The story

Corinthian War (395-386 BC)

Corinthian War (395-386 BC)


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Corinthian War (395-386 BC)

Background
The War
Causes of the War
395 - 394 - 393 - 392
Winter 392/1
391 - 390 - 389 - 388 - 387 -386

The Corinthian War (395-386 BC) saw the Spartans, with eventual Persian aid, defeat an alliance of Thebes, Corinth, Argos and Athens and apparently remain the dominant power on mainland Greece. However the early part of the war took place at the same time as a Persian-Spartan War (400- 387 BC) that saw Sparta lose her short-lived maritime empire, and it was quickly followed by an intervention at Thebes that ended in disaster.

Background

In 404 BC Sparta finally won the Great Peloponnesian War (with Persian help). Athens was forced to dismantle her walls, lost her empire, was only allowed a tiny fleet and the democracy was dismantled. For a brief time Sparta became the dominant Greek naval power, although most of her ships came from allies.

Over the next few years the Spartans made poor use of their dominance. They became involved in a war with Elis that ended in 400 BC with a Spartan victory, but didn't make them many friends. In Athens a pro-democratic revolt soon broke out against the oligarchy. The Spartans intervened, but King Pausanias decided to allow the restoration of democracy.

Further afield the Spartans quarrelled with their Persian allies. They supported the revolt of Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes II, but this ended with the death of Cyrus at Cunaxa (401 BC). This left the Greek cities of Asia Minor exposed to Persian attack, and they called for aid from Sparta. The Spartans responded to that call, triggering a long war (Persian-Spartan War, 400-387 BC). The early campaigns of this war were conducted with little energy on the Spartan side, but it did trigger the construction of a new Persian fleet, with command of an Asian Greek contingent going to the Athenian leader Conon.

Sparta responded by sending Agesilaus II to Asia Minor with reinforcements. Corinth, Boeotia and Athens all refused to provide contributions to this army, and the Corinthians even disrupted its departure. Agesilaus arrived at Ephesus in the spring of 396 and began a more effect campaign. He won a battle at Sardis in 395, and was rewarded with command of a strong fleet, but soon after this he was withdrawn to fight in Greece.

The War

Causes of the War

In 404 BC a Spartan led alliance that included Thebes and Corinth had finally defeated Athens, ending the Great Peloponnesian War. Spartan arrogance in the aftermath of that victory helped to pave the way for the Corinthian War, in which her former allies sided against her. Corinth and Thebes had wanted to see the city of Athens totally destroyed after the war, but the Spartans had refused. Their allies had also been denied any of the spoils of the victory. In the years after the end of the war the Spartans had strengthened their position in Thessaly, an area that Thebes considered to be within her sphere of influence. As a result both Corinth and Thebes had refused to cooperate with Sparta, first when the Spartans intervened to help end a period of political chaos at Athens, then in a war against Elis and finally in the expeditions to Asia Minor. The Athenians had provided troops for the conflict with Elis, and for Thibron's expedition in Asia Minor, but in 396 they refused to provide troops for Agesilaus's expedition.

The Spartan-Persian War also saw Persian envoys visit Greece, carrying with them sizable bribes. Their first envoy had been captured by the Spartans, but a second, Timocrates of Rhodes, reached the mainland safely and visited Thebes, Corinth, Argos and possibly Athens. Timocrates won friends wherever he went, presumably aided by the absence of Agesilaus and his troops in Asia Minor.

According to our sources the Thebans provided the spark that actually started the conflict. Boeotia was bordered on the west by Phocis, the region that included Delphi, a sizable area that stretched north from the Gulf of Corinth almost all the way to the Gulf of Euboea. Phocis sat between the Eastern (or Opuntian) and Western (or Ozolian) Locrians. Eastern Locris was a narrow strip of land on the Gulf of Euboea, while Western Locris was a larger area, similar in shape to Phocis. The Phocians and Locrians were long-standing rivals, although most of the time their rivalry was limited to raiding.

395

In 395 the Theban leadership needed to find a way to force the rest of the Boeotian League into a war with Sparta. Boeotia was allied with Locris, and they decided to provoke a conflict between Locris and Phocis. The Theban leaders convinced the Locrians to levy a tax in a disputed area. The Phocians responded with an invasion of Western Locris. The Locrians called for help from the Boeotian League, which responded by preparing to invade Phocis.

The Phocians responded by sending envoys to Sparta to plead for help. In Sparta they easily won over Lysander, the great leader of the last phase of the Peloponnesian War, who had just returned from a fairly unsuccessful intervention in Asia Minor, and probably also got the support of King Pausanias. The Spartans ordered the Boeotians not to intervene, but unsurprisingly the Boeotians ignored this demand. The Spartans mobilised their forces and prepared for a two-pronged invasion of Boeotia.

The Spartans decided to invade Boeotia from east and west. Lysander was given command of the western invasion, which was to be launched from Phocis, using Phocian and Spartan allied troops. The main Spartan army and their Peloponnesian allies were to concentrate at Tegea under the command of King Pausanias, advance through Corinthian territory and invade from the east. The two forces were meant to meet up at Haliartus, west of Thebes, close to the southern shores of Lake Copais.

Lysander moved quickest. He successfully detached Orchomenus, on the western shores of Lake Copais, from the Boeotian League, and then advanced around the lake towards Haliartus. He arrived outside the city a few days ahead of Pausanias, but after the Thebans had thrown a garrison into the city.

The Thebans had also convinced the Athenians to agree to an alliance, a remarkable resurgence for a city that had suffered a crushing defeat in the previous decade. The Athenians moved quickly, and they were able to take over the defence of Thebes, allowing the Theban army to move to Haliartus. In a battle outside the walls Lysander was killed and his army forced to retreat (battle of Haliartus, 395 BC). Pausanias arrived within a day or two, but chose not to risk a battle against the combined Theban and Athenian armies close to the walls of a hostile city. Instead he arranged for a truce, recovered the bodies of the Spartan dead, and then retreated west into Phocis. Lysander was buried just across the border. The Spartans left a garrison on Orchomenus and then returned home.

In the aftermath of this defeat Pausanias was put on trial, charged with moving too slowly, failing to fight to recover Lysander's body and his earlier decision to allow Athens to restore her democracy. He was condemned in his absence, and spent the rest of his life in exile. His was succeeded by his underage son Agesipolis, so for a short period Sparta was without a senior leader in Greece.

394

The next recorded campaign took place in the north, in southern Thessaly, around the Gulf of Malis. Medius, ruler of Larissa in Thessaly asked for help in his war against Lycophron, tyrant of Pherae. The allies sent 2,000 men, mainly from Boeotia and Argos, under the command of Ismenias of Thebes. Together with Medius they captured Pharsalus. The Boeotians and Argives then moved south and took Heracleia in Trachis, where the Spartans had a garrison. In an attempt to divide the Peloponnesians any captured Spartans were executed while other Peloponnesians were allowed to go home. The Argives were left as a garrison and Ismenias advanced into friendly territory in Locris. On the way he convinced the Aenianians (at the western end of the Gulf of Malis) and the Athamanians (from western Thessaly) to join with him, giving him around 6,000 men. The Phocians sent an army to face him, but this was defeated in a costly battle at Naryx (394 BC). The Boeotians and their allies lost 500 men, the Phocians 1,000. Both armies were then disbanded, and the various contingents returned home.

