th century, the country made several attempts to join the superpowers of the world in an effort to acquire colonies. However, this was difficult for the country because of the large costs and the resistance going on in the country.

Several different colonial projects were started by the Italian government. These projects were undertaken to get the support of the imperialists and the nationalists, who had always dreamt of building a large empire similar to the ancient Roman Empire.

Italy at the time had various sizeable settlements in Tunis, Cairo, and Alexandria. The country first tried to get colonies by making negotiations with the world powers, which failed several times. Another approach tried by Italy was to send missionaries to investigate the areas which had been underdeveloped and uncolonized. The most promising ones were in the desert areas and distant parts of Africa.

Giovanni Giolitti

Giovanni Giolitti was the first Prime Minister of Italy, chosen in 1892. However, during his first term, the government collapsed quite quickly within just a year. He then returned to lead the government in 1903 which lasted till 1914. He had spent his life in the capacity of a civil servant prior to becoming the prime minister. Later he took positions within the Crispi cabinets.

It was believed that Giolitti mastered various practices like bribing, coercing, and manipulating government officials. Fraud in voting was also quite common in those times. Corruption had also been a major problem in the country in the early 1900s.

Southern Italy was in a bad condition before Giolitti’s tenure began in the country. More than half of the inhabitants in the area were still illiterate. There were problems with absentee landlords, rebellion, organized crime, and even starvation in these areas. Thousands of Southern Italians were leaving the new nation of Italy every year during this time, hoping for a better life in America.

Balilla, the Italian youth paramilitary organization
under the Fascist regime. Date circa 1930

The First World War in Italy

At the beginning of the First World War, Italy has stayed neutral. It claimed that the Triple Alliance had just been for defense. However, during the war, the Triple Entente as well as the central nations tried to lure Italy into the war. In April 1915 the government declared war on the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country did so in order to get a few territories like that of Dalmatia, Istria, and Trieste in return.

In 1917, Austria entered the lines at Caporetto after they received help from Germany. However, Italy and its allies stopped them at the Piave River. It was later during the Battle of Vittorio Veneto that Austria-Hungary began negotiating terms with Italy in 1918. The armistice of Villa Giusti had been signed in November 1918, a day later Italian troops occupied Tyrol capturing more than 300,000 soldiers without any problem at all.

World War II in Italy

Like in the First World War, during the Second World War Italy initially remained neutral. In June 1940 the country declared war against Britain and France when it was clear that France could be easily defeated. In the early times of the war, Hitler consented that Italy remains out of the war however this changed later.

Mussolini believed that Britain would also be easily defeated and would ask Italy for mercy, but this proved to be completely wrong. Britain had originally been attacked only so Italy would get a seat on the peace table later, the performance of the Italian army was quite disappointing for both Hitler and Mussolini. Italy constantly needed German help and only the Italian naval forces could be considered successful.

Some pictures of Italy at the beginning of the 20 th Century

Naples, ca. 1900. Source: Library of Congress Courtyard in Venice at the beginning of the 20th Century. Source: Library of Congress Via Roma in Naples, beginning of 20th Century. Source: Library of Congress The market in Piazza delle Erbe, Verona, at the beginning of the 20th Century. Source: Library of Congress

Breaking the Color Line: 1940 to 1946

By the 1940s, organized baseball had been racially segregated for many years. The black press and some of their white colleagues had long campaigned for the integration of baseball. Wendell Smith of The Pittsburgh Courier was especially vocal. World War II experiences prompted more people to question segregation practices.

Although several people in major league baseball tried to end segregation in the sport, no one succeeded until Brooklyn Dodger's general manager Branch Rickey set his "great experiment" (See Jules Tygiel's Baseball's Great Experiment in the bibliography) into motion. In 1945, the Jim Crow policies of baseball changed forever when Branch Rickey and Jackie Robinson of the Negro League's Kansas City Monarchs agreed to a contract that would bring Robinson into the major leagues in 1947.

