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Fatimah bint Muhammad
She was the youngest daughter of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and his favorite. She married his cousin ‘Ali bin Abi Talib and was the mother of the great martyrs of Islam, Hasan and Hussein. She was born in Makkah a few years before her father was granted Prophethood. Though both Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) and Khadijah already had three daughters before her they expressed great happiness at her birth. Going against the accepted custom, her mother did not send her beloved youngest daughter away to be breast fed in any of the surrounding villages, but kept her with her and nursed her herself. She loved her too much to entrust her to anyone else’s care. Some years later her father was declared by Allah to be His Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and last Messenger.
She and her mother and sisters Zaynab, Ruqayya, and Umm Kulthum accepted Islam. She spent her early years under the loving and tender care of her parents. Zeal for the defense of what is sacred and love of the righteous was ingrained in her.
Before Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) proclaimed himself the Last Prophet of Allah Almighty, he was the most popular, loved and respected man among the Quraysh. But once he announced himself to be the Allah’s Prophet and Messenger, his whole life seemed to turn around. The streets he previously frequented were strewn with thorns and filth and garbage was thrown on him from balconies and rooftops. Elaborate plans were made to murder him. Naturally, all these trials and tribulations could not but leave a mark on his home life. Fatimah was passing the impressionable years of her childhood in the shadow of these events. Yet, her maturity was such that she faced all this with remarkable patience and determination.
She fought like a courageous little tigress to defend her father and protect him. She would stand in front of him to shield him from the attacks of devilish men like Abu Jahl, ‘Utbah and Shaybah.
On one occasion, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) went into the sanctuary of Makkah with some of his Companions and started to pray, the disbelievers had just then sacrificed a camel. The filth and bowels of the camel were lying there, when a horrible idea came to Abu Jahl. He asked who among his friends would like to lift all that filth and pile it on the back of Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) ‘Uqbah bin Abi Mu’it, the lowest of the low among his friends, got up shrugged his shoulders with satanic glee, and said he would perform the task. And he lifted up the bloody filthy mess and piled it on the Prophet’s back while he was in the act of prostrating before Allah. All of them then broke into peals of uncontrollable devilish laughter. When news of this dastardly act reached Fatimah, she rushed to the sanctuary. Removing with her little hands the impurity, furious at the brutal treatment given to her beloved father, she scolded the disbelievers. When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) finished his prayers, he lifted his hands in supplication and appealed to Allah to hold these men, Abu Jahl bin Hisham, Shaybah bin Rabi’ah, ‘Uqbah bin Abi Mu’it and Umayyah bin Khalaf, in His relentless grip. These devils became very nervous because they knew that any supplication made at the sanctuary in Makkah is never rejected by Allah Almighty. And the Prophet’s prayers were answered.
Once Abu Jahl was sitting with the disbelievers in front of the Ka’bah, they were planning how to eliminate this man for the ‘crime’ of rejecting the idols. They hated him for propagating the Oneness of Allah and for proclaiming himself as His Last Prophet and Messenger. Fatimah happened to pass by and heard him. She was so terrified of what these barbarians could do to her father that she went running to tell him of their dastardly plot. As she wept she told him they had sworn in the names of their most famous idols to kill him. All of them would attack him the moment he stepped out of his house. Innocently she asked him what would happen now. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) told her to have faith in Allah, as He was her father’s Protector.
Once Fatimah passed by Abu Jahl bin Hisham on the street and he, for no reason, gave her a slap across the face. She went to Abu Sufyan, the leader of the Quraysh, and complained to him about Abu Jahl’s uncivilized behavior. Abu Sufyan took her with him to the place where the barbarian was still sitting, and told her to slap him in exactly the same way as he had done. When she went home and narrated this incident to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) he was very pleased at Abu Sufyan’s sense of justice and fair play. He then prayed that he should accept Islam as the true religion. His supplications for Abu Sufyan were accepted and he finally swore allegiance to Allah and His Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him)
Seven years had passed since Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) declared himself to be Allah’s chosen Prophet. The whole might of the Quraysh had not been able to silence him and his Message the people who answered the call of Allah were persecuted and tortured in every way possible. When Hamzah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib and ‘Umar bin Khattab accepted Islam the whole of Makkah was shaken. The people started pushing the leaders to take some action. They decided to boycott the Muslims, socially and economically, even food and water was withheld. The Muslims went into a state of siege in Shi’b Abi Talib which lasted for three years.
The richest woman of Makkah, Khadijah, and her daughters the youngest stood like rocks by their father. They would give their lives for him. And in a sense little Fatimah did, because this mental and physical ordeal affected her health and physique for the rest of her life.
Soon after the siege of was lifted, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and Fatimah and her sisters went through the trauma of losing their beloved Khadijah, and his greatest supporter and defender, his uncle Abi Talib. Fatimah was facing all these troubles and experiencing them first hand side by side with her father. It was also at this time that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) went to Ta’if with the Message of Islam. they welcomed him with stones and he left injured and bleeding, he prayed to Allah to guide them to the right path.
Umm Kulthum and Fatimah started weeping when they saw his condition. He affectionately wiped away their tears and consoled them. He said it was inevitable that Allah would help to spread His religion and make it triumph against all odds. Easier times were bound to follow the hard and difficult days.
And sure enough Mus’ab bin ‘Umair who was the Prophet’s ambassador to Al-Madinah gave the good news that the people there were being drawn into the fold of Islam. They invited Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) to settle in their city, and promised to help him in any way they could. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) accepted their invitation and with the consent of Allah Almighty decided to migrate to Al-Madinah. He left his two daughters at home in Makkah, with his new wife Sawdah bint Zam’ah.
He sent for them later, and thus these three ladies also had the privilege of becoming migrants for the cause. But the disbelievers could not bear to see them all moving out either. Some mischievous elements caught hold of them on the outskirts of Makkah. One evil Qurayshi youth, Huwayrith bin Naqith started jabbing at the camel on which the Prophet’s daughters were riding, and the camel reared up in the air, and the two girls fell down. When he saw this he ran away.
When they reached their destination, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) received them. He was very happy to see them alive and well. Those whom Allah Almighty protects, no one can harm them.
When Fatimah was eighteen years old and prominent personalities started proposing for her, but the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said he was waiting for a sign from Allah. One day ‘Ali came to see the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) but he was very shy and diffident and seemed to be holding something back. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) realized what was on his mind and asked him if he came to propose marriage to Fatimah. ‘Ali answered that he had. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) asked Fatimah what she thought of the proposal. She started to weep silently. He then told her that ‘Ali was a learned, kind-hearted and brave young man. Fatimah accepted her father’s decision. He then asked ‘Ali if he had some money for the dowry. ‘Ali replied that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) had seen his life from the cradle and knew his financial position very well. Then the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) asked him where his shield was, and said that would be the dowry for Fatimah. ‘Ali sent it to the market with his slave to be sold and got four hundred Dirhams for it. This he gave to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) who asked him to keep the money and buy some things for the house and perfume for the wedding. Then he asked his esteemed companions to attend the ceremony.
Ali read out a speech for the occasion: ‘All Praise is for Allah. We are grateful to Him for His Bounties and His Blessings. I bear witness that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, vouching for Him so it will reach Him and gain His Favor. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has married his daughter, Fatimah to me and the Mahr has been fixed at four hundred Dirhams. Now all those present please listen to what the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has to say and bear witness.’
After that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) praised Allah Almighty and recited the marriage ceremony, after asking Fatimah for her consent. He announced the Mahr and told all those present that Allah had commanded him to have Fatimah married to ‘Ali. After that he prayed for a happy and blessed future for the bride and groom.
Some basic things were purchased for the house to which ‘Ali and Fatimah moved. A bed, a pillow filled with the leaves of dried date palm, a plate, a glass, a water bag and a grinding stone, these were the few things with which the daughter of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) set up her new home. The house that was available was quite a distance from the Prophet’s Mosque. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) wished his daughter could live closer to him, so that he could see her daily. When one of the Companion Harithah bin Nu’man Ansari, came to know of this he approached the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) very respectfully, saying he had a number of houses close to the Prophet’s Mosque and he was welcome to choose any one of them. This would make that particular house dearer to him. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was very moved by this offer and chose one for Fatimah So, ‘Ali and Fatimah moved in and started the routine of daily life. It was usual for her to grind the wheat, fetch water from the well and cook their meals.
Since she was not very healthy, the siege having left its mark on her, Fatimah used to get very tired with all this hard work. On one occasion after a battle, a lot of money, precious jewelry and prisoners of war, both men and women, were taken by the Muslim army. ‘Ali suggested that she should go to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and ask him for a maid to help.
Fatimah went to see her father and request him for some help. He was not at home and she left a message with ‘A’ishah. At night, before going to sleep, her father came to visit her. He told her that he would give her something much better than a slave girl. And he taught her some phrases in praise of Almighty Allah. These, he said, were better than any maid. And he taught her to recite thirty-three times Subhanallah (Glory be to Allah), thirty-three times Alhumdulillah (All praise is for Allah), thirty-three times Allah-u-Akbar (Allah is the greatest).
Fatimah spent her entire life as a pious servant of Allah, always patient and grateful to her Maker, there was not a word of complaint from her, however difficult the circumstances. The world and its attractions held no charm for her. Her motto in life was always service for Islam. In the battles she was at the front nursing the wound the sick. When her father was injured in the battle of Uhud, it was she who burnt a part of a straw mat and used its ashes to stem the flow of blood. There is a narration in Sahih Al-Bukhari that when the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was asked on one occasion whom he loved best in the world he named his youngest daughter, Fatimah.
‘A’ishah, talking of her, says she bore a remarkable resemblance to her father. She not only looked like him, but her way of speaking, sitting, standing and walking – in other words all her mannerisms and gestures were exactly like his. Whenever her father visited her she would receive him and kiss his forehead with respect. They were exceptionally close to each other and whenever she visited her father, he would stand up and receive her. If he saw her troubled or sad he would also be grieved, and if he saw her happy he would also be pleased.