Attention now turned to the Corinthian front, with the returning Agesilaus II a looming presence. The anti-Spartan allies met at Corinth and decided to invade Laconia, but they then wasted time deciding who would command the army (eventually deciding to rotate command between the four main powers) and how deep their battle line would be. In the meantime Aristodemus, the guardian of Agesipolis, raised a fresh army and led it north to Sicyon, two miles from the Corinthian gulf and twelve miles west of Corinth.

The two armies clashed on the coastal plain between Corinth and Sicyon (battle of Nemea). According to Xenophon the Spartans were outnumbered (although his figures miss out a Achaean contingent that he then mentions in the battle). Along most of the line the allies defeated Sparta's own allies, and pushed them off the battlefield. However both lines had drifted to the right, and so the Athenians, on the allied left, were badly outflanked by the Spartans. The Spartans crushed the Athenians, and then advanced along the battle line, defeating the Argives, Corinthians and Thebans in turn. The survivors escaped back to Corinth, where at first they were denied access to the city. The battle of Nemea was a clear Spartan victory, but it didn't open the road to Attica or Boeotia. With Corinth still held against them by a powerful army, the Spartans decided to wait for Agesilaus to return from Asia.

The summons home had come as a bitter blow to Agesilaus, who was in the middle of planning a major campaign in the east. He obeyed his orders, and decided to return at the head of a powerful army. The Greeks of Asia Minor were happy to move west, but his own Spartan troops weren't so keep on fighting other Greeks and had to be enticed back with the promises of prizes for the best contingent. He probably had around 15,000 men, but his choice of the land route meant that he would need them. He left Asia Minor in mid-summer, leaving his son in law Peisander in command of the war against Persia.

Agesilaus had to fight off attacks as he marched west across Thrace. He learnt of the Spartan victory at Nemea while at Amphipolis in Thrace, and ordered the messenger to spread the news amongst Sparta's allies. He was able to bluff his way through Macedon, but once again came under attack on his way through Thessaly. He won a significant cavalry victory over the Thessalians on the way south, and soon afterwards crossed into pro-Spartan territory.

We now reach one of the few secure dates in this war. On 14 August 394 BC a partial eclipse of the sun took place. On that day Agesilaus had just entered Boeotia from the north-west, when news reached him of the disastrous Spartan naval defeat at Cnidas. The Spartan fleet had been destroyed and Peisander had been killed. In order to maintain the morale of his men, many of whom came from cities that were now exposed to Persian attack, he announced that the battle had actually been a victory, although he did acknowledge the death of Peisander.

The allies responded to the new threat by dispatching an army north from Corinth. According to Xenophon this included contingents from Boeotia, Athens, Argos, Corinth, Aeniania, Euboea and Locris. Given that Corinth still had to be defended, the Athenian, Corinthian and Argive contingents were probably not large.

Agesilaus also had a composite force. He had been sent one Spartan 'mora' from the Corinthian front, and half a 'mora' from Orchomenus. He already had a force of enfranchised helots who had been fighting with him in Asia Minor, along with the troops from Asia Minor and reinforcements raised in Orchomenus and Phocis. He had a numerical advantage in light infantry, and matched his opponents in cavalry.

The resulting battle of Coronea (394 BC) was described in more detail than normal by Xenophon. At the start the Spartans were successful on their right, where the Argives fled without a fight. The Spartans allies in the centre were also successful, although after some fighting. On the left the troops from Orchomenus were defeated, and the Thebans advanced into the Spartan camp. Agesilaus turned his main force around, and the hardest fighting took place as the Thebans attempted to rejoin their defeated allies. Eventually some broke through, but it was clear that the battle was a Spartan victory. Even so the allied army was still largely intact.

Agesilaus decided not to try and push his way past them, and instead retreated west into Phocis. A Spartan raid into Locris ended in disaster when the polemarch Gylis and eighteen Spartans were killed, and after that Agesilaus disbanded his army and returned to Sparta.

The next few years were dominated by a stalemate around Corinth, which lasted into 390. The Spartans raided east from Sicyon into Corinthian territory, and the allies responded to the raids. The Spartans were unable to carry out a siege of Corinth while the allied army remained intact.

393

In 393 the Peloponnese came under direct attack when the Persian fleet under Conon and Pharnabazus crossed the Aegean and began to raid the coastline. They attacked Pherae in Messenia, in the south-west of the Peloponnese, attacked a number of other areas, and then captured the island of Cythera, off the southern tip of the Peloponnese, to use as a base. Next Pharnabazus travelled to Corinth to meet with the allies and offer them money. Conon was then sent to Athens to help restore the long walls and the fortifications of Piraeus. Conon provided money, and the crews from his ships carried out much of the work.

The Corinthians used their share of the money to build a fleet, which under the command of Agathinus gained control of much of the Corinthian Gulf. This was a short-lived success. The first Spartan commander, Podanemus, was killed in a minor attack. His second in command, Pollis, was forced to retire wounded. He was replaced by Herippidas, who had more success. During his time in command a new Corinthian admiral, Proaenus, evacuated Rhium (on the northern shore of the gulf), which was reoccupied by the Spartans. Herippidas was later replaced by Agesilaus's half-brother Teleutias, who regained control of the Gulf of Corinth.

392

In 392 Corinth was weakened by civil strife. A peace or pro-Spartan party began to form, and the war party decided to strike first. Many of the pro-Spartan leaders were massacred on the last day of a religious festival. Some of the others fled into exile, while a few remained within the city. At about this time Corinth and Argos merged into a single legal community - a novel legal idea, and one that angered the exiles even more. Two of the leaders who had remained within Corinth offered to let the Spartans into the Long Walls. Praxitas, the Spartan polemarch at Sicyon, decided to take them up on their offer. He was let into the gap between the walls, where he fought off an allied counterattack and captured Leuchaeum, the northern port of Corinth, connected to the city by the Long Walls. He then went on to capture positions on the opposite side of the Isthmus of Corinth, opening the road to Attica and Boeotia.

During 392 the Spartans made a first attempt to end the war with Persia. Antalcidas was sent to Sardis to negotiate with the satrap Tiribazus. The Spartans argued that Conon and his fleet actually posed a greater danger to Persia than the Spartans did. The allies responded by sending envoys from Athens, Boeotia, Corinth and Argos, who countered the Spartan arguments.

Antalcidas's proposal was that Sparta would abandon her support for the Greek cities of Asia. In return the cities and islands would be declared autonomous. Tiribazus was won over, but the other Greek powers opposed these proposals. The Athens were said to have feared that they would lose control of Lemnos, Imbros and Scyros, key points on the shipping route to the Black Sea, Thebes that she would lose the Boeotian League and Argos that she would lose her merger with Corinth. Without orders from Artaxerxes, Tiribazus was unable to accept these peace terms, although he did arrest Conon and provide financial support for the Spartans.

Winter 392/1

Peace negotiations continued at Sparta during the winter of 392/1. The Spartans had some success. The Athenian delegation, led by Andocides, accepted the Spartan offer to acknowledge their rule of Lemnos, Imbros and Scyros, but not any further expansion. Thebes would be allowed to keep all of the Boeotian League apart from Orchomenus. Argos remained hostile as the Spartans refused to accept her merger with Corinth. In any event the Athenians turned down the peace terms, and the war continued.