In addition to racial intolerance, economic and other complex factors contributed to segregation in baseball. For example, many owners of major league teams rented their stadiums to Negro League teams when their own teams were on the road. Team owners knew that if baseball were integrated, the Negro Leagues would probably not survive losing their best players to the majors, major league owners would lose significant rental revenue, and many Negro League players would lose their livelihoods. Some owners also thought that a white audience would be reluctant to attend games with black players. Others saw the addition of black players as a way to attract larger white as well as black audiences and sell more tickets. Looking back on this time, Rickey described the problems he faced and the events that influenced his decision in a speech to the One Hundred Percent Wrong Club in 1956.

Branch Rickey (1881-1965) was involved with baseball in a variety of capacities -- as a player, coach, manager, and owner -- for more than sixty years. His Hall of Fame plaque mentions both his creation of baseball's farm system in the 1920s and his signing of Jackie Robinson. Rickey's interest in integrating baseball began early in his career. He had been particularly troubled by the policy of barring African Americans from grandstand seating in St. Louis, when he worked for the Cardinals.

The noted sportswriter Red Smith fondly summed up Rickey's multi-faceted persona: "player, manager, executive, lawyer, preacher, horse-trader, spellbinder, innovator, husband and father and grandfather, farmer, logician, obscurantist, reformer, financier, sociologist, crusader, sharper, father confessor, checker shark, friend and fighter." (Editorial page, St. Louis Post- Dispatch, Monday, October 31, 1955)

In 1942, Rickey joined the Dodgers and quietly began plans to bring black players to the team. The first black baseball player to cross the "color line" would be subjected to intense public scrutiny, and Rickey knew that the player would have to be more than a talented athlete to succeed. He would also have to be a strong person who could agree to avoid open confrontation when subjected to hostility and insults, at least for a few years. In 1945, when Rickey approached Jackie Robinson, baseball was being proposed as one of the first areas of American society to integrate. Not until 1948 did a presidential order desegregate the armed forces the Supreme Court forbid segregated public schools in 1954.

The player who would break the color line, Jack (John) Roosevelt Robinson, was born in Cairo, Georgia, on January 31, 1919. His mother moved the family to Pasadena, California, in 1920, and Robinson attended John Muir Technical High School and Pasadena Community College before transferring to the University of California, Los Angeles. An outstanding athlete, he lettered in four sports at UCLA -- baseball, football, basketball, and track -- and excelled in others, such as swimming and tennis. Consequently, he had experience playing integrated sports.

Robinson showed an early interest in civil rights in the Army. He was drafted in 1942 and served on bases in Kansas and Texas. With help from boxer Joe Louis, he succeeded in opening an Officer Candidate School to black soldiers. Soon after, Robinson became a second lieutenant. At Fort Hood, Texas, Robinson faced a court martial for refusing to obey an order to move to the back of a bus. The order was a violation of Army regulations, and he was exonerated. Shortly after leaving the Army in 1944, Robinson joined the Kansas City Monarchs, a leading team in the Negro Leagues.

After scouting many players from the Negro Leagues, Branch Rickey met with Jackie Robinson at the Brooklyn Dodgers office in August, 1945. Clyde Sukeforth, the Dodgers scout, had told Robinson that Rickey was scouting for players because he was starting his own black team to be called the Brown Dodgers. At the meeting, Rickey revealed that he wanted Robinson to play for the major league Dodgers. Rickey then acted out scenes Robinson might face to see how Robinson would respond. Robinson kept his composure and agreed to a contract with Brooklyn's Triple-A minor league farm club, the Montreal Royals.

On October 23, 1945, Jackie Robinson officially signed the contract. Rickey soon put other black players under contract, but the spotlight stayed on Robinson. Rickey publicized Robinson's signing nationally through Look magazine, and in the black press through his connections to Wendell Smith at the Pittsburgh Courier. In response to allegations that Negro League contracts had been broken, Rickey sought assurances that Robinson had not been under formal contract with the Monarchs. Robinson responded to Rickey in a letter preserved in the Branch Rickey Papers.