One day the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) heard that there was some misunderstanding between ‘Ali and Fatimah, On the way to their house he looked very troubled and sad, and when he left their house he seemed very much at peace. Some of his Companions mentioned this He replied that he just settled some differences between his two dear children and his happiness made his face glow.
On one occasion ‘Ali made up his mind to marry Abu Jahl’s daughter. Fatimah came to hear about it and told her father that ‘Ali was planning to marry into Abu Jahl’s family the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was disturbed when he heard this. He went to the mosque and gave a sermon, saying that Fatimah was a part of his heart and anything that made her unhappy displeased him. He said that the daughter of Allah’s Messenger and the daughter of His enemy could not be married to the same man. ‘Ali changed his mind and apologized to Fatimah for any pain he might have caused her.
One day ‘Ali asked the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) who was dearer to him, himself or Fatimah? The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) answered that he loved Fatimah more, but ‘Ali was dearer to him It was a masterly piece of diplomacy but it was the truth, because he really did love both of them deeply.
Their first son was born in the 3rd year after Hijrah. When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) heard the good news he was very happy and immediately went to see the child. He named him Hasan and recited the Adhan for him. Then on the seventh day his head was shaved, and an amount of silver equivalent to the weight of the hair was distributed among the poor.
In the 4th year after Hijrah, a second son was born. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) named him Hussein, and in his ears too he recited the Adhan. It is said a third son Muhsin was born but died in his infancy. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) loved these two grandchildren dearly. He used to say that they were like blossoms and would be the leaders of the youths of Paradise. Usamah bin Zayd says that one day he saw the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) carrying something wrapped in a sheet. He asked him what he was carrying. He opened the sheet and what did he see, but these two little boys all wrapped up in their grandfather’s arms.
In the 5th year after Hijrah a daughter was born to ‘Ali and Fatimah the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) named her Zaynab in the 7th year after Hijrah another daughter was born and he named her Umm Kulthum. When Zaynab bint ‘Ali grew up she married ‘Abdullah bin Ja’far bin Abi Talib. And Umm Kulthum married ‘Umar bin Khattab. They had two children Zayd and Ruqayya.
Imam Ahmad was once asked what he thought of ‘Ali and his family members. He said their position in history is unparalleled. According to what the Noble Quran tells us Allah Almighty had cleaned them of every kind of sin, impurity of faith, disobedience to the Divine Will and social evils.
Ibn ‘Abdullah writes that whenever the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) came back from any journey or after taking part in a battle, he would first go to the his Mosque in Al-Madinah and pray two Rak’as (units), then he would visit Fatimah and then visit his wives.
There is a miraculous incident related in Al-Bidayah way An-Nihayah, once a lady sent Fatimah some bread and roasted meat. She put this in a plate and covered it with cloth. Then she sent a message to her father to come and eat. When he arrived she removed the cloth and to her astonishment she found the plate full of bread and plenty of meat. She understood that this abundance and plenty had come from Allah. She praised Almighty Allah and asked Allah to mention and bless His and started to serve the meal to him, beginning with Allah Almighty’s Name. When he saw such a huge amount he smiled and asked who had sent it all. She promptly said Allah gave it to her and He provides sustenance to whom He pleased without limits Then the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) smiled and ate the meal with his daughter and her family Yet there was so much food still left over that it was sent to the Mothers of the Believers. They also ate their fill and then it was distributed among the neighbors.
Fatimah bint Muhammad Timeline - History
Fatimah was the fifth child of Muhammad and
Khadijah. She was
born at a time when her noble father had
begun to spend long
periods in the solitude of mountains around
and reflecting on the great mysteries of
This was the time, before the Bithah, when her
Zaynab was married to her cousin, al-Aas ibn
ar Rabiah. Then
followed the marriage of her two other sisters,
Ruqayyah and Umm
Kulthum, to the sons of Abu Lahab, a paternal
uncle of the
Prophet. Both Abu Lahab and his wife Umm
Jamil turned out to be
flaming enemies of the Prophet from the very
beginning of his
The little Fatimah thus saw her sisters leave
home one after the
other to live with their husbands. She was too
understand the meaning of marriage and the
reasons why her
sisters had to leave home. She loved them
dearly and was sad and
lonely whe n they left. It is said that a certain
painful sadness came over her then.
Of course, even after the marriage of her
sisters, she was not
alone in the house of her parents. Barakah,
the maid-servant of
Aminah, the Prophet's mother, who had been
with the Prophet
since his birth, Zayd ibn Harithah, and Ali, the
young son of
Abu Ta lib were all part of Muhammad's
household at this time.
And of course there was her loving mother, the
In her mother and in Barakah, Fatimah found
a great deal of
solace and comfort. in Ali, who was about
two years older than
she, she found a "brother" and a friend who
somehow took the
place of her own brother al-Qasim who had
died in his infancy.
Her othe r brother Abdullah, known as the
Good and the Pure, who
was born after her, also died in his infancy.
However in none of
the people in her father's household did
Fatimah find the
carefree joy and happiness which she enjoyed
with her sisters.
She was an unusually sensitive child for her
When she was five, she heard that her father
had become Rasul
Allah, the Messenger of God. His first task
was to convey the
good news of Islam to his family and close
relations. They were
to worship God Almighty alone. Her mother,
who was a tower of
str ength and support, explained to Fatimah
what her father had
to do. From this time on, she became more
closely attached to
him and felt a deep and abiding love for him.
Often she would be
at Iris side walking through the narrow streets
and alleys of
Makkah , visiting the Kabah or attending
secret gatherings off,
the early Muslims who had accepted Islam
and pledged allegiance
to the Prophet.
One day, when she was not yet ten, she
accompanied her father to
the Masjid al-Haram. He stood in the place
known as al-Hijr
facing the Kabah and began to pray. Fatimah
stood at his side. A
group of Quraysh, by no means well-disposed
to the Prophet,
gathe red about him. They included Abu Jahl
ibn Hisham, the
Prophet's uncle, Uqbah ibn Abi Muayt,
Umayyah ibn Khalaf, and
Shaybah and Utbah, sons of Rabi'ah.
Menacingly, the group went
up to the Prophet and Abu Jahl, the
"Which of you can bring the entrails of a
slaughtered animal and
throw it on Muhammad?"
Uqbah ibn Abi Muayt, one of the vilest of the
and hurried off. He returned with the
obnoxious filth and threw
it on the shoulders of the Prophet, may God
bless him and grant
him peace, while he was still prostrating.
Abdullah ibn Masud,
a companion of the Prophet, was present but
he was powerless to
do or say anything.
Imagine the feelings of Fatimah as she saw
her father being
treated in this fashion. What could she, a girl
not ten years
old, do? She went up to her father and
removed the offensive
matter and then stood firmly and angrily
before the group of
Quraysh thu gs and lashed out against them.
Not a single word
did they say to her. The noble Prophet raised
his head on
completion of the prostration and went on to
complete the Salat.
He then said: "O Lord, may you punish the
Quraysh!" and repeated
this imprecati on three times. Then he
"May You punish Utbah, Uqbah, Abu Jahl and
Shaybah." (These whom
he named were all killed many years later at
the Battle of Badr)
On another occasion, Fatimah was with the
Prophet as he made
tawaf around the Kabah. A Quraysh mob
gathered around him. They
seized him and tried to strangle him with his
Fatimah screamed and shouted for help. Abu
Bakr rushed to the
scene a nd managed to free the Prophet.
While he was doing so,
"Would you kill a man who says, 'My Lord is
God?'" Far from
giving up, the mob turned on Abu Bakr and
began beating him
until blood flowed from his head and face.
Such scenes of vicious opposition and
harassment against her
father and the early Muslims were witnessed
by the young
Fatimah. She did not meekly stand aside but
joined in the
struggle in defence of her father and his noble
mission. She was
still a young girl and instead of the cheerful
gaiety and liveliness which children of her age
are and should
normally be accustomed to, Fatimah had to
participate in such ordeals.
Of course, she was not alone in this. The
whole of the Prophet's
family suffered from the violent and mindless
sisters, Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum also
suffered. They were
living at this time in the very nest of hatred
against the Prophet. Their husbands were
Utbah and Utaybah, sons
of Abu Lahab and Umm Jamil. Umm Jamil
was known to be a hard and
harsh woman who had a sharp and evil
tongue. It was mainly
because of her that Khadijah was not pleased
with the marriages
of her daught ers to Umm Jamil's sons in the
first place. It
must have been painful for Ruqayyah and
Umm Kulthum to be living
in the household of such inveterate enemies
who not only joined
but led the campaign against theft father.
As a mark of disgrace to Muhammad and his
family, Utbah and
Utaybah were prevailed upon by their parents
to divorce their
wives. This was part of the process of
ostracizing the Prophet
totally. The Prophet in fact welcomed his
daughters back to his
home w ith joy, happiness and relief.
Fatimah, no doubt, must have been happy to
be with her sisters
once again. They all wished that their eldest
would also be divorced by her husband. In
fact, the Quraysh
brought pressure on Abu-l Aas to do so but
he refused. When the
Qurays h leaders came up to him and
promised him the richest and
most beautiful woman as a wife should he
divorce Zaynab, he
"I love my wife deeply and passionately and I
have a great and
high esteem for her father even though I have
not entered the
religion of Islam."
Both Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum were happy
to be back with their
loving parents and to be rid of the unbearable
mental torture to
which they had been subjected in the house of
Umm Jamil. Shortly
afterwards, Ruqayyah married again, to the
young and shy Uthma n
ibn Allan who was among the first to have
accepted Islam. They
both left for Abyssinia among the first
muhajirin who sought
refuge in that land and stayed there for
several years. Fatimah
was not to see Ruqayyah again until after
their mother had
died.< P> The persecution of the Prophet, his
family and his
followers continued and even became worse
after the migration of
the first Muslims to Abyssinia. In about the
seventh year of his
mission, the Prophet and his family were
forced to leave their
homes and s eek refuge in a rugged little
valley enclosed by
hills on all sides and defile, which could only
be entered from
Makkah by a narrow path.
To this arid valley, Muhammad and the clans
of Banu Hashim and
al-Muttalib were forced to retire with limited
supplies of food.