Soon after the failure of the peace talks the allies recaptured Lechaeum and the Long Wall, but they would prove unable to hold them for long.

391

In the spring of 391 Agesilaus led the first Spartan invasion of Argive territory of the war. This may have been a diversionary tactic to pull allied troops from Corinth, for Agesilaus then turned back and recaptured the Long Walls while his brother Teleutias captured Lechaeum from the sea.

In the east Sparta suffered a setback in her war with Persia. The pro-Spartan satrap Tiribazus had attempted to argue his case in front of Artaxerxes at Susa, but lost his case and was replaced as satrap of Sardis by Struthas, who was more pro-Athenian. The previously disgraced leader Thibron was sent back to Asia Minor to take command of a new campaign, but he was defeated and killed in an ambush.

In the autumn of 391 Ecdicus, the Spartan navarch for 391/390, was sent east with eight ships to support a group of oligarchic exiles from Rhodes, who had been ousted by a pro-Athenian democracy. Ecdicus had some success, convincing Samos to change sides, but he discovered that Rhodes was firmly held by the democrats and he was outnumbered by two-to-one. He decided to spend the winter of 391-390 at Cnidus.

390

In the spring of 390 Ecdicus was replaced by Teleutias, the Spartan naval commander at Lechaeum. Teleutias took his own twelve ships with him, and gained another 14 on the way. He then captured ten Athenian ships that were on their way to support Evagoras of Salamis of Cyprus, who was involved in a revolt against Artaxerxes. This was a dangerous move for the Athenians, who began to alienate Artaxerxes.

Also in the spring of 390 Agesilaus invaded Corinthian territory once again. He captured the Piraeum peninsula, where the Corinthians had their main herds of cattle. He may then have moved back towards Corinth in an attempt to support a coup by the exiles based at Lechaeum, but if so this was crushed by Iphicrates before the Spartans could arrive. Agesilaus did capture the site of the biannual festival of Poseidon at Isthmia, and the exiles conducted the festival. After the Spartans withdrew the Argives reoccupied the site and held a second festival. The Spartan successes encouraged the Boeotians to begin fresh peace talks, but the situation was changed by a dramatic and unexpected Spartan defeat.

Spartan warfare was often disrupted by religious ceremonies and festivals. On this occasion it was the biannual Hyacinthia, celebrated by the people of Amycles. Agesilaus allowed all of the Amyclaeans in the army to gather at Lechaeum at the start of their journey home. They were escorted out of Corinthian territory by the Spartan mora and cavalry based by Lechaeum. Their commander then led his 600 hoplites back towards Lechaeum without any cavalry escort. The Athenian commanders Iphicrates and Callias decided to attack, and inflicted a heavy defeat on the Spartans. Agesilaus was forced to temporarily abandon his campaign, and the peace talks ended.

Later in the year the Athenians sent out a fleet of forty warships, commanded by Thrasybulus, to counter the temporary increase in Spartan sea power. His original orders were to help the democrats of Rhodes, but he soon decided that they didn’t need his help, and so instead he moved north to the Hellespont. He was able to form an alliance with the Thracian kings Amadocus and Seuthes and won control of Byzantium, Chalcedon and part of the Hellespont region. He was able to re-impose a 10% tax on all ships coming from the Black Sea, an important source of income for Imperial Athens.

In about 390 BC Athen's old enemy of Aegina joined the fray. The Spartan harmost on the island, Eteonicus, began to raid the Attic coast. The Athenians built a fort on the island, and resisted a first Spartan attempt to capture it.

389

In 389 Agesilaus was distracted by a campaign in Acarnania, to the north-west of the Gulf of Corinth. Sparta's Achaean allies had taken control of Calydon, a city in south-west Aetolia, and had enrolled the Calydonians as citizens. The city was now being threatened by the Acarnanians, with the support of Athens and Boeotia. The Achaeans demanded help from Sparta, and hinted that they would have to end their alliance if they didn’t get it. The Spartans bowed to this pressure and sent Agesilaus, with two mora and an allied force, supported by an Achaean army. This army crossed the gulf and reached the Acarnanian border. Agesilaus sent a message to the Acarnanian assembly, demanding that they swapped sides. When this was turned down he invaded, and ravaged the area. The Acarnanians moved their cattle into a remote mountain area, but Agesilaus caught them out with a sudden eighteen mile march and captured most of the animals. This success was short-lived - on the following day a force of light infantry took up a position on high ground above the Spartans and forced them to retreat. The Acarnanians almost trapped the Spartans in the mountains, but Agesilaus managed to force his way out. He continued his raid into the autumn, but despite several attempts was unable to capture any cities. He left just before it was time to sow the next year's crops, arguing that the Acarnanians would be more likely to accept peace terms in the next year if they had a crop to protect. He then marched east through Aetolia and crossed the Corinthian Gulf from Rhium.

In the spring of 389 Thrasybulus took his fleet south from the Hellespont. He found some support for Sparta along the coast, and despite losing 23 ships in a storm managed to capture Eresus and Antissa. He was then forced to head towards Rhodes, where the democrats had suffered a defeat, but he was killed at Aspendus while his troops were plundering the area. The rest of his fleet safely reached Rhodes.

In the Hellespont region Athens sent a force under Agyrrhius, while Sparta sent Anaxibius to try and restore their position. The Spartans had the best of the early fighting, but began to suffer after Iphicrates was sent to take control on the Athenian side. Probably in the following year Iphicrates ambushed and killed Anaxibius.

In the summer of 389 the Spartan commander Gorgopas was posted at Aegina with a fleet of twelve ships. This forced the Athenians to evacuate their fort, and they then based a squadron of warships commanded by Eunomus at nearby Cape Zoster to watch the Spartans.

388

In the spring of 388 Agesilaus announced that he was about to return to Acarnania, and as he had predicted they sued for peace. The Acarnanians formed an alliance with Sparta and made peace with the Achaeans, leaving the Spartans free to campaign elsewhere.

The Argives had avoided invasions in 390 and 389 by moving the sacred month of the Carnea to match the Spartan preparations. After accepting this for two years, King Agesipolis visited the oracles and Olympia and Delphi to get permission to ignore this trick. The oracles agreed, and the king led an invasion of Argive territory. On the first day there was an earthquake, which many would have taken as a bad omen, but Agesipolis publically interpreted it as a sign of divine support. The raid continued on until a thunderbolt hit the camp, killing several men. By this point the Spartans had done a great deal of damage and were happy to withdraw.

Further afield the Persians began to turn against the Athenians. As well as supporting Evagoras, the Athenians also allied with an Egyptian rebel. This helped convince Artaxerxes that the Athenians were indeed his main enemy, and Tiribazus was restored as satrap at Sardis. The pro-Athenian satrap Pharnabazus was also recalled, and replaced by Ariobarzanes, a friend of the Spartan diplomat Antalcidas. This encouraged the Spartans to appoint Antalcidas as navarch, and he set off for Susa in the company of Tiribazus.