After a successful season with the minor league Montreal Royals in 1946, Robinson officially broke the major league color line when he put on a Dodgers uniform, number 42, in April 1947.

    Branch Rickey, Brooklyn Dodger manager and owner. Photograph by Harold Rhodenbaugh (Look staff photographer). Photomechanical print in: "A Branch Grows in Brooklyn," Look, March 19, 1946, p. 70. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. Reproduction #: LC-USZ62-119888) Jackie Robinson, in Kansas City Monarchs uniform. Photograph from The Call (Kansas City), 1945. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. Reproduced with permission from The Call. Reproduction number: on order)
    In 1945, Robinson played 47 games for the Monarchs of the Negro American League as well as the East-West All-Star game.
  • Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps. Vol. 3, plates 334 and 335, edition copyrighted in 1937 (updated 1951). Published by Sanborn Map Company. (Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division). Reproduced with permission from EDR Sanborn, Inc.
    Blues Stadium was home to both the American Association Kansas City Blues, and the Negro League Kansas City Monarchs. Formerly a frog pond, swimming hole, and ash heap, the site opened as a baseball field in 1923. J. Leslie Wilkinson, the field's first owner, had a portable lighting system built to illuminate the field at night for Negro League games. This innovation took two hours to set up, made it difficult for fielders to see fly balls, batters to see pitches, and made so much noise that the center fielders couldn't hear the infielders. Despite the poor conditions the night-lighting system created for the players, it generated ticket sales and saved the Monarchs during the Depression years. Between 1923 and 1972, when the last game was played there, the dimensions and fence height in Blues Stadium changed more often than in any other ballpark. Jackie Robinson played for the Monarchs in Blues Stadium briefly in 1945, before Branch Rickey bought his contract. Lobby card for The Jackie Robinson Story. Copyright by Pathe Industries, 1950. (Library of Congress, Motion Picture Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division. Reproduction number: LC-USZC4-6146.)
    Scene in which Branch Rickey interviews Jackie Robinson.

The march from Humble Oil to Exxon dates back more than a century

5 of 21 Left: 800 Bell, formerly the Exxon Building, and before that, the Humble Oil Building, being built in 1961. Right: The RepublicBank Center under construction in 1982. The building is called Bank of America Center now. Gordon Adkins/HC staff Show More Show Less

7 of 21 The Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, or Jersey Standard, bought control of Houston-based Humble Oil in 1919. Show More Show Less

8 of 21 Exterior of the old Humble Building, 04/22/03. The building is being converted into two Marriott Hotels and private apartments. (Buster Dean / Chronicle) HOUCHRON CAPTION (04/27/2003): The building at Main and Dallas was Humble Oil headquarters until 1963. Buster Dean/Staff Show More Show Less

10 of 21 Robert L. Blaffer was one of the organizers of Humble Oil. Show More Show Less

11 of 21 Red Adair, center, talks with workers from his "Red Adair Wild Well Control" team at a 1965 fire in Baytown. David Nance/Staff Show More Show Less

13 of 21 Ross S. Sterling - oilman and former Texas Governor((1931-1933) Cecil Thomson Studios Show More Show Less

14 of 21 Houston Chronicle inside page (HISTORIC) -- January 10, 1905 - Section 1, Page 5. BEATTY NO. 2 GREAT WELL. THE HUMBLE PIPE LINES Show More Show Less

16 of 21 Houston Chronicle inside page (HISTORIC) -- November 6, 1904 -- Section 1, Page 3. DRILL STILL GOING DOWN In Moonshine Well at Humble and Demonstration Is Remarkable Show More Show Less

17 of 21 Houston Chronicle front page (HISTORIC) Â?– January 9, 1905 Â?– Section 1, page 1. BEATTY NO. 2 GUSHES AT HUMBLE. FACTIONS LINE UP ON TAX BILL Show More Show Less

19 of 21 Houston Chronicle front page (HISTORIC) Â?– October 4, 1966 -- Humble Drops $12 Million Plan, Cracking Plant is Cancelled. Jones Hall - A Debut in Splendor. Critics Differ on Acoustics, Praise Beauty Show More Show Less

20 of 21 Dr. Katharine Hsu examines a child in the pediadtric tuberculosis clinic at Jefferson Davis Hospital in 1953.  Show More Show Less

What do you get when you add Jefferson Davis' grandnephew, an uneducated farm hand, an orphan and a Princeton graduate?