Fatimah was one of the youngest members of
the clans -just about
twelve years old - and had to undergo months
of hardship and
suffering. The wailing of hungry children and
women in the
valley could be heard from Makkah. The
Quraysh allowed no food
and contact with the Muslims whose hardship
was only relieved
somewhat during the season of pilgrimage.
The boycott lasted for
three years. When it was lifted, the Prophet
had to face even
more trials and difficulties. Khadijah, the
faithful and loving,
died shortly afterwards. With her death, the
Prophet and his
family lost one of the greatest sources of
comfort and strength
which h ad sustained them through the
difficult period. The year
in which the noble Khadijah, and later Abu
Talib, died is known
as the Year of Sadness. Fatimah, now a
young lady, was greatly
distressed by her mother's death. She wept
bitterly and for some
time was so grief-striken that her health
deteriorated. It was
even feared she might die of grief.
Although her older sister, Umm Kulthum,
stayed in the same
household, Fatimah realized that she now had
responsibility with the passing away of her
mother. She felt
that she had to give even greater support to
her father. With
loving tendernes s, she devoted herself to
looking after his
needs. So concerned was she for his welfare
that she came to be
called "Umm Abi-ha the mother of her father".
She also provided
him with solace and comfort during times of
Often the trials were too much for her. Once,
about this time,
an insolent mob heaped dust and earth upon
his gracious head. As
he entered his home, Fatimah wept profusely
as she wiped the
dust from her father's head.
"Do not cry, my daughter," he said, "for God
shall protect your
The Prophet had a special love for Fatimah.
He once said:
"Whoever pleased Fatimah has indeed pleased
God and whoever has
caused her to be angry has indeed angered
God. Fatimah is a part
of me. Whatever pleases her pleases me and
whatever angers her a
He also said: "The best women in all the
world are four: the
Virgin Mary, Aasiyaa the wife of Pharoah,
Khadijah Mother of the
Believers, and Fatimah, daughter of
Muhammad." Fatimah thus
acquired a place of love and esteem in the
Prophet's heart that
was o nly occupied by his wife Khadijah.
Fatimah, may God be pleased with her, was
given the title of
"az-Zahraa" which means "the Resplendent
One". That was because
of her beaming face which seemed to radiate
light. It is said
that when she stood for Prayer, the mihrab
would reflect the
light of her countenance. She was also called
of her asceticism. Instead of spending her
time in the company
of women, much of her time would be spent in
Salat, in reading
the Quran and in other acts of ibadah.
Fatimah had a strong resemblance to her
father, the Messenger of
God. Aishah. the wife of the Prophet, said of
her: "I have not
seen any one of God's creation resemble the
Messenger of God
more in speech, conversation and manner of
sitting than Fatimah,
may God be pleased with her. When the
Prophet saw her
approaching, he would welcome her, stand up
and kiss her, take
her by the hand and sit her down in the place
where he was
sitting." She would do the same when the
Prophet came to her.
She would sta nd up and welcome him with
joy and kiss him.
Fatimah's fine manners and gentle speech
were part of her lovely
and endearing personality. She was especially
kind to poor and
indigent folk and would often give all the food
she had to those
in need even if she herself remained hungry.
She had no cravin
g for the ornaments of this world nor the
luxury and comforts of
life. She lived simply, although on occasion
as we shall see
circumstances seemed to be too much and
too difficult for her.
She inherited from her father a persuasive
eloquence that was
rooted in wisdom. When she spoke, people
would often be moved
to tears. She had the ability and the sincerity
to stir the
emotions, move people to tears and fill their
hearts with praise
and g ratitude to God for His grace and His
Fatimah migrated to Madinah a few weeks
after the Prophet did.
She went with Zayd ibn Harithah who was
sent by the Prophet back
to Makkah to bring the rest of his family. The
Fatimah and Umm Kulthum, Sawdah, the
Prophet's wife, Zayd's wife
Barakah and her son Usamah. Travelling with
the group also were
Abdullah the son of Abu Bakr who
accompanied his mother and his
sisters, Aishah and Asma.
In Madinah, Fatimah lived with her father in
the simple dwelling
he had built adjoining the mosque. In the
second year after the
Hijrah, she received proposals of marriage
through her father,
two of which were turned down. Then Ali, the
son of Abu Talib,
plucked up courage and went to the Prophet
to ask for her hand
in marriage. In the presence of the Prophet,
however, Ali became
over-awed and tongue-tied. He stared at the
ground and could not
say anything. The Prophet then asked: "Why
have you come? Do
you need something?" Ali still could not speak
and then the
Prophet suggested: "Perhaps you have come
to propose marriage to
"Yes," replied Ali. At this, according to one
Prophet said simply: "Marhaban wa ahlan -
Welcome into the
family," and this was taken by Ali and a group
of Ansar who were
waiting outside for him as indicating the
Another re port indicated that the Prophet
approved and went on
to ask Ali if he had anything to give as mahr.
Ali replied that
he didn't. The Prophet reminded him that he
had a shield which
could be sold.
Ali sold the shield to Uthman for four hundred
dirhams and as he
was hurrying back to the Prophet to hand over
the sum as mahr,
Uthman stopped him and said:
"I am returning your shield to you as a
present from me on your
marriage to Fatimah." Fatimah and Ali were
thus married most
probably at the beginning of the second year
after the Hijrah.
She was about nineteen years old at the time
and Ali was about
twen ty one. The Prophet himself performed
ceremony. At the walimah. the guests were
served with dates,
figs and hais ( a mixture of dates and butter
fat). A leading
member of the Ansar donated a ram and
others made offerings of
grain. All Madin ah rejoiced.
On her marriage. the Prophet is said to have
and Ali with a wooden bed intertwined with
palm leaves, a velvet
coverlet. a leather cushion filled with palm
fibre, a sheepskin,
a pot, a waterskin and a quern for grinding
Fatimah left the home of her beloved father for
the first time
to begin life with her husband. The Prophet
was clearly anxious
on her account and sent Barakah with her
should she be in need
of any help. And no doubt Barakah was a
source of comfort and
sol ace to her. The Prophet prayed for them:
"O Lord, bless them both, bless their house
and bless their
offspring." In Ali's humble dwelling, there was
only a sheepskin
for a bed. In the morning after the wedding
night, the Prophet
went to Ali's house and knocked on the door.
Barakah came out and the Prophet said to
her: "O Umm Ayman, call
my brother for me."
"Your brother? That's the one who married
your daughter?" asked
Barakah somewhat incredulously as if to say:
Why should the
Prophet call Ali his "brother"? (He referred to
Ali as his
brother because just as pairs of Muslims were
brotherhood aft er the Hijrah, so the Prophet
and Ali were
linked as "brothers".)
The Prophet repeated what he had said in a
louder voice. Ali
came and the Prophet made a du'a, invoking
the blessings of God
on him. Then he asked for Fatimah. She came
almost cringing with
a mixture of awe and shyness and the Prophet
said to her:
"I have married you to the dearest of my
family to me." In this
way, he sought to reassure her. She was not
starting life with a
complete stranger but with one who had
grown up in the same
household, who was among the first to
become a Muslim at a
tender age, who was known for his courage,
bravery and virtue,
and whom the Prophet described as his
"brother in this world and
Fatimah's life with Ali was as simple and
frugal as it was in
her father's household. In fact, so far as
were concerned, it was a life of hardship and
Throughout their life together, Ali remained
poor because he did
not set great store by material wealth.
Fatimah was the only one
of her sisters who was not married to a
In fact, it could be said that Fatimah's life
with Ali was even
more rigorous than life in her father's home.
At least before
marriage, there were always a number of ready
helping hands in
the Prophet's household. But now she had to
cope virtually on
her own. To relieve theft extreme poverty, Ali
worked as a
drawer and carrier of water and she as a
grinder of corn. One
day she said to Ali: "I have ground until my
"I have drawn water until I have pains in my
chest," said Ali
and went on to suggest to Fatimah: "God has
given your father
some captives of war, so go and ask him to
give you a servant."
Reluctantly, she went to the Prophet who
said: "What has brought
you here, my little daughter?" "I came to give
you greetings of
peace," she said, for in awe of him she could
not bring herself
to ask what she had intended.
"What did you do?" asked Ali when she
"I was ashamed to ask him," she said. So the
two of them went
together but the Prophet felt they were less in
"I will not give to you," he said, "and let the
(poor Muslims who stayed in the mosque) be
hunger. I have not enough for their keep. "
Ali and Fatimah returned home feeling
somewhat dejected but that
night, after they had gone to bed, they heard
the voice of the
Prophet asking permission to enter.
Welcoming him, they both
rose to their feet, but he told them:
"Stay where you are," and sat down beside
them. "Shall I not
tell you of something better than that which
you asked of me?"
he asked and when they said yes he said:
"Words which Jibril
taught me, that you should say "Subhaan
Allah- Glory be to God"
ten ti mes after every Prayer, and ten times "AI
hamdu lillah -
Praise be to God," and ten times "Allahu
Akbar - God is Great."
And that when you go to bed you should say
Ali used to say in later years: "I have never
once failed to say
them since the Messenger of God taught them
There are many reports of the hard and
difficult times which
Fatimah had to face. Often there was no food
in her house. Once
the Prophet was hungry. He went to one after
another of his
wives' apartments but there was no food. He
then went to
Fatimah's ho use and she had no food either.
When he eventually
got some food, he sent two loaves and a piece
of meat to
Fatimah. At another time, he went to the
house of Abu Ayyub
al-Ansari and from the food he was given, he
saved some for her.
Fatimah also knew tha t the Prophet was
without food for long
periods and she in turn would take food to
him when she could.
Once she took a piece of barley bread and he,
said to her: "This
is the first food your father has eaten for three
Through these acts of kindness she showed
how much she loved her
father and he loved her, really loved her in
Once he returned from a journey outside
Madinah. He went to the
mosque first of all and prayed two rakats as
was his custom.
Then, as he often did, he went to Fatimah's
house before going
to his wives. Fatimah welcomed him and
kissed his face, his
mouth and his eyes and cried.