The Spartans won a minor naval victory during 388. The Athenian squadron of warships at Cape Zoster opposite Aegina attempted to intercept the fleet that had transported Antalcides to his new post. After a day-long chase the Athenians gave up and returned to their base. Gorgopas, the new harmost of Aegina, followed the retreating Athenians under the cover of darkness and ended up taking four of their twelve triremes. The rest escaped back to the Piraeus.

387

In 387 the Athenians decided to send Chabrias, their commander at Corinth, to help Evagoras on Cyprus. He picked up reinforcements at Athens, and decided to attack Aegina. He landed his light troops at night and placed them in ambush. He then landed his hoplites in daylight and waited for Gorgopas. The Spartan commander attacked, and fell into the trap. Gorgopas and around 350 of his men were killed. The Spartans sent Teleutias to rally the survivors. He began with a daring raid on the Piraeus, in which he captured several ships. The profit from this raid paid his troops for a month.

Antalcides's visit to Artaxerxes at Susa had produced results. Artaxerxes had agreed to support the Spartan peace terms, and to enter the war on Sparta's side if the allies didn’t accept them. Antalcides then conducted a skilful naval campaign and ended up with a fleet of 80 ships, with which he was able to block the grain route from the Black Sea.

In the autumn of 387 Tiribazus summoned all of the Greek powers to come to Sardis to hear the new peace terms, and every major Greek power responded by sending envoys.

386

There were two terms at the heart of the new peace deal. First, the cities of Asia Minor, Cyprus and Clazomenae (built on an island very close to the coast) would be ruled by Persia. Second, every other Greek city would be autonomous, but Athens would keep Lemnos, Imbros and Scyros. The Peloponnessian League was also allowed to survive, but Thebes had to dissolve the Boeotian League and the merger between Corinth and Argos ended. This 'King's Peace' or Peace of Antalcidas effectively acknowledged that the Persians were the arbiters of Greek politics, and gave them relatively uncontested control over the Greeks of Asia Minor (the issue that had first triggered the Greek-Persian Wars over a century earlier). It also gave Sparta a position of enhanced power, and responsibility for implementing the peace (in fact, if not in the treaty itself).

This apparent increase in Spartan power wouldn't last for long. In 382 a passing Spartan army took control of Thebes. Three years later the Thebans revolted, triggering the Theban-Spartan War (379-371 BC). Just as this war appeared to be coming to an end, the Spartans suffered the crushing defeat at Leuctra (371 BC) that ended their long series of victories in major hoplite battles and exposed the Peloponnese to the invasions that crushed Spartan power.

Books


Spartan hegemony

The polis of Sparta was the greatest military land power of classical Greek antiquity. During the classical period, Sparta governed, dominated or influenced the entire Peloponnese. Additionally, the defeat of the Athenians and the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War in 431-404 BC resulted in a short-lived Spartan dominance of the southern Greek world from 404 to 371 BC. [1] Due to their mistrust of others, Spartans discouraged the creation of records about their internal affairs. The only histories of Sparta are from the writings of Xenophon, Thucydides, Herodotus and Plutarch, none of whom were Spartans. Plutarch was writing several centuries after the period of Spartan hegemony had ceased. [1] This creates difficulties in understanding the Spartan political system, which was distinctly different from any other Greek polis.


Mycenaean Age

Just after 1600 BC the Minoan culture started to influence the continental Greece, where the first Greek culture, called Mycenaean, was developing. About 1450 BC Mycenaeans invaded and settled Crete, dragging it into the limits of the Greek world. The full bloom of the Mycenaean culture fell on the 14th and 13th centuries BC. Magnificent palaces in Mycenae, Tirins, Pylos on Peloponnesse, Athens in Attica, Thebes and Gla in Boeotia were built at that time. On Crete Mycenaeans used the Minoan palace in Knossos. To administer the palaces Mycenaeans adopted Minoans' writing and adapted it to the needs of the Greek language (linear writing B).

Echo of the Mycenaean civilization's power is the mythical tradition about the great expedition against Troya that was ultimately shaped by Homer's poems in 8th century BC.


Theban hegemony

The Theban hegemony lasted from the Theban victory over the Spartans at Leuctra in 371 BC to their defeat of a coalition of Peloponnesian armies at Mantinea in 362 BC, Though Thebes sought to maintain its position until finally eclipsed by the rising power of Macedon in 346 BC.
Apparently it was supposed to Theban domination and the collapse of Athenian power in the Peloponnesian war 431-404 BCE, through the weakening of the Spartans by their demographic decline oliganthropia and the inconclusive Corinthian war 395-386 BC. Internally, the Thebans enjoyed two temporary military advantages:
Those same leaders were introduced tactical improvements in the Theban heavy infantry, for example, longer spears, using a wedge of pikemen, which should have been caught among their rivals.
The leaders of the Theban oligarchy at the time, Epaminondas and Pelopidas, I fully support an aggressive foreign policy and could win any battle and.
The Thebans traditionally enjoyed the hegemony of the League boticki, the oligarchical Federation of Aeolic-speaking Greeks to the immediate North-West of Athens-Attica dominates. A brief rise to power outside batisky plain began in 373 when the Boeotians defeated and destroyed the city of Plataea, strategically important as the only Athenian ally in Boeotia. This was seen as a direct challenge to the previous hegemon, the Spartans, who played in the restoration of its declining influence in a decisive defeat by the Thebans. In Leuctra, in Boeotia, the Thebans comprehensively defeated the advancing Spartan army. Of the 700 Spartan citizen-soldiers present, 400 were killed in Levktra. After this the Thebans systematically conquered Greece. In the South, they invaded the Peloponnese to release Messancy and Arkadiy from Spartan domination and to create a Pro-Theban League of Arcadia to oversee the Affairs of the Peloponnesian. In the North, they invaded Thessaly to quell the growing local authorities Pherae and took the future Philip II of Macedon hostage, bringing him to Thebes. However, Pelopidas was killed at Cynoscephalae, in the battle against the troops from Pherae, though the battle was actually won by the Thebans.
The Thebans overstretched themselves strategically in their efforts to maintain control over the North, their power in the South collapsed. Spartan king Agesilaus II, scraped together an army from various cities of the Peloponnesian unhappy Theban rule, and managed to kill, but not to win Epaminondas in the battle of Mantinea, but not to restore any real Spartan ascendancy. It was a Pyrrhic victory for both States. Sparta lacked the manpower and resources to make any real attempts to restore its Empire and Thebes had now lost both of the innovative leaders who had allowed her to rise to dominance, and a reduction in resources to such an extent that dominance can not be guaranteed. The Thebans sought to maintain their position through diplomacy and their influence at the Amphictyonic Council in Delphi, but when their former allies Tokarev seizing Delphi and beginning the third sacred war, p. 355, Thebes was too exhausted to bring any conclusion to the conflict. The war finally ended in 346 BC, the forces of Thebes, or city-state, but Philip of Macedon, on which the city-state has grown desperate enough to turn. This indicates the rise of Macedon in Greece, and finally put an end to the hegemony of Thebes, which already was in decline.

