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USS Hart (DD-110) dressed with flags, 1920

USS Hart (DD-110) dressed with flags, 1920

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U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann .The standard history of the development of American destroyers, from the earliest torpedo boat destroyers to the post-war fleet, and covering the massive classes of destroyers built for both World Wars. Gives the reader a good understanding of the debates that surrounded each class of destroyer and led to their individual features.


The Wickes class was an improved and faster version of the preceding Caldwell-class. Two different designs were prepared to the same specification that mainly differed in the turbines and boilers used. The ships built to the Bethlehem Steel design, built in the Fore River and Union Iron Works shipyards, mostly used Yarrow boilers that deteriorated badly during service and were mostly scrapped during the 1930s. [1] The ships displaced 1,202𔂿,208 long tons (1,221𔂿,227   t) at standard load and 1,295𔂿,322 long tons (1,316𔂿,343   t) at deep load. They had an overall length of 314   feet 4   inches (95.8   m) , a beam of 30   feet 11   inches (9.4   m) and a draught of 9   feet 10   inches (3.0   m) . They had a crew of 6 officers and 108 enlisted men. [2]

Performance differed radically between the ships of the class, often due to poor workmanship. The Wickes class was powered by two steam turbines, each driving one propeller shaft, using steam provided by four water-tube boilers. The turbines were designed to produce a total of 27,000 shaft horsepower (20,000   kW) intended to reach a speed of 35 knots (65   km/h 40   mph) . The ships carried 225 long tons (229   t) of fuel oil which was intended gave them a range of 2,500 nautical mile s (4,600   km 2,900   mi) at 20 knots (37   km/h 23   mph) . [3]

The ships were armed with four 4-inch (102   mm) guns in single mounts and were fitted with two 1-pounder guns for anti-aircraft defense. Their primary weapon, though, was their torpedo battery of a dozen 21 inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes in four triple mounts. In many ships a shortage of 1-pounders caused them to be replaced by 3-inch (76   mm) anti-aircraft (AA) guns. [1] They also carried a pair of depth charge rails. A "Y-gun" depth charge thrower was added to many ships. [4]

USS Hart (DD-110) dressed with flags, 1920 - History

The company owes it's existence to a Captain Baker who transported a group of miners to Venezuela from Boston in 1870 on his auxiliary schooner TELEGRAPH and put into Port Morant, Jamaica on his homeward voyage to find a cargo to pay his expenses on the northbound trip. He bought 160 stems of unripe bananas there for $40 which he sold in Jersey City for $320. The following year he returned to Jamaica and commenced shipping bananas to Boston. He gradually purchased more and larger schooners and also purchased banana plantations in Jamaica. A working arrangement was agreed with Atlas SS Co, Liverpool until 1901 when it was bought out by Hamburg America Line. In 1884 Baker with J. H. Freeman and A. Preston formed the Boston Fruit Co and purchased their own steamship and in 1889 sold their remaining schooners. Boston Fruit Co. merged with leading operators in the fruit trade in 1899 to form the United Fruit Company of New Jersey. The company continued to expand into Caribbean and Central American territories and to absorb competing companies. They purchased a half share in Standard Fruit Co in 1906, but became a target of anti-trust laws and was forced to sell it in 1908. In 1909 they also sold their shares in the Atlantic Fruit Co and was ordered to divest itself of all shares in the Bluefields SS Co. By 1910 UFC had gained a controlling interest in the British owned Elders & Fyffes Co and ships were regularly transferred between the two fleets. United Fruit merged with Cuyamel Fruit Co in 1929. In 1970 United Fruit Co was absorbed into United Brands and subsequently divested itself of it's American flagged ships. All ships owned by the firm were then registered under the Honduran flag under the ownership of Empresa Hondurena de Vapores, Tela, Honduras. United Brands was taken over by Chiquita Brands International, Cincinnati in the 1980s and owns the largest fleet of banana boats in the world, but none of them now sail under the US flag.

The fleet list contains passenger and freight vessels owned by the United Fruit Company through it's directly operated American, British, Dutch, Honduran and Panamanian shipping companies, plus time chartered ships - Norwegian, British, German and Danish. It does not include Elders & Fyffes ships which did not work directly under United Fruit Co. (See Elders & Fyffes) For a history of the United Fruit Company, see

Many thanks to Ted Finch for his assistance in collecting this data. The following list was extracted from various sources. This is not an all inclusive list but should only be used as a guide. If you would like to know more about a vessel, visit the Ship Descriptions (onsite) or Immigrant Ship web site.