"Why do you cry?" the Prophet asked.
"I see you, O Rasul Allah," she said, "Your
color is pale and
sallow and your clothes have become worn
and shabby." ,P."O
Fatimah," the Prophet replied tenderly, "don't
cry for Allah has
sent your father with a mission which He
would cause to affect
every house on the face of the earth whether it
be in towns,
villages or tents (in the desert) bringing either
glory or h
umiliation until this mission is fulfilled just as
With such comments Fatimah was often taken
from the harsh
realities of daily life to get a glimpse of the
far-reaching vistas opened up by the mission
entrusted to her
Fatimah eventually returned to live in a house
close to that of
the Prophet. The place was donated by an
Ansari who knew that
the Prophet would rejoice in having his
daughter as his
neighbor. Together they shared in the joys
and the triumphs, the
sorrow s and the hardships of the crowded
and momentous Madinah
days and years.
In the middle of the second year after the
Hijrah, her sister
Ruqayyah fell ill with fever and measles. This
before the great campaign of Badr. Uthman,
her husband, stayed
by her bedside and missed the campaign.
Ruqayyah died just
before her father returned. On his return to
Madinah, one of the
first acts of the Prophet was to visit her grave.
Fatimah went with him. This was the first
bereavement they had
suffered within their closest family since the
Khadijah. Fatimah was greatly distressed by
the loss of her
sister. The tears poured from her eyes as she
sat beside her
father at the edge of the grave, and he
comforted her and sought
to dry her tears with the corner of his cloak.
The Prophet had previously spoken against
lamentations for the
dead, but this had lead to a
misunderstanding, and when they
returned from the cemetery the voice of Umar
was heard raised in
anger against the women who were weeping
for the martyrs of Badr
a nd for Ruqayyah.
"Umar, let them weep," he said and then
added: "What comes from
the heart and from the eye, that is from God
and His mercy, but
what comes from the hand and from the
tongue, that is from
Satan." By the hand he meant the beating of
breasts and the
smiting of cheeks, and by the tongue he
meant the loud clamor in
which women often joined as a mark of public
Uthman later married the other daughter of
the Prophet, Umm
Kulthum, and on this account came to be
known as Dhu-n Nurayn -
Possessor of the Two Lights.
The bereavement which the family suffered by
the death of
Ruqayyah was followed by happiness when to
the great joy of all
the believers Fatimah gave birth to a boy in
Ramadan of the
third year after the Hijrah. The Prophet spoke
the words of the
Adhan int o the ear of the new-born babe and
called him al-Hasan
which means the Beautiful One.
One year later, she gave birth to another son
who was called
al-Husayn, which means "little Hasan" or the
one. Fatimah would often bring her two sons
to see their
grandfather who was exceedingly fond of
them. Later he would
take them to t he Mosque and they would
climb onto his back when
he prostrated. He did the same with his little
Umamah, the daughter of Zaynab.
In the eighth year after the Hijrah, Fatimah
gave birth to a
third child, a girl whom she named after her
Zaynab who had died shortly before her birth.
This Zaynab was to
grow up and become famous as the "Heroine
of Karbala". Fatimah's
four th child was born in the year after the
Hijrah. The child
was also a girl and Fatimah named her Umm
Kulthum after her
sister who had died the year before after an
It was only through Fatimah that the progeny
of the Prophet was
perpetuated. All the Prophet's male children
had died in their
infancy and the two children of Zaynab named
Ali and Umamah died
young. Ruqayyah's child Abdullah also died
when he was no t yet
two years old. This is an added reason for the
is accorded to Fatimah.
Although Fatimah was so often busy with
pregnancies and giving
birth and rearing children, she took as much
part as she could
in the affairs of the growing Muslim
community of Madinah.
Before her marriage, she acted as a sort of
hostess to the poor
and d estitute Ahl as-Suffah. As soon as the
Battle of Uhud was
over, she went with other women to the
battlefield and wept over
the dead martyrs and took time to dress her
father's wounds. At
the Battle of the Ditch, she played a major
together with other women in preparing food
during the long and
difficult siege. In her camp, she led the Muslim
women in prayer
and on that place there stands a mosque
named Masjid Fatimah,
one of seven mosques where the Muslims
stood guard and performed
their d evotions.
Fatimah also accompanied the Prophet when
he made Umrah in the
sixth year after the Hijrah after the Treaty of
the following year, she and her sister Umm
Kulthum, were among
the mighty throng of Muslims who took part
with the Prophet in
th e liberation of Makkah. It is said that on
both Fatimah and Umm Kulthum visited the
home of their mother
Khadijah and recalled memories of their
childhood and memories
of jihad, of long struggles in the early years of
In Ramadan of the tenth year just before he
went on his Farewell
Pilgrimage, the Prophet confided to Fatimah,
as a secret not yet
to be told to others:
"Jibril recited the Quran to me and I to him
once every year,
but this year he has recited it with me twice. I
think that my time has come."
On his return from the Farewell Pilgrimage, the
become seriously ill. His final days were spent
in the apartment
of his wife Aishah. When Fatimah came to
visit him, Aishah would
leave father and daughter together.
One day he summoned Fatimah. When she
came, he kissed her and
whispered some words in her ear. She wept.
Then again he
whispered in her ear and she smiled. Aishah
saw and asked:
"You cry and you laugh at the same time,
Fatimah? What did the
Messenger of God say to you?" Fatimah
"He first told me that he would meet his Lord
after a short
while and so I cried. Then he said to me:
'Don't cry for you
will be the first of my household to join me.'
So I laughed."
Not long afterwards the noble Prophet passed
away. Fatimah was
grief-striken and she would often be seen
weeping profusely. One
of the companions noted that he did not see
Fatimah, may God be
pleased with her, laugh after the death of her
One morning, early in the month of Ramadan,
just less than five
month after her noble father had passed away,
Fatimah woke up
looking unusually happy and full of mirth. In
the afternoon of
that day, it is said that she called Salma bint
Umays who was
loo king after her. She asked for some water
and had a bath. She
then put on new clothes and perfumed herself.
She then asked
Salma to put her bed in the courtyard of the
house. With her
face looking to the heavens above, she asked
for her husband
He was taken aback when he saw her lying in
the middle of the
courtyard and asked her what was wrong. She
smiled and said: "I
have an appointment today with the
Messenger of God."
Ali cried and she tried to console him. She
told him to look
after their sons al-Hasan and al-Husayn and
advised that she
should be buried without ceremony. She
gazed upwards again,
then closed her eyes and surrendered her soul
to the Mighty
She, Fatimah the Resplendent One, was just
twenty nine years
She experienced tough early childhood days, while her father was faced with oppression from the disbelievers when he used to pray near the Kaaba. When they used to tarnish his face with rubbish, Fatima-Zahra would wipe it.
Fatima-Zahra was married, modestly, to Ali ibn Abi-Talib out of her content will despite the several proposals she received. On her big day, she gave her wedding gown as ‘Sadaqa’ (charity) to someone and obtained a blessed wedding gown from the heavens through Jibraeel.
August 28, 632: Controversial Death of Fatimah, Daughter of Muhammad
On August 28, 632, Fatimah bint Muhammad, the youngest and possibly the only daughter of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, beloved by Muhammad and by Muslims throughout the world, died under disputed circumstances. Sunni Muslims claim Fatimah died because of the death of her father and her sorrow at that death, while Shia Muslims contend that Fatimah was killed due to the actions of Abu Bakr, the heir to Muhammad’s empire.
Fatimah is the most common name in the Islamic world for females, a considerable tribute to the daughter of the Prophet. Fatimah, married to Ali ibn Abi Talib and living in Muhammad’s household, was close to her father and bore the only grandsons Muhammad had that lived to adulthood, making her the key to the genetic bloodline of the Prophet. The image at this top of this article shows Muhammad marrying Fatimah to Ali, as depicted in the Siyer-i Nebi, a Turkish epic about the life of Muhammad, completed around 1388, written by Mustafa son of Yusuf of Erzurum, known as al-Darir, a Mevlevi dervish on the commission of Sultan Berkuk, the Mamluk ruler in Cairo.
When Muhammad died in 632, there was a power struggle in the Islamic world over the leadership of the religion and the empire, with the main contenders being the husband of Fatimah, Ali, and Abu Bakr, one of Muhammad’s fathers-in-law. (Since Muhammad had 13 wives, he also had 13 fathers-in-law.)
Aside from being Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali was also a cousin of Muhammad and a military leader of Muhammad’s troops, as well as a trusted companion and adviser. Abu Bakr was likewise more than a relative by marriage. Abu Bakr was a trusted companion and the nominal second in command to Muhammad, what to many seemed to be a logical successor. Both men had their supporters, but Abu Bakr was elected Caliph and assumed rule over most of Islam. Ali was made the 1st Imam of Shia Islam, and reigned as such until he was assassinated in 661.
The Shia version of events contends that only God can name Muhammad’s successor, not an election, while obviously the Sunni faction disagrees. (Sunni is the majority faction of Muslims.) The Shia version further blames henchmen of Abu Bakr for forcing the door to Ali’s house over the objections of Fatimah, crushing Fatimah behind the door as it was forced open, resulting in broken ribs that led to Fatimah’s miscarriage of her baby and her death. Another version has Abu Bakr’s men burning down Ali’s house with Fatimah in it.
Question for students (and subscribers): How did Fatimah really die? From abject sorrow or from violence? The violence, murder, and rabid disagreement in religious history is troubling to say the least. Does this violence and discrepancy in accounts cause you any pause in your belief as to what really happened and why it happened? (This question applies to all other religions as well, as such conflict within members and leadership of the clergy is pretty much universal.) Please share your opinions on these highly emotional topics in the comments section below this article.
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For more information, please see…
al-Amili, Allama Sayyid Jafar Murtada, Yasin Publications, et al. The Tragedy of Fatima Daughter of Prophet Muhammad: Doubts cast and Rebuttals. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014.
The featured image in this article, Mohammed giving his daughter Fatima in marriage to his cousin Ali. From the Siyer-i Nebi, is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The work of art itself is in the public domain for the following reason: This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author’s life plus 100 years or fewer.