The Theban Spartan War of 378 362 BC was a series of military conflicts fought between Sparta and Thebes for hegemony over Greece. The defeat of the pro - Athens
Epaminondas ɪˌpæməˈnɒndəs Greek: Ἐπαμεινώνδας, Epameinondas d. 362 BC was a Theban general and statesman of the 4th century BC who transformed the Ancient
Spartan hegemony Thebes chief politician and general Epaminondas attempted to build a new hegemony centered on his city. Consequently, the Thebans had marched
BC was an important Theban statesman and general in Greece, instrumental in establishing the mid - fourth century Theban hegemony Pelopidas was a member
by the Boeotians led by the Thebans and Spartan supremacy effectively overthrown and usher in an era of Theban hegemony The Historians History of the
Greeks but especially the Thebans The Spartans sought the aid of the Persians, asking them to cut off their support of the Thebans Corinthians and Athenians
silence on much of Theban history. He notes that all the surviving contemporary accounts of Thebes during the period of Theban hegemony between 371 and 341
and Pelopidas, who led Thebes to hegemonic status over Greece in the middle of the 4th century BC Theban hegemony Battle of Leuctra Sacred Band of
office of harmost was of the same duration. The Thebans also used the term during the Theban hegemony There is an earlier use of the word in one of the
remaining Books 3 - 7, narrate the post war period of Spartan hegemony and Theban hegemony after the battle of Leuctra. Scholars believe the first two books
near its ruins. Herodotus tells that, in order to avoid coming under Theban hegemony Plataea offered to put themselves into Spartan hands However, the
manpower at the Battle of Mantinea, the Theban hegemony ceased. The losses in the ten years of the Theban hegemony left all the Greek city - states weakened

Tegyrae was an ancient Greek battle between Theban and Spartan hoplite forces. In the battle, a Theban army under Pelopidas was challenged by a substantially
see Battle of Cynoscephalae. At the Battle of Cynoscephalae 364 BC the Theban forces of Pelopidas fought against the Thessalian troops of Alexander of
Cleomenes II. Many historians cite Cleombrotus as being a Pro - Theban Spartan meaning he had pro - Theban tendencies unlike his fellow king, Agesilaus II. He was
was a battle fought on 6 July 371 BC between the Boeotians led by the Thebans and the Spartans along with their allies amidst the post - Corinthian War
Gorgidas Ancient Greek: Γοργίδας was the first known Theban military leader of the Sacred Band of Thebes around 378 BC. Plutarch in his Life of Pelopidas
the period of Spartan hegemony was over. However, Spartan hegemony was not replaced by Theban but rather by Athenian hegemony It was important to erase
The Thebans did not manage to enthuse other city - states with the agreement either. These two attempts at a common peace under Theban hegemony represent
not well - regarded by the leading families of Macedon, who called in the Theban general, Pelopidas, to re - establish peace. As part of the peace settlement
to paint the battle scene on site. During this period 382 379 BC the Theban oligarchy had allied with Sparta. When the Spartans were defeated in 379
of the Theban hegemony by Epaminondas, the Thebans destroyed Plataea again in 373. In 338 BC, after Philip II of Macedon defeated the Thebans at the Battle

Pammenes Greek: Παμμένης was a Theban general of considerable fame who lived during the 4th century BC. He was connected with Epaminondas by political
reaction from Thebes, the leading military power in Greece at the time. The Theban general Pelopidas drove the Macedonians from Thessaly. He then neutralized
with Xenophon swiftly mentioning his name during his commentary on Theban hegemony during the 370s. From seemingly out of nowhere arose a very ambitious
Athens, and sided with the Persians during the 480 BC invasion under Xerxes. Theban forces under the command of Epaminondas ended the power of Sparta at the
Sparta in the Battle of Leuctra 371 BCE starting the period of Theban hegemony Thebes was being feared by both Sparta and Athens, and these two cities
occasion, Epaminondas, king of the Thebans then fighting on the side of the Spartans, famously rescued his fellow Theban Pelopidas. Mantinea had been opposed
Sparta struck a peace deal establishing Spartan hegemony over the Greek world. The Corinthians and Thebans both Spartan allies, wanted to destroy Athens
Journal of Philology 105.1 Spring 1984 pp. 49 53. John Buckler, The Theban Hegemony 371 362 B. C. Harvard University Press 1980. Travels In Northern

  • The Theban Spartan War of 378 362 BC was a series of military conflicts fought between Sparta and Thebes for hegemony over Greece. The defeat of the pro - Athens
  • Epaminondas ɪˌpæməˈnɒndəs Greek: Ἐπαμεινώνδας, Epameinondas d. 362 BC was a Theban general and statesman of the 4th century BC who transformed the Ancient
  • Spartan hegemony Thebes chief politician and general Epaminondas attempted to build a new hegemony centered on his city. Consequently, the Thebans had marched
  • BC was an important Theban statesman and general in Greece, instrumental in establishing the mid - fourth century Theban hegemony Pelopidas was a member
  • by the Boeotians led by the Thebans and Spartan supremacy effectively overthrown and usher in an era of Theban hegemony The Historians History of the
  • Greeks but especially the Thebans The Spartans sought the aid of the Persians, asking them to cut off their support of the Thebans Corinthians and Athenians
  • silence on much of Theban history. He notes that all the surviving contemporary accounts of Thebes during the period of Theban hegemony between 371 and 341
  • and Pelopidas, who led Thebes to hegemonic status over Greece in the middle of the 4th century BC Theban hegemony Battle of Leuctra Sacred Band of
  • office of harmost was of the same duration. The Thebans also used the term during the Theban hegemony There is an earlier use of the word in one of the
  • remaining Books 3 - 7, narrate the post war period of Spartan hegemony and Theban hegemony after the battle of Leuctra. Scholars believe the first two books
  • near its ruins. Herodotus tells that, in order to avoid coming under Theban hegemony Plataea offered to put themselves into Spartan hands However, the
  • manpower at the Battle of Mantinea, the Theban hegemony ceased. The losses in the ten years of the Theban hegemony left all the Greek city - states weakened
  • Tegyrae was an ancient Greek battle between Theban and Spartan hoplite forces. In the battle, a Theban army under Pelopidas was challenged by a substantially
  • see Battle of Cynoscephalae. At the Battle of Cynoscephalae 364 BC the Theban forces of Pelopidas fought against the Thessalian troops of Alexander of
  • Cleomenes II. Many historians cite Cleombrotus as being a Pro - Theban Spartan meaning he had pro - Theban tendencies unlike his fellow king, Agesilaus II. He was
  • was a battle fought on 6 July 371 BC between the Boeotians led by the Thebans and the Spartans along with their allies amidst the post - Corinthian War
  • Gorgidas Ancient Greek: Γοργίδας was the first known Theban military leader of the Sacred Band of Thebes around 378 BC. Plutarch in his Life of Pelopidas
  • the period of Spartan hegemony was over. However, Spartan hegemony was not replaced by Theban but rather by Athenian hegemony It was important to erase
  • The Thebans did not manage to enthuse other city - states with the agreement either. These two attempts at a common peace under Theban hegemony represent
  • not well - regarded by the leading families of Macedon, who called in the Theban general, Pelopidas, to re - establish peace. As part of the peace settlement
  • to paint the battle scene on site. During this period 382 379 BC the Theban oligarchy had allied with Sparta. When the Spartans were defeated in 379
  • of the Theban hegemony by Epaminondas, the Thebans destroyed Plataea again in 373. In 338 BC, after Philip II of Macedon defeated the Thebans at the Battle
  • Pammenes Greek: Παμμένης was a Theban general of considerable fame who lived during the 4th century BC. He was connected with Epaminondas by political
  • reaction from Thebes, the leading military power in Greece at the time. The Theban general Pelopidas drove the Macedonians from Thessaly. He then neutralized
  • with Xenophon swiftly mentioning his name during his commentary on Theban hegemony during the 370s. From seemingly out of nowhere arose a very ambitious
  • Athens, and sided with the Persians during the 480 BC invasion under Xerxes. Theban forces under the command of Epaminondas ended the power of Sparta at the
  • Sparta in the Battle of Leuctra 371 BCE starting the period of Theban hegemony Thebes was being feared by both Sparta and Athens, and these two cities
  • occasion, Epaminondas, king of the Thebans then fighting on the side of the Spartans, famously rescued his fellow Theban Pelopidas. Mantinea had been opposed
  • Sparta struck a peace deal establishing Spartan hegemony over the Greek world. The Corinthians and Thebans both Spartan allies, wanted to destroy Athens
  • Journal of Philology 105.1 Spring 1984 pp. 49 53. John Buckler, The Theban Hegemony 371 362 B. C. Harvard University Press 1980. Travels In Northern