Dutch Koninklijke West Indische Maildienst.
Caraibische Scheepvaart Maats (van Nievelt & Goudriaan & Co.)
British Unifruitco
Tropical Fruit Co.
Atlas S.S.Co.
Honduran Empresa Hondurena de Vapores.
Panamanian Balboa S.S.Co.

Routes: U.S. East coast and New Orleans and Gulf ports to the Carribean, Central America and Colombia.

Buff funnel with broad red band below black top. Red band contains large white diamond.

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Hart được đặt lườn vào ngày 8 tháng 1 năm 1918 tại xưởng tàu của hãng Union Iron Works ở San Francisco, California. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 4 tháng 7 năm 1918, được đỡ đầu bởi bà Daniel C. Nutting, và được đưa ra hoạt động vào ngày 26 tháng 5 năm 1919 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Trung tá Hải quân Harold Jones.

Hart gia nhập lực lượng khu trục và hoạt động ngoài khơi bờ biển California cho đến ngày 17 tháng 7 năm 1920, khi nó được xếp lại lớp như một tàu rải mìn hạng nhẹ với ký hiệu lườn mới DM-8, và được gửi đến Xưởng hải quân Mare Island để lắp đặt các thiết bị rải mìn. Sau khi được cải biển, Hart được phân về chi đội rải mìn của hạm đội Á Châu, và lên đường đi sang quần đảo Philippine vào tháng 11 năm 1920. Nó hoạt động thường lệ tại vùng biển ngoài khơi Philippine và Trung Quốc trong giai đoạn thời bình.

Được lệnh quay trở về San Diego, California để xuất biên chế, Hart khởi hành từ Manila vào ngày 12 tháng 12 năm 1930, và về đến San Diego vào ngày 24 tháng 1 năm 1931. Nó chính thức ngừng hoạt động vào ngày 1 tháng 6 năm 1931 tên nó được cho rút khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân vào ngày 11 tháng 11, và xác tàu được bán để tháo dỡ vào ngày 25 tháng 2 năm 1932 nhằm tuân thủ những điều khoản của Hiệp ước Hải quân London về hạn chế vũ trang hải quân.

History [ edit | edit source ]

Rizal, donated to the United States by resolution of the Philippine legislature, was laid down on 26 June 1918 by Union Iron Works, San Francisco, California launched on 21 September 1918, sponsored by Mrs. Sofia R. de Veyra and commissioned on 28 May 1919, with Commander Edmund S. Root in command.

Joining the Pacific Fleet upon commissioning, Rizal cruised along the United States west coast into 1920 on exercises and training duty. Subsequently modified for service as a light minelayer, she was classified DM-14 on 17 July 1920. Rizal departed San Diego 25 March 1920 for the Far East. Calling at Honolulu, Midway, and Guam, Rizal arrived Cavite, Philippine Islands, on 1 May 1920 to assume the duties of flagship of the Mine Detachment Division of the Asiatic Fleet. Ώ] With Filipinos constituting the majority of her crew, Rizal remained on the Asiatic Station for 10 years. She spent long months anchored in Chinese ports during the spring, summer, and autumn months. Her most frequent ports of call were Shanghai, Chefoo, Chinwangtao, and Hong Kong. Rizal cruised eastward to Apra Harbor, Guam, during November 1928, and visited Yokohama, Japan, from 11 to 20 April 1929.

Rizal spent each winter generally from November through March, anchored in Manila Bay. She was docked annually at Olongapo and upon resuming active service each spring operated in Philippine waters. Ordered home late in 1930, Rizal departed Manila on 11 December 1930 for Guam, Honolulu, and San Diego. She decommissioned on 20 August 1931 at San Diego and was towed northward to Mare Island on 31 August 1931 by the minesweeper Tern (AM-31) to be placed in reserve. Struck from the Navy list on 11 November 1931, Rizal was dismantled and her materials were sold 25 February 1932 for scrapping in accordance with the provisions of the London Naval Treaty for the reduction and limitation of naval armament.

Hart was launched 4 July 1918 by Union Iron Works of San Francisco, California, sponsored by Mrs. Daniel C. Nutting and commissioned 26 May 1919, Comdr. Harold Jones in command. Hart joined the destroyer force and operated off the California coast until 17 July 1920, when she was reclassified minelayer, destroyer, DM-8, and proceeded to Mare Island Navy Yard for installation of minelaying equipment. Following her conversion, Hart was assigned to Mine Detachment, Asiatic Fleet, and sailed for the Philippine Islands in November 1920. She subsequently operated in waters off the Philippine Islands and China in peacetime operations.