Major Dan is a retired veteran of the United States Marine Corps. He served during the Cold War and has traveled to many countries around the world. Prior to his military service, he graduated from Cleveland State University, having majored in sociology. Following his military service, he worked as a police officer eventually earning the rank of captain prior to his retirement.
Death [ edit | edit source ]
Following the farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad summoned Fatimah and informed her that he would be passing away soon but also informed her that she would be the first of his household to join him. Ώ] ΐ] Some days after this discussion, Muhammad died, following which Fatimah was grief stricken and remained so for the remainder of her life until she died less than five months later, in the month of Ramadhan. Ώ] A few sources report that Fatimah reconciled her differences with Abu Bakr prior to her death, although the majority belief affirms her anger with him until her death, Α] and maintains that Fatimah was buried in secret at her request, to prevent Abu Bakr and Umar whom she considered to be her father's true enemies from attending the funeral Β] . (see Fadak and Shi'a view of Abu Bakr)
There are two distinct views on the manner of her death between the Shias and Sunnis. Shias maintain, using Sunni sources, that Fatimah died after Umar had led a party of armed men against Ali's house in Medina and called for Ali and his men to come out and swear allegiance to Abu Bakr, who they had decided would take power in the meeting at Saqifah. Umar and Khalid ibn Walid threatened to burn the house down if they did not submit Γ] Δ] Ε] Ζ] Η] ⎖] . They broke in, resulting in Fatimah's ribs being broken between the broken door and the wall, and she miscarrying an unborn son named Muhsin ⎗] . According to Mas'udi, they dragged Ali out of the house and pressed Fatima between the door and the wall so forcefully that Muhsin, her unborn son, died of miscarriage ⎘] . According to some sources, Umar ordered the beating of Fatimah ⎙] ⎚] ⎛] ⎜] , some saying Umar personally kicked Fatimah in the stomach, causing her miscarriage ⎝] ⎞] ⎟] . Muhammad appeared in a dream and informed Fatimah that she would be passing away the next day. Fatimah informed her husband Ali and asked him not to allow those who had done injustice to her, to be involved in her janazah (prayer performed in congregation after the death of a Muslim) or take part in the burial. ⎠]
The next day when she died, her two sons were the first family members to learn of her death and immediately proceeded to the mosque to inform their father who, upon hearing the news, fell unconscious. When he regained consciousness, Ali, according to Fatimah's wishes, performed the janazah and buried her during the night on 3rd Jumada al-thani 11 AH (632) making out three other false graves to ensure her real grave could not be identified. With him were his family and a few of his close companions. ⎡]
The Sunnis, however, state that on the morning of her death, she took a bath, put on new clothes and lay down in bed. She asked for Ali and informed him that her time to die was very close. Upon hearing this news, Ali began to cry but was consoled by Fatimah who asked him to look after her two sons and for him to bury her without ceremony. After her death, Ali followed her wishes and buried her without informing the Medinan people. Ώ]
The Bridegroom Of The Prophet
In the second year of Hijrah Ali (peace be upon him), got married to Fatimah, the only daughter of the Prophet. She because of her steady belief in Allah, her chastity, and her virtuousness was unique among all classes of people.
The Prophet (S) had a great respect for her. She was requested to give her hand for marriage by some men of importance but Muhammad would not accede to their requests. In reply to the suitors, he used to say, “I am waiting for a call from the Heaven in regard to her marriage.” Eventually, Ali won this glory.
Ali was the great companion of the Prophet. When the Prophet started to preach openly, he invited all of his family members to a feast and announced his mission before them. Nobody listened to him, but young Ali stood up and said, “Though my eyes are sore, my legs are thin and I am the youngest of all those present here yet I will stand by you, o Messenger of Allah.”
Ali was very close to the Prophet. Ali was as his beloved son. He was brought up under the care of Muhammad when he was at the age of six. The closeness of Ali and the Prophet was changed to a permanent relationship when he married his most beloved daughter, Fatimah to Ali.
Ali was a very brave man. He participated in almost all the battles against the non-believers during the time of the Prophet. The stories of his bravery are famous in history. Because of his bravery, he was popularly called "Asadullah" (The Lion of Allah).
Ali was not only a great warrior but a great scholar as well. The Prophet said about him, “I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate.” He was one of the great jurists among the companions. The Prophet appointed him as the Judge of Yemen during his lifetime. He was a master of Arabic and his writings were as effective as his speech.
Ali also had the distinguished honor that the progeny of the Messenger of Allah continued through Ali’s sons from Fatimah, namely Hasan and Hussain (peace be upon them). The two children were the most beloved of the Prophet. Abu Hurayra said, “These two ears of mine have heard and these two eyes of mine have seen the Messenger of Allah (S), take the palms of Hasan or Hussain in both his hands. His feet were on the feet of the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet said, “Climb up.” The boy climbed until his feet reached the chest of the Prophet and then the Prophet kissed him and said, “O Allah, love him for I love him!’”3
530-545–Digging of the Zamzam well, which allowed year-round occupation of the site near the Kaaba.
552–The Year of the Elephant. Many Muslims have been told that the early Islamic sources claim that Muhammad was born during the Year of the Elephant, but early Islamic sources are actually extremely unclear about when the Year of the Elephant was, and dates for Muhammad’s birth range from the Day of the Elephant to 70 years after the Year of the Elephant. Fortunately, we have an inscription that clarifies the matter.
569—Abd al-Muttalib arranges for his son Adb’Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib of the Hashim clan to marry Amina bint Wahb. He brings with him into his marriage Barakah (later Umm Ayman), an Ethiopian slave, a gift from his father.
October 569—Muhammad’s father dies while his mother is pregnant (according to most sources, other dates possible). Baraka (Umm Ayman) is inherited by Amina.
March 570—Muhammad born in Mecca to Amina. He is suckled by Thuwaybah, the slave of his paternal uncle Abu Lahab. He is born either on a Friday or a Monday, depending on which tradition is followed.
570—Halima al-Sa‘diyah nurses Muhammad in the desert.
572–The Sassanids conquer Yemen. They take control of Sana’a and Aden and let the rest of the cities devolve to tribal rule under Sassanid hegemony.
575 (or 570)–The final breach of the Great Ma’rib Dam, which had previously irrigated up to 25,000 of fertile acres, causes up to 50,000 refugees. It will not be rebuilt until 1980.
575—Muhammad is back with his mother Amina, and she and Baraka (Umm Ayman) take him to Yathrib/Medina either to visit her relatives or to see Abd’Allah’s grave or both. From here, they either return to Mecca or go to Abwa’.
577—Muhammad’s mother Amina dies in Abwa’, where she is buried. Muhammad’s grandfather Abd al-Muttalib becomes his guardian. Muhammad inherits Baraka (Umm Ayman).
578—Muhammad’s grandfather Abd al-Muttalib dies and guardianship is transferred to his uncle Abu Talib, who also becomes the head of the Hashim clan and the siqaya and rifada of Mecca.
584 or bef.—Khadija marries Atiq bin A’idh of Banu Makhzum.
585—Khadija has daughter Hind, giving her the kunya Umm Hind.
586—Khadija’s son Abd’Allah is born, dies in infancy.
587—Khadija’s husband Atiq dies.
588—Khadija is married to Malak “Abu Halah” ibn An-Nabbash, a Bedouin nobleman of Tamim tribe—he and his brothers had immigrated to Mecca and formed alliance with Abduldar clan of the Quraysh, and then he contracted marriage with Khadiya from the rival Abad clan.
589—Khadija’s son Halah is born.
591—Khadija’s son Hind is born. Survives to adulthood and converted after conquest of Mecca.
591-594–The Sacrilegious War.
593—Khadija’s daughter Zainab is born, but dies in infancy.
594—Khadija’s husband Malik dies, likely in the Sacreligious War against the Quays-Aylan tribe (691-694). Khadijah’s father refuses all proposals of marriage.
594—Zaid ibn Haritha of Udhra tribe is bought by Khadijah’s nephew at a slave market for 400 dirhams after being captured by slave traders and presented to her as a present. Perhaps the nephew wanted to marry Hind.
594—Jafar ibn Abu Talib’s birth. (Note: This differs from Islamic tradition.)
596—Khadija’s daughter Hind married off to Sayfi ibn Umayyah.
596—❤️ Khadija proposes to Muhammad through her maid and tricks her father in to letting them marry. Muhammad frees Baraka (Umm Ayman). Baraka then marries and has her son, Ayman.
597—Muhammad and Khadija’s son al-Qasim born, but dies before weaning.
598— Muhammad and Khadija’s daughter Zainab born.
March 17, 599—Muhammad’s uncle Abu Talib and aunt by marriage Fatimah bint Asad have child Ali ibn Abu Talib.
601/2—Muhammad and Khadija’s daughter Ruqayya born.
602–Phocas assassinated the Emperor Maurice and his family and seizes the throne of Byzantium. Equal shares incompetent and brutal, he had such a poor grasp of statesmanship that his accession immediately inspired multiple raids and a Sassanid invasion, led by Korsrau II, who swiftly takes over Mesopotamia and the Caucasus.
603— Muhammad and Khadija’s daughter Umm Kulthum born.
605— Kaaba rebuilt. Muhammad and Khadija’s daughter Fatima born. (Traditional Sunni date Shia date not possible.)
606—Ali ibn Abu Talib comes to live with Muhammad and Khadija because father has become poor after a severe drought. Uncle Al-Abbas does the same with Jafar. Abu Talib’s favorite son Aqil stays with his father.
Zainab’s marriage to Abu al-As ibn al-Rabiah.
Ruqayya marriage to her cousin Utbah ibn Abu Lahab.
Umm Kulthum’s marriage to her cousin Utaybah ibn Abi Lahab.
(All three are married before 610.)
ca. 609—Adoption of Zaid by Muhammad. Must be when there is no surviving son and no real hope for a son left.