Re: Sacred Band of Thebes H Net Discussion Networks.

PERSIA. THEBAN HEGEMONY. 370 BC, Thebes attacked Sparta. – Freed the Helots. – Destroyed Spartas power. Thebes became the HEGEMONIC power. 1994.09.02, Wickersham, Hegemony and the Greek Historian – Bryn. The Theban Hegemony, 371 362 Bc book. Read 2 reviews from the worlds largest community for readers. The decade of Theban power in. Theban–Spartan War Military Fandom. Persian Invasions Athenian Empire 479 431 BC Peloponnesian War 431 404 BC Spartan Hegemony 404 371 BC Theban Hegemony 371 360 BC Syracusan. Boeotian Wars Heritage History. Find the perfect theban hegemony stock photo. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100 million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. No need to register,.

Spartan and Theban Hegemony Teaching Resources.

The elite of the Theban army were key to establishing Theban hegemony in central Greece, playing a pivotal role in the defeat of the Spartans. Did the Spartans ever try to retake Messene after the Theban. Theban hegemony Фиванская гегемония.

Lyric Messene: Collaborative Ethnogenesis and Historical Narrative.

The Theban Hegemony, 371 362 B.C. By JOHN BUCKLER. Harvard For nine years in the middle fourth century B.C. Thebes dominated Greece. During this. Theban hegemony pedia. Nov 20, 2016 A map showing ancient Greece at the time of Theban hegemony, 371 BCE to 362 BCE.

Question for Mark on victory interpretations BoardGameGeek.

The Theban Hegemony, 371 362 BC Harvard Historical Studies 0674876458, 9780674876453. The decade of Theban power in fourth century Greece. Wedaneus on Twitter: The Theban hegemony in Greece lasted until. Claiming the title of hegemon, Thebes announced a new Theban hegemony around 371 BCE. This was made possible largely by two Thebans: Pelopidas was a.

Pelopidas Theban statesman Britannica.

PROBLEMS OF ALLIANCE AND HEGEMONY. It J FOURTH CENTURY GREECE RECONSIDERED. John Buckl er, The Theban Hegemony, 371 362 B. C. Theban Hegemony The Big Board Big Board Gaming. Theban Hegemony. The last days of Spartan dominance - after the Kings Peace. Intervention in the Chalcidice. After the Peloponnesian War, the Chalcidian. CLCV 205 Lecture 23 Twilight of the Polis Open Yale Courses. John Buckler, professor of History and leading expert on 4th Century Thebes, explains that Sparta was alarmed by growing Theban hostility and opposed to a​.

Spartan hegemony in Greece and the Corinthian war.

Embed Tweet. The Theban hegemony in Greece lasted until the battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC when King Philip II of Macedonia took over. Theban Hegemony Flashcards Quizlet. John M. John Moore Wickersham, Hegemony and Greek historians. 6 The thesis that after 362 a dual hegemony of Thebes, with her allies. Alexander of macedon theban hegemony. In this lecture, Professor Kagan describes the growth of a new power: Thebes. Finally, Professor Kagan points out that by the time of Theban hegemony, the. Battle of Leuctra 371 B.C. The Latin Library. By 371 BC theyhad lost the position of hegemon to Thebes. By 362 BC, Theban​hegemo your opinion, why was an enduring hegemony by any.

‎Ancient Greek History Video: 23 Twilight of the Polis on Apple.

Timeline. Picture. Highlighted events signal that it was a critical event that catalysed the end of the hegemony. Mobile Site Powered by Create your own unique. Greek Civilization Lecture 19: The Theban Hegemony 371 362. The Theban Sacred Band, Ancient World 23 1992 3 19 and J. Buckler, Theban Hegemony 1980 in full, J. Buckler, The Theban Hegemony 371 362 BC.

I. Peter Funke, Between Mantinea and Leuctra: The Political World.

The victory led to an ephemeral Theban hegemony of Greece under Epaminondas and Pelopidas, which ended with the formers death at the battle of Mantinea. Spartan and Theban Hegemony History Forum. The Theban hegemony lasted from the Theban victory over the Spartans at Leuctra in 371 BC to their defeat of a coalition of Peloponnesian armies at Mantinea.

The Theban Hegemony, 371 362 BC Harvard Historical Studies.

The Boeotian Wars were a series of battles, primarily between Thebes and Sparta The Theban Hegemony began with the career of these to men, and ended. File:362BCTheb media Commons. Theban hegemony over Greece 371 362 BC. By. Alen S. August 22, 2015.

Theban hegemony over Greece 371 362 BC Short history website.

And hegemony in fourth century Greece: the case of the Theban Hegemony point for all of Greece as well as for Thebes and the Boeotian Confederacy. The Theban hegemony, 371 362 BC 1980 edition Open Library. Get this from a library! The Theban hegemony, 371 362 BC. Campaigns of Thebes, 379–362 BC Sprawski - Major Reference. To as Theban hegemony. Under the leadership of Epaminondas and Pelopidas​, Thebes became the.

Leuctra 371 BC: The Destruction of Spartan Dominance Bookshop.

BUCKLER, The Theban Hegemony, 371 362 BC. Cambridge, Mass. 1980, 227 F.E. ADCOCK and D.J. MOSLEY, Diplomacy in Ancient Greece. London 1975, 83​. Greek Civilization: Lecture 19 The Theban Hegemony 371 362 BC. Pelopidas, Theban statesman and general responsible, with his friend Epaminondas, for the brief period 371–362 of Theban hegemony in. U10.docx By 404 BC the Spartans were the hegemons of Greece. Did the Spartans ever try to retake Messene after the Theban Hegemony? Ithome, surrounded by thick walls and artillery towers at Theban expense try as the. Soldiers: Ancient Greek General Epaminondas Warfare History. JOHN BUCKLER. The Theban Hegemony, 371 362 B.C. Cambridge, Mass. and. London, England Harvard University Press, 1980. Pp. x 339. $25.00. HEGEMONY, CLASSICAL AND MODERN1 David Wilkinson. Under the leadership of Epaminondas and Pelopidas, Thebes grows into a Finally, Professor Kagan points out that by the time of Theban hegemony, the.