Ordered to San Diego, California, for deactivation, Hart sailed from Manila, 12 December 1930 and arrived at San Diego 24 January 1931. She decommissioned 1 June 1931, and her name was struck from the Navy List 11 November. Hart was sold for scrap 25 February 1932 in accordance with the London Treaty for the limitation of naval armaments.

The President of the United States of America takes pride in presenting the Navy Cross (Posthumously) to Lieutenant Patrick Henry Hart (NSN: 0-78621), United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in operations against the enemy while serving as Pilot of a carrier-based Navy Torpedo Plane and Executive Officer of Torpedo Squadron THREE (VT-3), attached to the U.S.S. YORKTOWN (CV-5), during the "Air Battle of Midway," against enemy Japanese forces on 4 June 1942. Participating in a Torpedo Plane assault against Japanese naval units, Lieutenant Hart, in the face of tremendous anti-aircraft fire and overwhelming fighter opposition, pressed home his attack to a point where it became relatively certain that, in order to accomplish his mission, he would probably sacrifice his life. Undeterred by the grave possibilities of such a hazardous offensive, he carried on, with extreme disregard for his own personal safety, until his squadron scored direct hits on two enemy aircraft carriers. His self sacrificing gallantry and fortitude were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.

General Orders: Bureau of Naval Personnel Information Bulletin No. 309 (December 1942)
Action Date: 4-Jun-42
Service: Navy
Rank: Lieutenant
Company: Torpedo Squadron 3 (VT-3)
Division: U.S.S. Yorktown (CV-5)

USS Hart (DD 594) was named for Patrick the ship was sponsored by his mother.

Maritime Monday for October 15th, 2012: Take Your Ass to School (Ships)

school ship Annapolis – Laid down 18 April 1896 Elizabethport, NJ. Commissioned USS Annapolis, Gunboat No. 10, 20 July 1897 at New York.

Loaned to the Commissioners of Navigation, Port of Philadelphia, as a training vessel on 1 April 1920 for duty as the Pennsylvania State Nautical Schoolship. Struck from the Navy Register 30 June 1940. Transferred to the Coast Guard in 1941 for use as a Station Ship at New London, CT. Scrapped 31 August 1942.

The Annapolis was replaced in 1941 by the 33 year-old steam powered,
and famous in her own right, USCGC Seneca (1908)

Boys between sixteen and nineteen years, having the written consent of their parents or guardians, will be received on board the ship on the following conditions:

1. They must be of sound constitution, free from all physical defect&hellip

2. They must show some aptitude or inclination for a life at sea&hellip

A Short History of The Pennsylvania Nautical School and Pennsylvania Maritime Academy:
Independence Seaport Museum

W. R. Edwards, describing his first days aboard ship, wrote:

&ldquoTues 14 2PM We had our watches changed Sun and I have the 8 to 12 which is a honey & I feel great. This is a fact, I was not seasick & I think by now I have my sea legs. You can&rsquot really tell till we hit a storm. It&rsquos no cinch trying to drink jamoke when this thing is canted over at 25° or do anything else &hellip&rdquo

Cruises were an important element in the training of cadets and were no doubt a draw for many young men eager to go to sea.

Training cruises included a crossing of the Atlantic, with visits to several ports in Europe, South America, and the West Indies. Students were instructed in “boxing the compass, knotting and splicing, the strapping of blocks, reefing and furling, heaving the lead, using the palm and needle, the handling of boats under oars and sails, swimming, etc.”

The school-ship USS Saratoga operated as a nautical training school from 1890 to 1908 when the 65 year-old vessel was replaced by the 32 year-old sail and steam-powered 1,400 ton USS Adams. The ships were operated jointly by the State of Pennsylvania and the City of Philadelphia. (1304×1040 px)

USS Saratoga, a sloop-of-war, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for the Battle of Saratoga of the American Revolutionary War. Her keel was laid down in the summer of 1841 by the Portsmouth Navy Yard. She was launched on 26 July 1842 and commissioned on 4 January 1843.

Served in American Civil War, performed African Slave Trade Patrol, during opening of Japan under Commodore Perry, during the Mexican&ndashAmerican War, and on the Ivory Coast Expedition of 1842.