The answer is the Humble Oil & Refining Company - the Texas precursor to the ExxonMobil of today.

The roots of Humble Oil stem back to the 1901 Spindletop gusher that kicked off the Texas oil rush. By the 1940s, it became the largest domestic oil producer, a spot it held through the 1960s. The Humble name wasn't extinguished until the launch of the Exxon brand in 1972.

"It's a story of really able and driven people finding this region as a way to play out their ambitions," said Joe Pratt, an oil historian and professor at the University of Houston. "I don't think you can exaggerate how important Humble was throughout 50 years of the global oil industry."

The Spindletop discovery attracted most of Humble's original nine founders and board members to the Houston area - many weren't from Texas - and several of them found their way to the newly discovered Humble oil field just northeast of the city beginning in 1905.

But Ross S. Sterling didn't invest in Texas oil wells until 1909 in Humble. He was busy opening a series of small feed stores and banks in oil towns, according to the 1959 "History of Humble Oil & Refining Company" by Henrietta Larson and Kenneth Wiggins Porter.

Sterling, a largely uneducated farm hand from Anahuac, founded the first Humble Oil Company in 1911, although the Humble Oil & Refining Co. that came to dominate US production wasn't chartered until six years later on June 21, 1917. The brash Sterling, who became president of the company, would be elected Texas governor in 1930.

Some of Sterling's early Humble partners included his brother, Frank, Ohio driller Charles Goddard and Tennessee orphan Walter Fondren, who came to be known as the best Gulf Coast driller after moving to Texas at age 17 "with nothing but a pair of overalls and 30 cents." The other founding Humble team was the famed Blaffer & Farish partnership of William Stamps Farish and Robert Lee Blaffer, a New Orleans railroad worker first sent to Spindletop by his employer.

Farish came from Mississippi with a law school education and the pedigree of being the grandnephew of the first and only president of the Confederate States of America. Farish would go on to serve as president of Humble, the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, another predecessor to Exxon Mobil, and the American Petroleum Institute.

Blaffer and Farish first met in 1902 near Beaumont and created their formal partnership in 1904. They moved to Houston a year later to focus on the burgeoning Humble oil field.

Early Humble Oil & Refining Company timeline:

Spindletop oil gusher launches the Texas oil rush.

William Stamps Farish and Robert Lee Blaffer meet in Beaumont. They form the Blaffer & Farish partnership in 1904.

Ross Sterling opens a feed store near the Sour Lake oil field.

First wells are completed at the Humble oil field.

Walter Fondren, Blaffer, Farish and others turn their attentions from Beaumont to Humble.

Sterling invests in his first two Humble wells.

Sterling and others form the Humble Oil Company. Sterling and Harry's interests form the Ardmore Oil Company in Oklahoma.

Also, federal courts break up Standard Oil, leaving the resulting Standard Oil Company of New Jersey with much less crude production.

1912 - Humble Oil establishes a Houston headquarters.

1915 - Blaffer and Farish co-found the Schulz Oil Company in East Texas in Wichita County.

1916 - Farish, Sterling, Wiess and others start the Gulf Coast Oil Producers Association of independent producers to find better deals to see their oil and to push back against Texas Company-backed legislation to let oil companies become integrated in the state. Blaffer, Farish and Wiess also start the Globe Refining Company in Humble.

1917 - The Sterling siblings, Blaffer, Farish, Wiess and other consolidate their interests to form the new Humble Oil & Refining Company after legislation is passed to allow more integration.

