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Potez 63.16

Potez 63.16

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Potez 63.16

The Potez 63.16 was a version of the Potez 63.11 that was given a larger wing. A single example was produced by fitting the larger wing to aircraft No.114 from the first production batch of Potez 63.11s. The modified aircraft was taken on charge by the Armée de l'Air on 19 April 1940 as Potez 61.16 No.01. The German invasion of the west in May 1940 ensured that no further work was carried out on the type.

Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis of Dyspareunia

Am Fam Physician. 2001 Apr 1563(8):1535-1545.

See patient information handout on dyspareunia, written by the author of this article .

Article Sections

Dyspareunia is genital pain associated with sexual intercourse. Although this condition has historically been defined by psychologic theories, the current treatment approach favors an integrated pain model. Identification of the initiating and promulgating factors is essential to reaching a successful diagnosis. The differential diagnoses include vaginismus, inadequate lubrication, atrophy and vulvodynia (vulvar vestibulitis). Less common etiologies are endometriosis, pelvic congestion, adhesions or infections, and adnexal pathology. Urethral disorders, cystitis and interstitial cystitis may also cause painful intercourse. The location of the pain may be described as entry or deep. Vulvodynia, atrophy, inadequate lubrication and vaginismus are associated with painful entry. Deep pain occurs with the other conditions previously noted. The physical examination may reproduce the pain, such as localized pain with vulvar vestibulitis, when the vagina is touched with a cotton swab. The involuntary spasm of vaginismus may be noted with insertion of an examining finger or speculum. Palpation of the lateral vaginal walls, uterus, adnexa and urethral structures helps identify the cause. An understanding of the present organic etiology must be integrated with an appreciation of the ongoing psychologic factors and negative expectations and attitudes that perpetuate the pain cycle.

Dyspareunia is genital pain experienced just before, during or after sexual intercourse.1 Although this condition has historically been classified as a sexual disorder, an integrated and pain-model approach to the problem is gaining support. The current thinking about pain initiation and promulgation suggests an initial instigating factor that is then perpetuated by confounding factors.2 – 6 These factors may be physical or psychologic. Patients with dyspareunia may complain of a well-defined and localized pain, or express a general disinterest in and dissatisfaction with intercourse that stems from the associated discomfort. Although dyspareunia is present in both sexes, it is far more common in women, with the pain initiating in several areas, from vulvar surfaces to deep pelvic structures.

This article reviews the various causes of dyspareunia and describes the historical and physical clues leading to these diagnoses. Treatment options are beyond the scope of this article.


Foundation and early years [ edit | edit source ]

The Belgian Air Force was founded in 1909 as a branch of the Belgian Army, carrying the name Compagnie des Ouvries et Aérostiers. [ citation needed ] King Albert's interest in the military use of airplanes was a main impetus for its formation. Coincidently, in the civil aviation sector, Baron Pierre de Caters earned the first civil pilot's brevet that same year. Caters would promptly establish an aviation school. At approximately the same time, the War Ministry decided to follow the French military's example and have pilots earn a civil pilot's brevet before their military one. Ώ]

As a result, in 1910, three Belgian lieutenants earned their Pilot's Brevets at that school, voluntarily paying their own fees. There were two artillery lieutenants Baudoin de Montens d'Oosterwyck, who earned Brevet No. 19 on 30 September, and Alfred Sarteel, granted No. 23 on 10 November. The third lieutenant, Georges Nelis, was the new force's first aviation candidate, gaining Brevet No. 28 on 21 December. An airplane was personally purchased for him. Ώ]

In spring of 1911, the new air force established its military aviation school with five pilots, two mechanics, and a woodworker. It received its first airplane via a circuitous route Baron Caters gave an airplane to King Albert, who in turn presented it to the school. Ώ]

On 12 September 1912, pilot Lieutenant Nelis and observer Sous Lieutenant Stellingwerff were the first Europeans to fire a machine gun from an airplane while Nelis brought the aircraft low, Stellingwerff put some bullets through a sheet staked out on the ground. They were disciplined for their efforts. Nelis then accompanied Capitaine Commandant Émile Mathieu to England during November 1913 to demonstrate aerial use of the Lewis machine gun at Hendon and Aldershot as a result, the British adopted the Lewis, although the Belgians did not. Belgium entered World War I with planes tasked solely for reconnaissance missions. ΐ]

World War I [ edit | edit source ]

The first Belgian airship, Belgique.