Adams was built as a single screw, wooden-hull, bark-rigged steamer. The ship was laid down in February 1874 at Boston, Massachusetts, and was launched on 24 October 1874 commissioned 21 July 1876 at the Boston Navy Yard. Broken up 1921-22.

Turned over to Pennsylvania on 20 August 1908, Adams served as school ship for the Public Marine School at Philadelphia until returned to Navy custody on 6 February 1914. On 1 May 1914, she was loaned to the State of New Jersey to be used in training that state’s naval militia.

The warship continued to train New Jersey naval militiamen until after the United States entered World War I in April 1917. Recommissioned on 27 August 1917, Adams served as station ship in the Delaware River through the end of the war until decommissioned on 5 August 1919.

The first USS Sabine was a sailing frigate built by the United States Navy in 1855. Source: Harper’s Encyclopedia of United States History (vol. 6, 1912)

The Sabine was among the first ships to see action in the American Civil War. She was built at the New York Navy Yard. Her keel was laid in 1822, but she was not launched until 3 February 1855 commissioned on 23 August 1858.

Ordered in August 1864 to Norfolk, Virginia as a training ship for Navy apprentices and landsmen. After the war, she was transferred to New London, Connecticut for the same purpose until 1868. In 1871 Sabine was repaired at Boston and, from 1872 to 1876, she served as a receiving ship at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. In 1877, she was laid up until she was sold on 23 September 1883 at Portsmouth to J.L. Snow of Rockland, Maine.

CSS Patrick Henry was built in New York City in 1859 by the renowned William H. Webb for the Old Dominion Steam Ship Line as the civilian steamer Yorktown, a brigantine-rigged side-wheel steamer.

She carried passengers and freight between Richmond, Virginia and New York City, and was anchored in the James River when Virginia seceded from the Union on 17 April 1861. She was seized and later turned over to the Confederate Navy on 8 June 1861.

Patrick Henry was designated an academy ship in May 1862 and underwent appropriate alterations. In October 1863, she housed the floating Confederate States Naval Academy at Drewry’s Bluff, where instruction for 52 midshipmen began. Numbers later increased to sixty, with thirteen teachers in attendance. When Richmond was evacuated on 3 April 1865, Patrick Henry was burned to prevent capture.

School between decks, school ship Mercury
The Picture Collection of the New York Public Library

Manning her yards while moored at Valparaiso, Chile, in mid-February 1908, when the U.S. “Great White Fleet” steamed past the city. General Baquedano is dressed with flags and has Chilean President Pedro Montt embarked. -U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph (more)

In 1931, the vessel was considered obsolete as a fighting ship, but very useful as a training vessel. In naval categories, GENERAL BAQUEDANO is known as a corvette (in Spanish corbeta), which is defined as a flush-decked ship with one tier of guns, a type replaced by the modern cruiser. Fully-rigged, the vessel was fitted with triple-expansion engines as auxiliary, and had a displacement of 2,330 tons. more

Following a number of international training voyages, the ship was used as a stationary office ship after the outbreak of World War II and was only put into ocean-going service again in 1944 in the Baltic Sea. On 14 November 1944 she hit a Soviet mine off Sassnitz and had to be towed to port in Swinemünde. Eventually transferred to Flensburg, she was taken over there by the Allies when the war ended and finally confiscated by the United States.

In 1948, the U.S. sold her to Brazil for a symbolic price of $5,000 USD.[1] She was towed to Rio de Janeiro, and for Brazil she sailed as a school ship for the Brazilian Navy under the name Guanabara. In 1961, the Portuguese Navy bought her to replace the old school ship Sagres II (which was transferred to Hamburg, where she is a museum ship under her original name Rickmer Rickmers). The Portuguese Navy renamed her Sagres (the third ship of that name), and she is still in service.

Joseph Conrad is an iron-hulled sailing ship, originally launched as Georg Stage in 1882 and used to train sailors in Denmark. After sailing around the world as a private yacht in 1934 she served as a training ship in the United States, and is now a museum ship at Mystic Seaport in Connecticut.

The ships Vernon (est. 1867) and Sobraon (est. 1892) were Industrial Schools for Boys. Boys received a combination of moral training, nautical and industrial training and instruction, and elementary schooling. The ships were made use of this way as there were no separate boys’ reformatory schools until 1895.

The Vernon was docked at Cockatoo Island. The Sobraon, which replaced the Vernon in 1892, was used until 1911, when the remaining boys were set to the Mittagong Farm Home for Boys and the Brush Farm Home for Boys.