1921 - Humble's massive Baytown refinery formally opens after costing $10 million to build.

Source: Exxon Mobil Corp, "History of Humble Oil & Refining Company" by Henrietta Larson and Kenneth Wiggins Porter

The bridge between the Sterling group and Blaffer & Farish was Harry C. Wiess, the youngest of the founders. A Beaumont native and one of the first second-generation oilmen in Texas, the Princeton-educated Wiess took over his father's interests in the Paraffine Oil Company, which merged into Humble in 1917. Wiess teamed with Sterling to explore Oklahoma, partnering with Blaffer & Farish in the Goose Creek oil field, now part of Baytown.

The other two original Humble directors - Lobel Carlton and Jesse H. Jones, a wealthy lumberman, developer and banker - were much less involved. Carlton was a lawyer for several of the founders, while Jones was brought in to help with financing. Jones, who sold his Humble interests in 1918, would become the owner and publisher of the Houston Chronicle.

Most of the Humble founders proved successful in the oil fields, but they were at first dwarfed by the biggest oil companies in the state like the Texas Company (Texaco), Sun Oil (Sunoco) and Gulf Oil.

Starting in 1915, the Texas Company pushed legislation to let oil companies become integrated so one corporation could produce, transport and refine the oil into fuel. Independent producers like Farish, Sterling and Wiess formed the Gulf Coast Oil Producers Association to fight the legislation and to find better deals to sell their oil.

They subsequently formed or bought separate refining and pipeline companies. Farish led the push for them to pool all of their resources into one company that could feed the nation's rapidly growing oil and gasoline demand.

Once a compromise version of the Texas Company's bill became law in 1917, the consolidated Humble Oil & Refining Company was created.

Humble then built the Baytown refinery - the expanded version of which is the nation's second-largest refinery today.

Despite early successes, Humble's growth was still restricted by a need for more capital to finance exploration.

John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil never made a major dent in Texas early on because of the state's strict antitrust laws - not to mention Standard was considered a monopolistic Yankee empire. But courts in 1911 broke Standard into several parts. The Standard name remained strongest within the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, or Jersey Standard.

Farish became friendly with the Standard CEO Walter Teagle while serving on the Petroleum Committee of the Council of National Defense during World War I. Over lunch one day, Farish and Teagle talked about a partnership, an idea Farish reluctantly broached to Sterling. "I don't give a continental damn if you get it from the czar of Russia or the emperor of Germany, just so we have the money," Sterling replied, according to the Humble Oil history book.

In 1919, they agreed to sell 50 percent of Humble to Standard for $17 million in a deal that left Humble leadership with a remarkable level of independence for decades to come. When challenged with the notion that Standard was taking Humble over, Sterling responded, "Take us over, hell! We're going to take over the Standard."

Humble opened its downtown Houston headquarters in 1921. Six years later, it discovered the Sugarland oil field, the first major U.S. find using seismography. The big Friendswood oil field discovery came in 1937.

The Humble brand became ubiquitous in Texas and much of the country, although Standard pushed its Esso or Enco brands in some regions. As Jersey Standard grew globally the company merged all of its U.S. operations into Humble in 1959.

For years, though, the company struggled with which of its brand names to use, deciding to create a single U.S. brand, Exxon, in 1972. The oil giant maintained its headquarters in New York until 1989, when Exxon moved to Irving to save money. Exxon merged with Mobil in 1999. The Humble brand was long gone by then.

"It's a company that became truly global," Pratt said, "and they needed a global name."


On This Day in History, 20 март

The Iraq War, which was termed illegal by then UN Secretary, Kofi Annan, caused hundreds of thousands of Iraqi deaths.

1995 Japanese terrorists release poisonous gas in the Tokyo subway

12 people died and thousands are wounded after members of the religious cult, Aum Shinrikyo, had places containers leaking sarin on 5 different trains.

1969 John Lennon and Yoko Ono marry

After the wedding in Gibraltar, the artists spent their honeymoon in Amsterdam with a Bed-In for Peace, which lasted a whole week.