By the time of Belgium's entry into the First World War on 4 August 1914, the military aviation branch, now called the Aviation Militaire Belge, consisted of four squadrons, each consisting of four 80-horsepower Henri Farman airplanes, although Escadrilles III and IV were still forming. A truck was assigned to each squadron, along with a fifth truck serving as a mobile workshop. Each squadron had a Commander, five pilots, and six observers, with all officers seconded from parent units. As a result, most of the new aviators were from the Engineers and Artillery components of the Belgian armed forces. As the war began, a fifth squadron was created, staffed with civilian pilots called to the colors and equipped with Bleriots. Α]

The new air force suffered serious setbacks on two stormy occasions, which is not too surprising considering that bad weather prevented flying about a third of the time on both 13 September and 28 December, windy storms destroyed and damaged its aircraft. This was not the only obstacle to its success the Belgian airmen had their recce reports sometimes discounted and disbelieved at war's opening. They also had to adjust to the dawning of hostilities in the third dimension. The neophyte aviators were belligerent toward enemy airmen almost from the start. Sous Lieutenant Henri Crombez flew on of the first war patrols, in a Deperdussin racer on 4 August 1914 above Liège. Β] Adjutant Behaeghe was the first to engage an enemy, a few days later. On 26 September, the Belgian air crew of Sous Lieutenant de Petrowski and Sergeant Benselin mortally wounded a German pilot with a rifle bullet and forced his Taube to land at Sint-Agatha-Berchem if they had submitted a claim for this victory, its approval would have marked history's first air-to-air combat victory. Γ]

On 3 January 1915, two machine guns supplied by British were fitted to two Belgian planes, making a dual effort against the foe possible these were Belgium's first dedicated fighter planes. In February, 13 of the Belgian airmen flew 28 offensive patrols their first dogfight was fought on the 26th, with ten Albatroses against three Belgian Farmans. On 26 March, Sous Lieutenant Boschmans sent a German two-seater into a steep dive when he seemed to hit the pilot the German was not seen to either crash or land. This was the Belgian aviators' first victory claim. Δ]

In April, Lieutenant Fernand Jacquet mounted a machine gun on his pusher plane and sought out the enemy. On the 17th, he scored Belgium's first confirmed aerial victory, sending an Albatros reconnaissance plane down in flames over Roeselare. Apparently at about the same time, Adjutant José Orta and Sous Lieutenant Louis de Burlet were the first to attack an enemy observation balloon when they dropped three small bombs on a gasbag over Houthulst. Luckily for them, they missed success would probably have blown them out of the sky. Δ]

Sopwith Camel in the colours of the Belgian 1st Squadron.

On 18 January 1916, the decision was made to form a dedicated fighter squadron. On 22 February 1916, Escadrille I became the 1ère Escadrille de Chasse. It consisted of newly supplied Nieuport 10s and one obsolete Farman two-seater. In August, the new squadron would upgrade to Nieuport 11s, and Escadrille V was turned into the 5ème Escadrille de Chasse. The new unit was the first to mount an offensive formation for the new air force on 15 February 1917, they flew an offensive patrol of seven. By this time, the AMB had grown to 44 aircraft, including 21 fighters. At this point, individual airplanes bore personal markings affixed by their pilots, but no unit designations. Ε]

In the Summer of 1917, the AMB was allotted an active role in Allied aviation operations at the beginning of the Third Battle of Ypres. In March 1918, the AMB matured into a Groupe de Chasse. At this time, the role of the Escadrilles de Chasse was finally focused on their operation strictly as fighter units. There was a general sorting out of pilots into fighter or reconnaissance roles. Not all fighter pilots went into the new fighter units as of 1 May, 22 remained with reconnaissance units to fly escort missions. The King insisted that Jacquet be given the command of the Group. The newly organized fighter wing contained the two fighter escadrilles however, 1ère Escadrille de Chasse became 9ème Escadrille de Chasse, and 5ème Escadrille de Chasse became 10ème Escadrille de Chasse. The 11ème Escadrille de Chasse was founded on 28 May to join them. By the start of the Allies final offensive in September 1918, the AMB was incorporated in the Allied aviation effort, and could send 40-plus planes into the air at one time. In its short span of service, the Groupe fought over 700 aerial combats and was credited with 71 confirmed and 50 probable victories. Ζ]

Aircraft procurement difficulties [ edit | edit source ]