Theban Hegemony Greek Hellenic History Forum Tapatalk.

Athens annoyed Thebes by assisting Sparta in its unsuccessful resistance to the growth of Theban land power. In consequence, the Thebans decided in 364 3 BC. The Theban hegemony, 371 362 BC eBook, 1980. Опубликовано: 25 апр. 2015 г. PDF Theban hegemony, 371 362 BC by John Buckler Download. Claiming the title of hegemon, Thebes announced a new Theban hegemony around 371 BCE. This was made possible largely by two Thebans: Pelopidas was a Следующая Войти Настройки.


Corinthian War

Thrasybulus was an important Athenian military commander between the late 5th and the beginning of the 4th century BC. The paper deals with his last campaign in the Aegean, during the Corinthian War (395–387/6 BC). The much debated question of campaign chronology is raised and the author argues for dating the whole expedition to the years 390–389. After the overall description of military actions, the article focuses on the problem of Thrasybulus relations with the native authorities, and the degree of his freedom to make decisions in the field. The testimony of a pair of Lysias’ speeches (Against Ergocles and Against Philocrates) is analysed in such a context and compared with the information transmitted by Xenophon and Diodorus. It is very probable that the accusations formulated in the court speeches were true to a significant degree. Thus, Thrasybulus’ movements were quite wilful and even contrary to the commands of the Athenian demos (like sailing north instead of Rhodes, where he was sent), who had serious problems with executing control over the commander. The question of relations between military commanders is also raised. We hear from the speeches that other officers (besides Thrasybulus) participated in the campaign. They could have been a potential organ of the polis’ control. In such a situation, filling the military with one’s own supporters was very useful in decreasing the controlling power of the Athenian demos. This had probably been done by Thrasybulus.


Athens, Long Walls

Long walls: name of Greek fortifications that connected a city with another site, for example a citadel or a port. The best known example is the Athenian wall to Piraeus.

The Athenian "Long Walls" were built after Xerxes' invasion of Greece (480-479) their construction was proposed by Themistocles, but the actual building started in 461, when Athens was at war with Sparta (the First Peloponnesian War). The proposal to execute the old plan was made by Cimon.

The western wall connected the southwest of Athens to its port Piraeus and was about six kilometer long the eastern wall continued from the south of the city to another port, Phaleron, which was about 5½ kilometer away. Between the two walls, a large triangle of land could be used for agriculture. The walls were finished in 457, although Pericles would later take the initiative for doubling the western wall (445-443).

Some traces of the ancient walls are still visible and archaeologists have established that they were built on foundations of limestone blocks and poros. The upper walls were made from sun-dried bricks. There were towers at regular intervals.

The Long Walls enabled Athens to survive any siege. As long as it was connected to its ports and controlled the sea, no enemy could capture the city. During the Peloponnesian War (431-404), the Athenians simply evacuated the countryside, left it to the Spartans, and lived in Athens itself, which could receive supplies from across the sea. According to Aristophanes, note [Aristophanes, Knights 817-818.] the statesman Cleon strengthened the walls by building a diateichisma, "cross-wall", but it is unclear what this can have been.

However, when the Athenian fleet was defeated at the Aigospotamoi (405), the food supply was imperiled, and Athens had to surrender. One of the main demands of the Spartans was the destruction of the hated Long Walls. According to Xenophon, the enemies of Athens "tore them down among scenes of great joy and to the music of flute girls". note [Xenophon, Hellenica 2.2.24]

/> Inscription documenting repairs to the Long Walls

Ten years later, the Athenians had recovered, and at the beginning of the Corinthian War (395-386), in which they took up arms against the Spartans again, their general Conon rebuilt the Long Walls.

The Long Walls were still standing at the beginning of the first century BCE. During the First Mithridatic War, in 86 to be precise, Athens was besieged by the Roman general Sulla. After he had destroyed the Long Walls, probably with catapults, he was able to isolate Athens from Piraeus. In the end, Athens and it port had to surrender.


Learn about the history and culture of the ancient greek civilization

ancient Greek civilization, The period between the end of the Mycenaean civilization (1200 bce ) and the death of Alexander the Great (323 bce ) that brought to Western civilization exceptional advances in politics, philosophy, and art. Little is known about the earliest period of ancient Greek civilization, and many extant writings pertain only to life in Athens. Ancient Greece at its height comprised settlements in Asia Minor, southern Italy, Sicily, and the Greek islands. It was divided into city-states—Athens and Sparta were among the most powerful—that functioned independently of one another. There were frequent wars between Athens, Sparta, and their allies, including the Peloponnesian War (431–404 bce ) and later the Corinthian War (395–386 bce ). Some city-states, including Athens, were governed by an early system of democracy that served as a precursor for later systems of government in the Western world. An interest in athletic competition was prevalent in ancient Greek culture, and the first Olympic Games were held in 776 bce . Ancient Greek culture continued on in the writings of its philosophers, notably Plato and Aristotle its historians, notably Thucydides and in the literature of Homer, the presumed author of the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greeks also contributed enormously to developments in art and architecture through the numerous sculptures and temples they constructed—the buildings of the Athenian acropolis, for example—to memorialize their deities.


Ancient Corinth - History - Classical Corinth - The Peloponnesian War

In 435 BC, Corinth and Corcyra went to war over Epidamnus. In 433 BC, Athens allied with Corcyra against Corinth. The Corinthian war against the Corcycraeans was the first recorded naval war in history. In 431 BC, one of the factors leading to the Peloponnesian War was the dispute between Corinth and Athens over the Corinthian colony of Corcyra (Corfu), which probably stemmed from the traditional trade rivalry between the two cities.

Three Syracusan generals went to Corinth and Lacedaemon to acquire allies for the Sicilian War.

With the Syracusan troops in Athens, Ariston, a Corinithinan helmsman had the idea to move the market down to the sea which would allow the commanders to have a full meal, and then attack the Athenians while they were least expecting it. A messenger was sent to the market and the plan was carried through. The Athenians, expecting the Syracusan troops to be busy at the market, went upon their daily tasks, unprepared for battle. Suddenly the Athenians realized the Syracrusan troops were waging battle upon them so they scrambled to meet the Syracusans at the sea for battle. In the end, the Syracusan troops claimed victory and the Athenians retreated.

In 404 BC, Sparta refused to destroy Athens. This refusal caused bad relations with Corinth. Corinth joined Argos, Boeotia, and Athens against Sparta in the Corinthian War.

To convince his countrymen to behave objectively, Demosthenes noted that the Athenians of yesteryear had had good reason to bear malice against the Corinthians and the Thebans for their conduct during the last part of the Peloponnesian War but they bore no malice whatever.