1916 Albert Einstein presents his general theory of relativity

The revolutionary theory describes the interdependency of matter on the one hand and space and time on the other. It is one of the most influential theories in Physics.

1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin

The anti-slavery story played an important role in setting the scene for the American Civil War.


These 20 women were trailblazing explorers—why did history forget them?

They crossed continents on horseback, mapped mountains, and broke records for deep-sea diving. For Women’s History Month, meet the female explorers behind National Geographic.

Be sure you’re the first woman somewhere,” an editor advised budding photographer Dickey Chapelle as World War II escalated. Chapelle took the advice and sneaked ashore with a Marine unit during the Battle of Okinawa in 1945, flouting a ban on female journalists in combat zones. She temporarily lost her military press accreditation but went on to earn a reputation as a fearless war correspondent.

Since National Geographic’s founding in 1888, women have churned out achievements in science and exploration, often with only fleeting recognition. They mapped the ocean floor, conquered the highest peaks, unearthed ancient civilizations, set deep-sea diving records, and flew around the world. They talked their way onto wars’ front lines and traveled across continents.

“There is no reason why a woman cannot go wherever a man goes, and further,” explorer Harriet Chalmers Adams said in 1920. “If a woman be fond of travel, if she has love of the strange, the mysterious, and the lost, there is nothing that will keep her at home.”

Yet in the magazine women were often a side note, overshadowed by famous husbands. Matthew Stirling’s byline was on more than a dozen articles detailing his discoveries in Mesoamerican archaeology, but his wife, Marion, who helped run the expeditions, had only one story published under her own byline: on keeping house in the field. “Damn, damn, damn!” a frustrated Anne Morrow Lindbergh wrote in her diary in 1933, about life with her famous aviator husband, Charles. She was the first American woman to earn a glider pilot’s license, and she won awards for her navigation skills. “I am sick of being this ‘handmaiden to the Lord.’ ”

Others were ignored by contemporaries. When geographer Marie Tharp offered proof of the theory of tectonic plate shift in the early 1950s, a colleague dismissed it as “girl talk.” At least one, 1920s-era journalist Juliet Bredon, found it easier to publish in National Geographic under a man’s name. Even world-renowned women of their time, such as 19th-century astronomer Maria Mitchell, struggled to get fair pay.

National Geographic’s archive holds millions of photographs and documents from stories, research grants, and films since the Society’s start. Stacks of microfiche filled with faded manuscripts and folders of typewritten correspondence reveal the stories of National Geographic’s trailblazing women. Today’s community of explorers and contributors is as diverse as the places, people, and species they study. But even in 2020, many of them are a rarity in their chosen profession. We salute some of our past and present explorers here.


Deadliest Blizzards

Iran Blizzard

The deadliest blizzard on record happened in Iran in February 1972 when 4,000 lives were lost. The Iran Blizzard dropped more than 10 feet of snow and lasted for six days across the northern and central regions of the country. In southern Iran, however, the numbers were much more drastic. They received 26 feet of snow, and two towns had no survivors. The snow took out power lines, buried towns, and crushed transportation. People were left without food, water, heat, and medical supplies. When the storm finally stopped for a 24-hour period, rescue workers tried to retrieve survivors but were largely unsuccessful. The storms started again, and they were forced to abandon the mission and left behind bread for anybody who could dig their way out of the snow tombs.

Carolean Death March

The second worst blizzard in history was in 1719 when 3,000 people between Sweden and Norway were killed. Referred to as the Carolean Death March, this storm occurred during the Great Northern War after Sweden lost territory to Russia and decided to move in on Norway. This attempt was unsuccessful and after King Charles XII of Sweden died, Swedish troops were ordered back to Sweden. While crossing the mountains, the blizzard hit. On the first night, 200 soldiers died. Horses died, equipment was burned for warmth, and supplies were left behind as the remaining soldiers tried to escape. Left on the mountainside, another 3,000 soldiers froze to death as some of the men arrived at the nearest town. Over the next few days and after finding lodging, battle fatigued and malnourished, another 700 men died.