In June 1916 the nascent air force had received newer craft from the French in both single and double-seat versions of the Nieuport 10. The Belgians would continue to upgrade their planes throughout the war, though through their dependence on French manufacturers they became the stepchildren of the Allied effort from 1916 onwards. Η] The introduction dates of various types, compared to the date of their acquisition by the Belgians, tells the tale. The Franco-American Lafayette Escadrille had Nieuport 16s as early as May 1916 ⎖] the Belgians got them at the end of the year. The Nieuport 17 came into service with the French as early as June 1916, but the Belgians received so few that in June 1917 they were still operating all their earlier Nieuports. They then contracted for newer Nieuport 23s, which were basically up-engined Nieuport 17s. Spad VIIs had entered French service on 2 September 1916 the Belgians first received them almost an entire year later, with the first one on board on 22 August 1917. In September 1917, Belgium had the Hanriot HD.1 supplied to it the year after it was introduced. Spad XIIIs also came on line that month, but would not show up in Belgian inventory until the next year. Sopwith Camels first went into service in May 1917 and the AMB received its first one on 29 November 1917. ⎗]

The AMB did make one attempt to design and build its own airplane. However the Ponnier M1 was not good enough for production, and the ten or so manufactured ended up with clipped wings as powered "Penguin" rollers for training rookie pilots. ⎘]

Operational summary [ edit | edit source ]

Despite the many difficulties suffered during its foundation and first war, the AMB accomplished many things during World War I. One of its flying ace pilots, Willy Coppens, became the top ranking balloon buster of World War I, as well as one of the war's top aces. Four other pilots from the tiny force also became aces with it: Andre de Meulemeester, ⎙] Edmond Thieffry, ⎚] Jan Olieslagers, ⎛] and Fernand Jacquet. ⎜] A sixth Belgian, Adolphe DuBois d'Aische, became the war's oldest ace while in French service. ⎝]

The fledgling air force was even entrusted with flying both King Albert and Queen Elizabeth over the battle front at times. ⎞]

Between the world wars [ edit | edit source ]

During the interwar period, the Belgian Air Force flew the Breguet 19. Some efforts were made to acquire aircraft from local production, such as those by Stampe et Vertongen and Renard. They also evaluated native designs like the ACAZ C.2 and LACAB GR.8, none of which entered mass production however.

World War II [ edit | edit source ]

At the start of World War II, the Army Air Force had three active Air Force Regiments. Planes which were used by those regiments were the Renard R-31 and R-32, the Fiat CR.42, the Hawker Hurricane, the Gloster Gladiator, the Fairey Fox, and the Fairey Battle. These were massacred by the much superior German Luftwaffe in the German invasion of May 1940.

The following (possibly incomplete) table lists the inventory of the Belgian Air Force as in May 1940 ⎟]

Aircraft Origin Type Year acquired In service
Fairey Battle   United Kingdom Light bomber 1938 16
Fairey Fox   United Kingdom Light bomber and observation 1933–1938 154
Fiat CR.42   Italy Fighter 1940 27
Fokker F.VII   Netherlands Transport 1935 9
Gloster Gladiator   United Kingdom Fighter 1937 22
Hawker Hurricane   United Kingdom Fighter 1939 20
Koolhoven FK.56   Netherlands Advanced trainer 1940 12
LACAB GR.8   Belgium Bomber prototype 1936 1
Morane-Saulnier MS.230   France Observation 1932 23
Potez 33   France Light bomber and reconnaissance 1930 10
Renard R.31   Belgium Observation 1935 33
Renard R.38   Belgium Fighter prototype 1940 1
Caproni Ca.335/SABCA S.47 /   Belgium /   Italy Light bomber prototype for local production 1940 1
Savoia-Marchetti SM.73   Italy Transport 1940 8
Savoia-Marchetti SM.83   Italy Transport 1940 3
Stampe et Vertongen SV.5 Tornado   Belgium Training 1936 21
Stampe et Vertongen RSV.22   Belgium Training 1933 10
Stampe et Vertongen RSV.26   Belgium Training 1933 10

Before the outbreak of the war Belgium also sought to equip its Aviation Militaire with foreign designs, ordering production licences in Poland and France and aircraft in the USA. However, the acquired licences could not be used until May 1940 and the aircraft produced in the USA were eventually delivered to France and to the United Kingdom. The following table summarizes Belgium's foreign orders:

Aircraft Origin Type Year acquired Number
Breguet 693   France Light bomber and assault aircraft 1940 Licence to build 32
Brewster B-339 United States Fighter 1939 40 ordered, 1 delivered to Bordeaux, 6 to Martinique, rest to RAF ⎠]
Douglas DB-7 United States Medium bomber 1939 16 ordered, transferred to RAF after surrender
PZL.37 Łoś   Poland Medium bomber 1938 Licence to build unknown number
Grumman Martlet United States Fighter 1940 an order for at least 10 aircraft was placed, but never delivered and they were transferred to Royal Navy after the Belgian surrender, aircraft was proposed with fixed wings for land based operations
Caproni Ca.313   Italy Light bomber and reconnaissance aircraft(designated Ca.312) 1940 24 ordered, none delivered

After the surrender of Belgium on 28 May 1940, a very small Belgian Air Force in exile was created in Great Britain as the Belgian section of the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve. This small force was active within the British Royal Air Force, and its squadrons were equipped with the Supermarine Spitfire and Hawker Typhoon.

The Cold War [ edit | edit source ]

De Havilland Mosquito TT.6 target tug of the Belgian Air Force in 1953

Gloster Meteor F.8 of the Belgian Air Force in 1955

The F-84F Thunderstreak was operated by the Belgian Air Force during the Cold War

The Mirage 5 was operated by the Belgian Air Force during the Cold War

The Westland Sea King is used by the Air Component for search and rescue operations

On 15 October 1946, the Belgian military aviation was turned into an autonomous force, independent of the Belgian Army.

From September 1953 to 1960, the Ecole de Pilotage Avancé (Advanced Pilots' School) operated Harvards from the Kamina military base in the Belgian Congo. ⎡] Seemingly about 60 Harvards were at the base.

During the Cold War, the Belgian Air Force operated the following aircraft:

Aircraft Origin Description Variants Operated Notes
Aero Commander 560F United States Twin-engined light transport 560F 1 1961 to 1973 as royal transport
Airspeed Consul Twin-engined light transport 4 Used from 1948 in Belgian Congo.
Airspeed Oxford Twin-engined light transport 20 Operated between 1947 and 1954.
Auster AOP6 Single-engine light observation aircraft, 22 Operated between 1947 and 1955.
Avro Anson Twin-engined light transport 15 Operated between 1946 and 1954.
Avro CF-100 Canuck   Canada Twin-jet interceptor Mk 5 53 Operated from 1957 into the mid-1960s.
Boeing 727-200 United States Three-engined jet airliner 727-29C 2 Operated from 1975.
Dassault Mirage 5   France   Belgium Jet fighter-bomber and reconnaissance 5BA 5BD 5BR 63 16 27 Operated from 1970. 3 were built in France
Dassault Falcon   France Twin-engined light jet transport 20E 2 Operated from 1973.
de Havilland Tiger Moth Biplane trainer 15 Operated from 1946.
de Havilland Dominie Biplane transport 7 Operated from 1946.
de Havilland Mosquito Twin-engined piston light fighter-bomber TT3 NF30 7 24 Operated from 1947 as target tugs and night fighters.
de Havilland Canada Chipmunk   Canada Single-engined piston trainer 2 For evaluation from 1948.
Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet />  Germany/   France Ground attack Alpha Jet B 33 co designed and build by SABCA
Douglas C-47 Dakota United States Passenger/troop transport 41 Operated in various roles between 1946 and 1976.
Douglas DC-4 United States Four-engined piston airliner 2 Operated from 1950 to 1969.
Douglas DC-6 United States Four-engined piston airliner 4 Operated from 1954 to 1971.
Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar United States Twin-engined troop or cargo transport C-119F C-119G 46 Operated from 1952 to 1973.
Fouga Magister   France />  Germany Jet trainer CM.170R 50 Operated from 1960
SABCA F-16   BelgiumUnited States Fighter F-16A F-16B 136 24 Built under licence in Belgium and the Netherlands.
Gloster Meteor Jet fighter F4 T7 F8 NF11 48 43 260 24 Operated from 1949 some built in Belgium and the Netherlands
Hawker Hurricane Piston fighter II 3 Operated from 1946
SABCA Hunter   Belgium Jet fighter F4 F6 148 144 Operated from 1956. Hawker Hunter built in Belgium under licence
Hawker Siddeley 748 Twin-engined transport 2A 3 Operated from 1976
Lockheed T-33 United States Single engine jet T-33A RT-33A 38 1 Operated from 1952
SABCA F-104 Starfighter   BelgiumUnited States Multi-role jet F-104G TF-104G 100 12 Operated from 1963, Belgian-built
Miles Magister Single-engines trainer 1 Operated from 1946 to 1948
Miles Martinet Single-engined target tug 11 Operated from 1947 to 1953
North American Harvard United States Basic trainer Various 173 Operated in Belgian Kongo
Percival Proctor Single-engined liaison IV 6 Operated from 1947
Percival Pembroke Twin-engined light transport C51 12 Operated from 1954.
Republic F-84 Thunderjet United States Single-engined fighter-bomber F-84E F-84G 213 Operated from 1951
Republic F-84F Thunderstreak United States Single-engined fighter-bomber F-84F 197 Operated from 1955
Republic RF-84F Thunderflash United States Single-engined reconnaissance RF-84F 34 Operated from 1955
SIAI-Marchetti SF.260   Italy Single-engined trainer SF.260MB 36 Operated from 1969
Stampe SV.4   Belgium   France Biplane trainer SV-4B SV-4C 20 45 Operated from 1948
Supermarine Spitfire Piston-engined fighter IX and XVI 181 Operated from 1945
Swearingen Merlin United States Twin-engined light transport Merlin 3A 6 Operated from 1976
Westland Sea King Rescue helicopter Mk 48 5 Operated from 1976