Famous quotes containing the word war :

&ldquo Testimony of all ages forces us to admit that war is among the most dangerous enemies to liberty, and that the executive is the branch most favored by it of all the branches of Power. &rdquo
&mdashJames Madison (1751�)


Ancient Athens and Ming China – a brief comparison & contras

Democratic Athens and Ming China were separated by thousands of miles and almost two thousand years of history. However, the core issues facing both states were similar. In 403 BC Athens having just being defeated in a 30 years long war was looking for a way to restore its prestige and govern its people after early democracy had led them to ruins. Though imperial China in 1587 AD was prosperous, it still had major issues to deal with including flooding, famine, barbarian invasions, piracy, and banditry. Both states in their times had made major decisions that would consequently affect history.

Athens in 431 B.C. at the start of the 30 year-long Peloponnesian War that led to its defeat against the Spartan lead Peloponnesian League.

In democratic Athens during the fifth century BC, ordinary citizens were the leaders and the officials who made the laws. Any citizen could hold office and the citizenry proposed and voted on the laws directly. In this sense, a citizen had somewhat of a say of how the government did things and the fate of the city. In contrast to Ming China in the mid-16 th century, the Emperor of China had absolute power. Though there were officials carried out the bureaucracy as well as the Grand Secretariat who advised the emperor, final decisions rested with the emperor. Normal citizens had no say in the governance. Perhaps only civil officials had some say, indirectly, but they had to pass the Confucian civil service exams first.

Classical Athens in the 4th Century B.C.

In 403 BC, democracy had been restored to Athens by Thrasybulus after he led a group of rebels that overthrew the pro-Spartan “Thirty Tyrants” government. Socrates, who had been an open critic of democracy, made himself many enemies. Many supporters of democracy saw him as harmful. He was put on trial and executed in 399 BC having been found guilty of “corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens and of not believing in the gods of the state.” (Pettinger). Plato was greatly affected by Socrates’ death and left Athens. In the meantime, Athens found itself once again at war with Sparta, however this time it had allies. During the Corinthian war, Athens started to restore its former glory by creating the Second Athenian League (Gill). Though the war ended with no decisive victor, Athens was once again an important city-state in Greek affairs. Sometime later, Plato returned to Athens and established the Academy, a place where he hoped Greek thinkers could gather to work towards better governance for Greek cities (“Plato Biography.”). One of Plato’s students Aristotle himself founded a school, the Lyceum, and taught Alexander the Great after the Macedonian takeover. It could be argued that if Socrates’ wasn’t executed, Plato would have never had the motivation to establish his academy in Athens. And therefore Aristotle another great founder of western philosophy may have never founded is school and taught Alexander the Great.

Ming China during the Ming Dynasty

During the first fifteen years of China’s Wanli Emperor’s reign in the late 16 th century, Wanli was actually a competent leader. He was able to successfully administer his empire and he fought three wars against Mongol Barbarians, Japanese invaders, and rebels. However as he faced more and more pressure from the Grand Secretariat to name his firstborn son heir, he began to ignore his officials and refuse to have an audience with his Grand secretaries. He essentially went on strike for the remaining 25 years of his reign, remaining idle while his empire around was slowly falling apart around him. In 1601 he finally gave in and promoted his firstborn son as crown prince and heir as emperor of China. However, he continued refusal to see his officials or pass any laws and as a result, China and its people suffered. This was the beginning of the end of the Ming dynasty. With the imperial army in decline and banditry rampant, the Manchu peoples were able to conquer China and the Ming dynasty fell 24 years after Wanli’s death (“Wanli Emperor”). Due to Wanli’s immoral views and selfish attitude in refusing to adhere to his imperial obligations, his dynasty along with his country fell to the Manchu and eventually the Qin Dynasty.

Ancient Greek philosopher Plato lived during the 4th – 3rd Century B.C.

The two civilizations compared here are the ancient Greeks and the imperial Chinese. Both civilizations produced two well-known philosophers, Athen’s Plato and China’s Confucius. Though Plato and Confucius were separated by thousands of miles, they both lived at nearly the same time. Both philosophers were teachers and both of them taught through conversation. They also both lived through turbulent times of war which shaped them to question their respective governments. Plato’s view on government was a city ruled by a Philosopher-King who was wisdom loving and knew the absolute truth to properly rule over his subjects. Plato’s philosophy argued that a Guardian class was needed to keep peace in the city from both external and internal forces. They had to be both physically and intellectually strong and educated in philosophy and the classics. Plato believed that only a few strong-minded individuals would be able to become Guardians and Philosopher Kings, and these men would rule over the others. Confucius on the other hand had a different view. He believed a good leader needs to first and foremost be virtuous. Confucius like Plato an education was a need for a leader, however, Plato believed only a few men who possessed enough intellectual and physical strength would obtain the education to become a guardian. Confucius on the other hand believed anyone had the potential to become a leader and that education in morals and rites would help them achieve it.

Ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius lived during the 5th – 4th century B.C.

Both Plato and Confucius had their own views on humanity and their faith in humanity. Confucius had a lot of faith in humanity, believing that humans were inherently good-hearted and the virtue and a virtuous leader would just be needed to steer them in the right direction, with little need for law. Confucius said, “Guide them by virtue, keep them in accordance with the rites, and they will, besides having a sense of shame, reform themselves.” (Analects II.3) The common people will look up to and follow the moral standards of their leader. Plato on the other hand had less faith in humanity, believing that laws were needed to keep people in order. Plato advocated the life of a philosopher with justice or dikaisyne, in each member of society “minding” his own business and only doing what he is good at in a competitive honor loving society. In contrast, Confucius advocated the life of a gentleman or Junzi who is humane or poses ren in a virtuous society. Both men greatly affected the philosophy of their respective cultures and both have a lasting legacy on how government should be led.


Nemea’s Rich History and Culture

New Nemea, a small town in Corinthia, Greece, is particularly known for its wine these days, but only a few kilometers to its west, is located the famous ancient Nemea, one of the most significant cities of the ancient world. In Greek mythology, we meet Nemea as home of the Nemean Lion, which was killed by a young Heracles. According to another legend, Nemea was the place where the infant Opheltes, lying on a bed of parsley, was murdered by a serpent while his nurse fetched water for the Seven on their way from Argos to Thebes. The myth suggests that The Seven founded the Nemean Games – the second most famous athletic event in antiquity behind the Olympics – in his honor, with the crown of victory being made of parsley. The Games were first recorded in 573 BC, at the sanctuary of Zeus at Nemea.

Campana relief with Heracles (Hercules) fighting the Nemean lion . Roman, 50 BC-50 ( Public Domain )

Nemea is also famous for a bloody battle that took place there: the Battle of the Nemea River . This was the first major battle on the Corinthian front that gave the Corinthian War (395-386 BC) its name.

The specific conflict was the result of simmering tensions between the major Greek powers in the aftermath of the Great Peloponnesian War. Corinth and Thebes felt that they had been denied a just reward for their efforts, and the Spartans didn't help by expanding their power in Thessaly, an area that Thebes felt was within its sphere of influence.

Although the battle of Nemea was a clear Spartan victory it didn't actually give them much of an advantage. It did stop the allied invasion of Laconia, but with Corinth held against them the Spartans were unable to advance any further. Instead they settled back into their base at Sicyon, and awaited the return of Agesilaus. This would prove to be equally frustrating. He won an inconclusive victory at Coronea (394 BC), but was unable to make any more progress and had to retreat west into Phocis.


Watch the video: The Ancient History of Corinth: Complete Mini Documentary (May 2022).