Khadijah’s son Halah killed in a street brawl over Muhammad’s reputation before the first revelation. We don’t know when this happens, but I place it as being after Zayd’s adoption, the subject being Muhammad’s inability to have a male heir.
Sacrifice to pantheon in “high places”—meets monotheist coming back, begins to consider monotheism.
610–The Byzantine general Heraclius overthrows Phocus and must consolidate power before turning back the Sassanids.
10 Aug 610—Mohammed has vision at the cave of Hira, where he goes to have religious experiences, and ? Surah 96:1-5 is revealed. Muhammad is terrified and fears he is going mad.
Khadija consults with her heretical mystic “Nazarene” cousin Waraqah, who deduces that he encountered the monotheists’ God, what Arab Jews and Christians called Allah, that is, Yahweh, through an intermediary angel. But Muhammad doesn’t yet know the name Allah and won’t for quite some time, so it’s likely that even Waraqah didn’t know or use this name.
Coming back from the cave again, Muhammad has a Throne Vision and then ? Surah 74:1-5 is revealed. He consults with Waraqah personally, which reassures him.
Muhammad’s first Companions were converted over the following weeks, and he has his first conflicts with Abu Lahab. Despite later tradition, neither ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan nor “Abu Bakr” Abd’Allah ibn ‘Uthman were among these. Most of the earliest believers were the women among Muhammad’s family, some young men, and some slaves.
Probably at this time, which is when the conflict with Abu Lahab got really nasty, with a revelation that called Abu Lahab’s mother unfaithful and Abu Lahab a bastard, Zainab, Ruqayya, and Umm Kulthum were removed from Muhammad and Khadija’s house by their husbands Abu al-As, Utbah, and Utaybah, if they were not before.
Late 610 (est.)—Muhammad and Khadija’s son Abd’Allah born. Died 615 or before. Since Abd’Allah isn’t mentioned in any ahadith other than his mere existence, and since everything about him is confused, I think he died very soon after his birth. I think this put Muhammad under even more stress than Waraqah’s death.
611—Abu Bakr converts after returning from the winter caravan to Yemen and learning the Muhammad had declared himself the Messenger of God. This happens before the end of Surah 89 is revealed, as this is the first time Abu Bakr is mentioned in relation to being present at any revelation.
Waraqah dies, and the revelations cease. Muhammad tries repeatedly to commit suicide because of the stress of this, according to the ahadith, but I think there’s another cause–that is, the death of Abd’Allah.
Spring of 611, revelation returns:
- ? Surah 93
- ? Surah 94
- ? Surah 103
- ? Surah 108
- ? Surah 102
- ? Surah 107:1-3
- Surah 105
- ? Surah 113
- ? Surah 114
611–The Sassanids overrun Syria and take important cities in Anatolia.
Surah 74 occurs right after Ramadan 612. Muhammad is convinced that the end is nigh, and he and his followers just weren’t devout enough before Ramadan 612 for it to happen. So he and his followers need to spend their nights standing and praying. If they do that, then the Great Day will come .
- ? Surah 7 (Name of Allah used for the first time)
- ? Surah 72
- ? Surah 36
- ? Surah 25
- ? Surah 35
- ? Surah 19
- ? Surah 20
Muhammad thinks that he now has the full revelation to lead the Arabs into monotheism.
613, after Ramadan–The prophecy fails. No Great Day. Surah 74 is abrogated. Muhammad is convinced this is because the rest of the Quraysh have rejected him and begins proselytizing aggressively, causing serious problems with the pagans.
The Quraysh tribe is extremely annoyed by Muhammad. They attempt to get Abu Talib to stop supporting him by offering him the most beautiful young male slave. They successfully get Ubtah and Utaybah to repudiate their wives Ruqayya and Umm Kulthum. Abu al-As refuses to repudiate his wife Zainab.
Part of ? Surah 53 (chron. 23) The Star was probably delivered at this time.
614—Ruqayya married to Uthman ibn Affan.
614—Muhammad describes paradise in Surah 38.
614—Aisha daughter of Abu Bakr born.
615—Migration to Abyssinia by many of the early Muslims, including Ruqayya and Uthman.
616—Muhammad’s followers must leave Mecca for camp outside of walls. Zainib stays in Mecca.
616—More people migrate to Abyssinia. (This is how I solve the “double migration” problem.)
After migration 616—Umar converts to Islam.
Early 617—Zainab and Abu al-As have son Ali, who dies in infancy.
618–The Sassanids take Egypt. The Sassanid king sends Heraclius a sneering letter, calling himself a god and Christ “powerless.” This did not go over well.
619—Some people in Abyssinia return to Mecca.
619—Ruqayya has son Abd’Allah in Abyssinia.
619—Muhammad’s uncle Abu Talib dies.
22 April 620—Khadija, ill at the time of the return to Mecca, finally dies. Muhammad declares that she will meet her fellow wives in paradise (Mary, pharoah’s “wife” who rescued Moses, Khadijah, and some other. Later, Fatima replaced the last.)
Satanic Versus incident—?Surah 53.
May 620—Muhammad marries 1❤️ Sawdah bint Zam’a, age 35, a well-off widow and tanner/perfume mixer, and contracts marriage with 2❤️ Aisha, age 6.
“Night Journey”—The Meccans had been attacking Muhammad, saying that he has no miracles to show for his prophet status.
621–The whole of the province of Palestine falls into the hands of the Persians, who find allies among the Jews. Together, they destroy many Christian churches and holy sites.
5 April 622–Byzantine emperor Heraclius leaves Constantinople to face the Sassanids. The war turns against the Sassanids, and the Byzantines defeat the Sassanids in a series of battles from 622 until 628.
622—Hijra. Some of the Abyssinians, like Ruqayya and Uthman, return in time for the hijra to Medina. Zainab and Abu al-As stay behind in Mecca. Expenses paid by Abu Bakr.
622—Zainab has daughter Umamah with Abu al-As.
Umm Kulthum and Fatimah are sent for in Medina by Muhammad. Al-Abbas putt them on a camel, and Huwayrith ibn Nuqaydh goaded it so they were thrown.
11 April to 9 May 623—Muhammad consummates marriage with Aisha, age 9.
623—Fatima married to Ali ibn Abu Talib. They live in great poverty.
March 623—Hamzah ibn Abd al-Muttalib leads the ⚔️ al-Is caravan raid—meets the enemy Abu Jahl Amr ibn Hasham but doesn’t engage because Majdi ibn Amr al-Juhani intervenes.
April 623—⚔️ Expedition of Ubaydah ibn al-Harith—might have actually been first “First arrow of Islam”
May 623—⚔️ Kharrar raid, led by Sad ibn Abi Waqqas. Set up for an ambush after the caravan had already made it through.
August 623—⚔️ Expedition of Waddan. 4 th caravan raid, first that Muhammad takes part in personally—no fighting, makes treaty with clan Damrah
October 623—⚔️ Patrol of Buwat 5 th raid, found nothing
December 623—⚔️ Expedition of al-Ashirah or Patrol of Zul Al-Ushairah 6 th raid
623—First expedition to Badr/⚔️ Battle of Safwan
4 March 624—Fatima’s first son Al-Hasan born.
January 624—⚔️ Nakhla raid—seventh caravan raid, first successful one against the Meccans
Jan 624—Muhammad orders assassination of ?️Asma bint Marwan
624—Muhammad evicts Qaynuqa Jews from Medina. ?Surah 63
Feb 624—Muhammad orders assassination of ?️Abu Afak
March 624—⚔️ Battle of Badr (victory) Zainab’s husband Abu al-As is captured, and Zainab offers a necklace as ransom. Muhammad IDs it and agrees to trade Abu al-As for Zainab instead of the ransom. He sends ? to pick her (and daughter Umamah) up—the losers feel disrespected and assault her, throwing her from her camel and causing her to have a misacarriage. Servant agrees to come back later and take her more sub rosa. Hafsa’s first husband Khunays ibn Hudayfa dies of battle wounds later. Very wealthy, and one of only 4 Muslim women able to write. Zainab bint Khuzayma’s husband Ubaydah ibn al-Harith becomes first Muslim to die in battle.
Uthman missed the battle because Ruqayya is dying. (Shia sources say he beat her to death.) She then dies after the battle. At her funeral, the women wail, and Umar, Hafsa’s father, beats them with a whip, but Muhammad stops him.
Mar 624–Muhammad orders the execution of ?️al Nadr ibn al-Harith and ?️Uqbah ibn Abu Muayt.
Sept 624—Muhammad orders assassination of ?️Ka’b al-Ashraf
Oct 624—Muhammad orders Umm Kulthum married to Uthman
Dec 624–Muhammad orders assassination of ?️Abu Rafi’ ibn Abi al-Huqaiq.
Jan/Feb 625—Muhammad marries 3❤️ Hafsa, Umar’s daughter, who is 19
Fatima begs for a slave girl to make her work easier
18 Feb 625—Muhammad marries 4❤️ Zainab bint Khuzayma Umm al-Masakin “Mother of the Poor”, age 28, another widow of Badr
625–Muhammad orders assassination of ?️Khalid ibn Sufyan
Mar 625–Muhammad orders execution of ?️Abu ‘Azzah ‘Amr ibn Abd Allah al-Jumahi.
Mar 625–Muhammad orders execution of ?️Muawiyah ibn al-Mugheerah.
625—⚔️Battle of Uhud (defeat), and Abd’Allah ibn Abdulasad is killed, widowing Hind (Umm Salama)
Sawda gives her place to Aisha out of fear of being divorced.
625—Umm Kulthum protects cousin fugitive from Battle of Uhud he is granted 3 days protection, but Muhammad sends men after him and they kill him
625—Ruqayya’s child Abd-Allah dies in Medina
625—Muhammad evicts Nadir Jews
626–The Byzantine Emperor Heraclius allies with the Gokturks of the Western Turkic Khaganate against the Sassanids.
6 April 626—Muhammad marries 5❤️ Hind (Umm Salama) bint Suhail, age 28. She was proposed to first by Abu Bakr (18 Mar 626), then Umar, and finally Muhammad. She refused them all, but Muhammad bullied her into marriage.