The Industrial Schools Act of 1866 authorised the Governor to proclaim “any ship or vessel or any building or place together with any yards, enclosures grounds or lands attached thereto to be a ‘Public Industrial School’ “. Any vagrant or destitute child under the age of sixteen could be directed by two Justices of the Peace to attend an Industrial School and to remain the responsibility of the Superintendent until the age of eighteen, unless apprenticed out or discharged.

State Records New South Wales (892 x 759)

St. Mary’s was a US Navy sloop-of-war built in 1843-44 at the Washington Navy Yard, Washington, D.C., and commissioned in the fall of 1844.

On 3 June 1873, St. Mary’s returned to Norfolk where she remained until 1875. Then transferred to the New York Nautical School at New York (now the SUNY Maritime College) she served as a school ship until 1908. In June of that year, she was ordered sold.

Despite efforts of alumni to preserve the ship they could not come up with the funding. Two months later, she was purchased by Thomas Butler and Company, Boston, Massachusetts and in November, she was scrapped.

The following sprightly account of life on the school-ship St. Mary’s was written for Harper’s Young People by one of the recent graduates. We give the portraits of three of the four boys who recently graduated with the highest honors.

“The New York Nautical School on board the ship St. Mary’s must not be confounded with the school-ship Mercury, which formerly existed at this port the latter was a floating reformatory, while the former was established for the purpose of training American boys to officer and man our merchant ships…”

&ldquoWolverine Training Ship: used by the Navy in recruiting and training, and plies the Lakes and Detroit River, being stationed at Detroit most of the time.&rdquo

USS Michigan was the United States Navy’s first iron-hulled warship and served during the American Civil War. She was renamed USS Wolverine in 1905. The Michigan operated on the Great Lakes out of Erie, Pennsylvania, throughout her career.

Wolverine was turned over to the Pennsylvania Naval Militia, which she served for 11 years, making training cruises in the summer for the United States Naval Reserve. For the 1913 centennial of the War of 1812 Battle of Lake Erie, Wolverine towed the brig USS Niagara from port to port as part of the celebrations. In mid-1920, when the U.S. Navy adopted its modern alphanumeric hull number system, she was classified as a “miscellaneous auxiliary” and designated IX-31.

On 12 August 1923, a connecting rod of Wolverine’s port cylinder broke, ending her active career. In 1927, her hulk was pushed up onto a sandbank in Misery Bay on the Presque Isle State Park Peninsula and loaned to the city of Erie, Pennsylvania, as a relic. She was sold to the Foundation for the Preservation of the Original USS Michigan, Inc., on 19 July 1948. When fund-raising efforts failed to acquire sufficient money for her restoration and preservation, she was cut up and sold for scrap in 1949.

Iron side-wheeler USS Michigan (1843), as USS Wolverine
(IX-31) late in her life. 1631 × 1044

Valmy, named after the Battle of Valmy, was the largest three-decker of the French Navy, and the largest tall ship ever built in France. Laid down at Brest in 1838, launched in 1847. When she entered service in 1849, she was the largest warship in the world and would remain so until 1853. She was engaged in the Crimean War, where she proved difficult to manoeuvre and, like other sailing vessels, often had to be towed by steam ships.

She returned to Brest in 1855, where she was disarmed. She was used as a school ship for the French Naval Academy from 1864 under the name Borda. She took back her old name of Intrépide one year before being stricken from the navy list in 1891. She was scrapped soon afterwards.

The Algésiras was a 90-gun steam ship of the line of the French Navy. In 1859, she took part in the blockade of Venice and various operations in the Mediterranean, decommissioned in 1865 and used as a transport, then later as a school ship. On 25 November 1906, she was destroyed in Toulon by an accidental fire.

USS Boxer (1905) was a training brigantine commissioned 11 May 1905. Initially assigned to duty Naval Training Station, Newport, R.I. to train landsmen and apprentices. Reassigned, 20 October 1912 to the US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD. 25 June 1914, to Naval Training Station, Newport, R.I. Decommissioned, 14 May 1920, and transferred to the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education in Alaska.

The USS Nantucket was an iron gunboat, barkentine rigged, laid down in 1873 launched in 1876 by Harlan and Hollingsworth, Wilmington, DE, originally commissioned as USS Ranger (IV) at League Island Naval Shipyard, Philadelphia, PA, 27 November 1876. For a more complete history, see here.

Watch the video: Romanian EAS alarm (July 2022).


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