Afghanistan Blizzard

The 2008 Afghanistan Blizzard is the third deadliest on record. In February 2008, this blizzard claimed the lives of 926 people. With temperatures reaching -22 degrees fahrenheit and nearly 6 feet of snow on the ground, this was one of the harshest winters ever for the country. Mountain villages were cut off from larger cities and people who walked into towns were taken to hospitals where feet and hands were amputated. In addition to human lives, hundreds of thousands of sheep and cattle were killed, leaving the people who survived without their primary source of income after the storm.

Other deadly blizzards

Other deadly blizzards include: Great Blizzard of 1888 in the US (400 deaths), 1993 North American Storm Complex in the US (318), Schoolhouse Blizzard in the US (235), Hakkoda Mountains in Japan (199), North American Blizzard of 1996 in the US (154), 1940 Armistice Day Blizzard in the US (144), and the 2008 Chinese Winter Storms in China (133).


Yes, Roth grew up in the Weequahic neighborhood of Newark, just like the Levins in the TV series.

His dad’s name also was Herman, his mother, Elizabeth, also went by the moniker Bess, and his older brother, Sanford, went by the nickname Sandy . And just a reminder, the littlest Levin in the show is named Philip. Roth was born in 1933 — that would have made him 7 years old during the 1940 election.

Just like Sandy in the book and series, Roth’s real brother was a gifted artist. And just like the TV father, Roth’s real dad was an insurance salesman.


Here’s how much housing prices have skyrocketed over the last 50 years

If you want to buy a house this year, you may well be paying around $199,200, the median price for a home in the U.S., according to Zillow.

That number might be lower if you if live somewhere like Ohio or Michigan, but if you happen to reside in a large coastal city such as New York or San Francisco, that number will be a lot higher. In fact, it could cost you well over $1 million to purchase a home.

Houses weren't always this expensive. In 1940, the median home value in the U.S. was just $2,938. In 1980, it was $47,200, and by 2000, it had risen to $119,600. Even adjusted for inflation, the median home price in 1940 would only have been $30,600 in 2000 dollars, according to data from the U.S. Census.

Here's how much the median home value in the U.S. has changed between 1940 and 2000:

  • 1940: $2,938
  • 1950: $7,354
  • 1960: $11,900
  • 1970: $17,000
  • 1980: $47,200
  • 1990: $79,100
  • 2000: $119,600

Here are those values again, adjusted for 2000 dollars:

  • 1940: $30,600
  • 1950: $44,600
  • 1960: $58,600
  • 1970: $65,600
  • 1980: $93,400
  • 1990: $101,100
  • 2000: $119,600

It's natural for prices to rise over time. But the issue here is that home values are outpacing inflation, making it nearly impossible for new and young buyers to enter the market.

Dramatically higher prices are partly why the typical homebuyer is now 44, whereas in 1981, the typical homebuyer was 25-34.

In 2016, home prices rose twice as fast as inflation. And in nearly two-thirds of the country, housing price growth exceeded wage growth. While homes in some towns remained affordable, in places like Manhattan and San Francisco buyers would need to fork over between 95 and 120 percent of their average paycheck to afford a mortgage payment.

However, if you can swing it, many experts still agree that buying a house is a good investment. Self-made millionaire David Bach says that not prioritizing homeownership is "the single biggest mistake millennials are making."

In his New York Times bestselling-book "The Automatic Millionaire," Bach writes, "As a renter, you can easily spend half a million dollars or more on rent over the years ($1,500 a month for 30 years comes to $540,000), and in the end wind up just where you started — owning nothing. Or you can buy a house and spend the same amount paying down a mortgage, and in the end wind up owning your own home free and clear!"

If you're determined to make homeownership a reality for yourself, here are a few tips to get you started:


Watch the video: 28η Οκτωβρίου ώρα 5:30 1971 - Το τέλος. (June 2022).


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