10 Jan 626—Fatima has son Al-Husayn
October 2, 626—Fatima has daughter Zaynab
I think Fatima married to Ibn Abbas dies this year, too?
Jan/Feb 627—Muhammad orders ⚔️Battle of the Trench (victory)
?Ghaziya (Umm Sharik) bint Jabir was a poor widow with children. She sent a proposal of marriage, and he signed it, but when he saw her in person, he thought she was too old, though attractive, and divorced her immediately. She never remarried.
Feb/Mar 627—Muhammad orders massacre of the Qurayza Jews (⚔️Invasion of the Banu Qurayza) in the aftermath of the Battle of the Trench and takes Rayhanah bint Zaid (slave “of the right hand”) and ? Tukanah al-Quraziya. It’s unknown when he starts sleeping with Tukanah. She doesn’t get her own turn/house, so she probably is given to another wife to be in her household. She marries al-Abbas after Muhammad dies.
Muhammad starts sleeping with ? Rayhanah bint Zaid, who was widowed in the massacre of the Qurayza Jews. She won’t convert and marry him, so he keeps her as his rape slave. Some stories like to make her convert before her death, but all the stories of her conversion are fluffy and inconsistent with one another. She may have gotten her own house or not.
Muhammad delivers ? Surah 33 so he can marry Zainab.
27 Mar 627—Muhammad marries 6❤️ Zainab bint Jahsh, age 37, who was first married to Zaid.
Declares that his wives must wrap up in veils right after this, also in Surah 33.
627–Muhammad orders assassination of ?️Abu Sufyan. (May be before or after the massacre of the Qurayza Jews.)
Uncle of ?Khawla bint Hudhayi of the Christian Taghlib tribe arranges for her to marry Muhammad (likely due to his conflict with the Jews). Muhammad signed the contract, but she died on the way. They sought to substitute her aunt ? Sharaf bint Khalifa, but either Muhammad changed his mind or Sharaf also died before consummation.
Oct 627—Zainab bint Muhammad’s husband Abu al-As’s Meccan caravan is ⚔️attacked and captured by Muslim raiders. He flees to her in Medina and begs for protection in return for converting. He then goes to Mecca with caravan goods to pay back the Meccans and then returns in May/June 628.
19 Dec-16 Jan 628—⚔️ attack the Mustaliq branch of the Khuza’a tribe/raid at al-Muraysi—Aisha gets lost, and her virtue is called into question by Hamna sister of Zainab bint Jahsh—Ali is against her, too.
2 Jan 628—Muhammad marries 7❤️ Juwayriuah bint al-Harith, age 20, taken in the raid. He also sends to Ramla, widowed in Abyssinia, to propose marriage as soon as her 130-day waiting period is up. They trick the king into giving her a huge dower, and she leaves to marry him.
628–The Byzantine campaign against the Sassanids is so successful that an internal coup launched by Khosrow II’s son, Kavad II, overthrows the shah. On their way across Persia, the Byzantine army took time to exact revenge for the destruction of Christian holy sites by obliterating the site of one of the three most sacred fires of Zoroastrianism at Adur Gushnasp.
? Surah 24 is delivered in Aisha’s defense, and there’s more about veils, too.
Zaynab bint Jahsh offers her slave ?al-Jariya to Muhammad as a concubine. I’m locating this here because using her as a peace offering trying to reconcile with Muhammad after smearing Aisha makes sense.
628—Muhammad signs of Treaty of Hudaibiya with Mecca
Mid-July 628—⚔️Battle of Khaybar. Muhammad causes the destruction and subjugation of Khaybar Jews, and Safiyah is widowed (husband murdered personally by Muhammad after truce) and captured—Khaybar provides wealth for the rest of Muhammad’s life—Safiyah bint Huleiy ibn Akhtab 8❤️ resists him first night, is taken by Umm Salama to be dressed up for marriage, to which he submits the next day– Safiyah, age 17 (month of birth)
Muhammad is poisoned after Khaybar by a Jewish woman.
Baraka (Umm Ayman) becomes widowed at Khaybar and marries Zaid ibn Haritha.
Dubaa bint Amir was a wealthy noblewoman whose hair was said to “fill a whole room” when she say down. Muhammad proposed, but then he was advised that she was elderly, as her adult son was from her third marriage, so he changed his mind before they met.
Summer 628–Marya the Copt arrives with sister and cousin and is given to Hafsa. Muhammad believed that the Christian governor of Egypt sent him these slaves and was acknowledging him in some way because he had no idea that Egypt was under Sassanian control.
The last of the Abyssinians rejoin them, including Asma who will marry Abu Bakr
?Layla bint al-Khutaym proposes to Muhammad to promote the interests of her clan Jafar and he accepts, but her family convinces her that she would not adapt well to the marriage.
628— Muhammad marries 9❤️ Ramla bint Abi Sufyan (Umm Habiba), age 35
628– Zainab bint Khuzayma dies
629–The Sassanid general Shahrbaraz made an agreement with the Byzantine emperor Heraclius to return control of Egypt to the Byzantines.
18 Feb 629—Muhammed marries 9❤️ Maymunah bint al-Harith.
May/Jun 629—Zainab bint Muhammad dies
July 629—Muhammad has sex with ? Maryah the Copt on Hafsa’s bed.
Sept 629—Muhammad orders first raid into Christian lands (defeat),⚔️ battle of Mu’tah—Asma’s husband died, and she marries Abu Bakr
Late 629— ? Surah 60. Traditionally between 33 and 24, but the traditional circumstances of the revelation (Bukhari 65:4890) push it to right before the conquest of Mecca. Shia tradition concurs with this and adds details about the woman messenger.
Early Jan 630— Muhammad conquers Mecca by surprise, then Muhammad orders ⚔️Battle of Hunayn.
Late Jan 630— Muhammed marries 10❤️ Mulayka bint Kaab, younger than Aisha at the time (who was 16), immediately divorced because Aisha got her to resist him because he killed her father—she was given after the Battle of Hunayn by the people of Mecca to appease Muhammad.
Gave Surah 4 (The women, chron. 92) telling his followers to rape married women.
630—Muhammad marries and then immediately divorces 10❤️ Fatima (al-Aliya) bint Zabyan (al-Dahhak), who was thrown out and spent the rest of her life drying camel dung and selling it for fuel. Aisha may get her divorced by claiming she’s peeking at men in the mosque.
25 Mar-22 April 630—Ibrahim is born from Marya the Copt and Zainab, Muhammad’s daughter, dies
Remarks upon seeing Umm Habib bint al-Abbas crawling around that “If I am alive when she grows up, I will marry her.” Then he found out that he was a milk-brother with al-Abbas and changed his mind.
April 630–The father of ?Sana bint Rifaa arranges a marriage between her and Muhammad, but she dies. He then arranges for Muhammad to marry his daughter ?Umra bint Rifaa instead, but when he said she’d never been sick a day in her life, Muhammad decides to break off the engagement.
8 Jul 630—Fatima has daughter Umm Kulthum
Jun or Jul 630— Muhammed marries 10❤️ Asma bint al-Numan, older than Aisha but no more than 20. She was a Himaryite princess of Saba/Yemen. It is said that Aisha tricked her into reciting the divorce formula before consummation so she was immediately divorced–slightly odd story.
Abu al-As remarries Fakhita & has daughter Maryam
630—Leads second raid into Christian territory and Tabuk (no battle)
Nov/Dec 930—Umm Kulthum dies
631—Remaining Arab tribes accept Islam
?Jamra bint al-Harith proposes marriage to Muhammad and he accepts. Her father tells him she has a disease to get him to break off the engagement, which is successful. Discovering the deception, Muslims insist that Allah really has struck her with a disease.
Late 631—Ibraham dies at 17/18 months old 10❤️ al-Shanba bint Amir marries Muhammad, but he divorces her before consummation when she says that if he was a prophet, his son wouldn’t have died
631 or 632— Muhammed marries 10❤️ Amra bint Yazid, about 15, divorced girl of around Aisha’s age divorced that day because of leprosy according to one tradition, but she sought refuge from in Allah according to another source.
May 632–Muhammad contracts marriage with Asma bint al-Numan’s cousin, ? Qutayla or Habla bint Qays, but dies before she arrives. As soon as she hears that he’s dead, she apostates from Islam and marries an Arab leader who was a general in the Apostasy Wars.
Asma of Abu Bakr bears son
632—Fatima is denied her inheritance by Abu Bakr she then dies miscarrying—according to Shia sources, this happens when Umar’s men force door open and break her ribs when she and Ali won’t recognize Abu Bakr’s election as caliph.
Life after the death of Muhammad
Caliphate of Abu Bakr
For the few months that she survived following the death of her father, Fatimah found herself indirectly at the center of political disunity. Differing accounts of the events surrounding the commencement of the caliphate exist which were the cause of the Shia and Sunni split. The majority of Muslims at the time of Muhammed's death favoured Abu Bakr as the Caliph while a portion of the population supported Fatimah's husband, Ali. Γ] Shias believe that Fatimah wanted her husband Ali to be the new caliphate. However, Sunnis strongly dispute this claim.
Following his election to the caliphate after a meeting in Saqifah, Abu Bakr and Umar with a few other companions headed to Fatimah's house to obtain homage from Ali and his supporters who had gathered there. Then Umar threatened to set the house on fire unless they came out and swore allegiance with Abu Bakr. ⎭] There isn't consensus among the sources about what happened next.
Shia sources say upon seeing them, Ali came out with his sword drawn but was disarmed by Umar and their companions. Fatimah, in support of her husband, started a commotion and threatened to "uncover her hair", at which Abu Bakr relented and withdrew. Γ]
Shia historians hold that Umar called for Ali and his men to come out and swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. When they did not, Umar broke in, resulting in Fatimah's ribs being broken by being pressed between the door and the wall causing her to miscarry Muhsin which led to her eventual death. ⎘] Another version of the events says that Umar sent a force led by his slave-boy Qunfud to Fatimah's house instructing them to bring Ali to the mosque. Arriving at the house, Qunfud requested permission to enter, which was refused by Ali causing Qunfud to return to Abu Bakr and Umar and relate the events, who instructed them to go back and enter the house by force if necessary. Qunfud and his men returned but were this time refused permission by Fatimah which caused Qunfud to send his men back to Abu Bakr and Umar for further instructions who told them to burn the house down if necessary in order to bring Ali to them. ⎘]
Although historians cannot give a precise description of the actual events, and even though the various views have been mixed with legendary accounts, it was undoubtedly a key motivation for the hatred born by the Shias towards Umar and his supporters. Γ]
After the death of her father, Fatimah approached Abu Bakr and asked him to relinquish her share of the inheritance from Muhammad's estate. Fatimah expected the land of Fadak (situated 30 miles from Medina ⎮] ) and a share of Khaybar would be passed onto her as part of her inheritance. However, Abu Bakr rejected her request citing a narration where Muhammad stated that prophets do not leave behind inheritance and that all their possessions become sadaqa to be used for charity. Fatimah was upset at this flat refusal by Abu Bakr and did not speak to him until her death ( some Sunni sources claim she had reconciled her differences with Abu Bakr before she died). Γ] Shias contend that Fadak had been gifted to Fatimah by Muhammad and Abu Bakr was wrong in not allowing her to take possession of it. ⎯]
Narration by Aisha as stated in Sahih Bukhari (Volume 4, Book 53, Number 325). ⎰] ⎱]
|stating that Narrated 'Aisha: (mother of the believers) After the death of Allah 's Apostle Fatima the daughter of Allah's Apostle asked Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah's Apostle had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah had given him. Abu Bakr said to her, "Allah's Apostle said, 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is Sadaqa (to be used for charity)." Fatima, the daughter of Allah's Apostle got angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died. Fatima remained alive for six months after the death of Allah's Apostle. ⎰]|
Fatimah bint Asad رضي الله عنها
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said:
“I gave my shirt to he used as a part of her shroud, so that she would he dressed the dress of Paradise.”
Fatimah bint Asad was the mother of ‘Ali bin Abu Talib and the mother-in-law of the Prophet’s daughter Fatimah bint Muhammad (pbuh) Her grandsons, Hasan and Husain are to be the leaders of the youths of Paradise. Besides ‘Ali she had two other sons. One was Ja’far Tayyar who was a famous General. He led the forces of Islam in the battle of Mu’tah and was martyred in the same battle.
The Prophet (pbuh) was an orphan child, his father died before his birth his mother also died when he was very young. His paternal uncle, Abu Talib, had in a sense adopted him. And Fatimah bint Asad, Abu Talib’s wife, looked after him like her own. She protected him as closely as the heart is in the human breast.
When he grew up and proclaimed himself to be the Prophet and Last Messenger of Allah, she still stood by him. All the relentless persecution did not deter her in any way. She was exceptionally fond of her son Ja’far, but for the sake of Islam she bore the separation from him and his wife, Asma’ bint ‘Omais when they migrated to Abysiniah on the Prophet’s orders with the first group of migrant Muslims.
Fatimah bint Asad being one of the first to swear allegiance to Islam and its concept of the Oneness of Allah faced the economic and social boycott of the Shi’ab Abi Talib for those three terrible years. She was also a member of the privileged group who migrated to Al-Madinah. Her family could be traced to the Hashmi dynasty, as could the Prophet’s.
Fatimah bint Asad bin Hashim bin Abd Munaf bin Qasi Hashmi, that was her lineage. ‘Abdul Muttalib, who was a very discriminating man had assessed her nature, her intelligence and her capabilities from the very beginning and proposed for her for his son, Abu Talib. When the Prophet (pbuh) was told by Allah to spread the Message of Islam among his kith and kin, it was Fatimah bint Asad who immediately accepted this invitation and swore allegiance and entered the fold of Islam.
When the Prophet’s grandfather, ‘Abdul Muttalib, passed away, the guardianship of the orphan Muhammad passed on to Abu Talib. His wife, Fatimah bint Asad, looked after him, loving him as if he were her own. He remembered in his later life that she would go hungry to feed him. He respected her so highly that whenever she visited him he would stand up and receive her with great love, addressing her as ‘Mother’.
His uncle too loved him deeply. Muhammad (pbuh) in his childhood was so well mannered and so fastidious about his personal cleanliness that Abu Talib would hold him up as an example to his other children. Normally boys would be dirty and tousled from playing rough games with the other boys, but Muhammad was always dignified with a neat appearance.
People were impressed when they saw him. Abu Talib liked all the children to eat together because he felt that whenever Muhammad (pbuh) ate with other children, food would be sufficient and when the children ate alone they would remain hungry. Abu Talib often told his nephew that he was specially blessed, as there was plenty when he was around.
Fatimah bint Asad did not spare any pains and looked after the Prophet (pbuh) in his infancy, boyhood and youth. Once in his childhood he accompanied his uncle on a business trip to Syria. Some very unusual and surprising incidents took place on the journey, and Abu Talib described these to his wife Fatimah bint Asad when they came back. She was also very moved and impressed.
The same was the case with Maisarah, the slave of Khadijah. He was amazed at some, the strange signs he witnessed on that first business trip to Syria with tam. His courtesy, his humane treatment of people, his business acumen, the enormous profit made as well as some of the strange supernatural happenings, the prediction of the monk, Nestor, all these he narrated to Khadijah.
Nestor, a Jewish monk, noted for his knowledge of religion had predicted that he would be exalted to prophethood by Allah. Maisarrah told her about the Prophet (pbuh) and his reputation for honesty and intelligence. She was impressed by what she heard and the more she came to know Muhammad M the more she liked and respected him. And, finally, she proposed marriage, rejecting the offers of marriage from the foremost leaders of the Quraish.
When the Prophet (pbuh) placed the invitation to a religion with a new and rational perspective before the Quraish of Makkah, the worshippers of all the false idols in the Ka’bah were infuriated. They could not dream that the Prophet (pbuh) would dismiss their gods as useless helpless creatures, and they became his bitter enemies for propagating a new faith that did away with their traditional and inherited practices. They adopted a very antagonistic attitude and swore to crush him and Islam.
During this period they resorted to the most cruel and sadistic forms of torture to make the converts give up the new faith and return to their old barbaric practices and rituals. It was only the power and influence of Abu Talib that prevented them from doing any harm to Muhammad He stood by him with all his love and carried out the responsibilities of guardian faithfully by giving him his protection. No enemy could dare to do anything to him as long as he was under the mantle of his uncle’s protection.
Fatimah bint Asad cooperated with Abu Talib wholeheartedly and she was a mother pure and simple where the safety and well being of Muhammad (pbuh) was concerned. No wonder he loved and respected her so highly. Considering the dangerous conditions which developed for the Muslims in Makkah, he thought it whetter that the Muslims migrate to Abyssiniah where the ruler Najashi was known to be tolerant and hospitable. The leader of this first group of migrants was Ja’far bin Abi Talib the brother of ‘Ali and the favorite son of Fatimah bint Asad. She loved him more than the others because he resembled Muhammad (pbuh) very much, and was extremely intelligent.
He seemed to have inherited the family’s mastery over language and was also an eloquent speaker who could win people over to his viewpoint. It was with this same skill that he had won over Najashi when the Quraish appealed to him to surrender the Muslims to them.
The Quraish now decided to restrict the Muslims to one small area, besiege them and boycott them. Social and economic sanctions were imposed, and these three years were perhaps the toughest that the followers of Islam faced. Economically, it was certainly the worst ever. Children could be heard on all sides sobbig with hunger, and the elders looked on helplessly with tears in their eyes. To satisfy their hunger they started eating the leaves of trees and grass they even sucked on wet skins to slake their thirst.
Fatimah bint Asad passed this terrible period with fortitude and patience, and did not waver in the smallest degree. Ten years after the first revelation to Muhammad (pbuh) appointing him the Messenger of Allah this harsh siege was finally lifted. It was in the same year that the Prophet’s wife and most faithful supporter, Khadijah اpassed away. The pangs of separation from her were very strong for the Prophet He had not yet recovered from her loss, when he was dealt another terrible blow – his best ally, Abu Talib, also passed away. This year is known as’The Year of Sorrows’ in Islamic history.
The torture and torment, atrocities and cruelties reached such proportions that Allah ٠ finally ordered the Prophet to migrate to AI- Madinah. Fatimah bint Asad was among these migrants. When the Prophet’s daughter Fatimah married ‘Ali there were two Fatimah in the family, a mother-in-law and daughter-in-law. ‘Ali ه narrated how one day the Prophet gave him a very large expensive sheet and told him to divide it between the Fatimahs. At that time there were four Fatimahs in the family.
- Fatimah bint Asad
- Fatimah bint Muhammad
- Fatimah bint Hamzah
- Fatimah bint Shaibah, who was the wife of ‘Aqeel bin Abi Talib the brother of ‘Ali, ‘Ali says he did as the Prophet (pbuh) old torn and divided it among the four Fatimahs in his family.
Anas bin Malik says that when the Prophet (pbuh) got news of the death of Fatimah bint Asad he immediately went to her house, sat beside her and prayed for her.
- ” My dear mother, may Allah keep you under His Protection. Many times you went in order to feed me well. You fed me and clothed me on delicacies that you denied yourself. Allah will surely be happy with these actions of yours. And your intentions were surely meant to win the goodwill and pleasure of Allah and success in the Hereafter.”
He gave his shirt to be used as part of her shroud, saying he prayed to Allah to forgive her and give her the dress of Paradise.
When the grave was prepared the Prophet (pbuh) himself examined it and with his own hands placed her into the grave.
Thus Fatimah bint Asad was one of the few blessed people in whose graves the Prophet himself examined. Their names are given below:
- ‘Abdullah Mazni – very well known as zulbajàdain.
- Fatimah bint Asad.
- His son, born by Khadijah, who died in his infancy.
Fatimah bint Asad is that great lady for whom he gave the glad tidings that she would be blessed with a place in Paradise. He said that he shrouded her with his shirt, praying that Allah would give her the dress of Paradise. Allah pleased with them and they pleased Allah.