Post-Cold War reforms – COMOPSAIR [ edit | edit source ]

This article does not contain any citations or references. Please improve this article by adding a reference. For information about how to add references, see Template:Citation.

|date= >> At the beginning of the 1990s, the end of the Cold War caused the Belgian government to restructure the Belgian Armed Forces in order to cope with the changed threats. The Belgian Air Force was hit hard and saw its strength more than halved with the disbanding of the 3rd Tactical Wing in Bierset (1994) the disbanding of the 1st Fighter Wing in Beauvechain the 9th Training Wing in Sint-Truiden Air Base and the Elementary Flying School in Goetsenhoven (1996).

In 2002, the Belgian government decided to emulate Canada and impose a "single structure" on its armed forces in which the independent Belgian Air Force ceased to exist. The former Air Force became the Air Component (COMOPSAIR) of the Belgian Armed Forces. COMOPSAIR consists of the 2nd Tactical Wing in Florennes Air Base and the 10th Tactical Wing in Kleine Brogel Air Base, both flying F-16s in four squadrons. Out of the 160 F-16s originally bought by Belgium, only 105 were upgraded with further reductions to 72 aircraft in 2005 and planned to 60 by 2015. The 1st Wing (Belgium) at Beauvechain Air Base is assigned for the training of pilots, using the piston-powered Aermacchi SF.260 for elementary training, and the Alpha Jet for advanced training. Advanced combat training is done on F-16's at Kleine Brogel. ⎢]

COMOPSAIR still operates the Lockheed C-130 Hercules in the 15th Air Transport Wing based at Melsbroek Air Base, planning to replace them by seven Airbus A400M transport planes. VIPs are transported with Embraer 135/145 jets, ⎣] Dassault 20/900, and the Airbus A310. The Sea King helicopters and the Alouette III SAR helicopters will be active for years. They will be replaced by NH-90s (10: 4 NFH + 6 TTH).

In 2004, as part of the unified structure, the Army Aviation units of the Wing Heli were transferred to the COMOPSAIR. These contain the Agusta A109 attack helicopter, and the Alouette II training and recce helicopter.

In 2005, the Belgian Alpha Jets moved to Cazaux in France to continue the Initial Operational Training, while the Advanced Jet Training is done on French Alpha Jets at Tours.

Within the framework of its commitments within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO, Belgium has assigned its 72 F-16s to NATO purposes. Two squadrons with a total of 16 aircraft have been designated for use by the Rapid Reaction Forces.

In February 2008, Defense Minister Pieter De Crem announced that due to increasing problems and poor serviceability, the two A310s were to be replaced as soon as possible by two aircraft in the same class. An Airbus A330 was dry-leased to take their place.

On September 1, 2010, the Wing Heli in Bierset was disbanded and the Agusta A109 helicopters moved to Beauvechain Air Base to become 1st Wing. The SF260 squadrons became the Basic Flying Training School.

On May 24, 2011, it was reported that the two retired Airbus A310 aircraft have been sold to the Brussels-based company MAD Africa for the amount of 700,000 euros. The company then sold them on to the Dutch Van Vliet transport company, who in their turn will transfer the aircraft to an as yet unspecified Abu Dhabi-based operator. [ citation needed ]

Recent operations [ edit | edit source ]

Belgian Air Component F-16 in Brno

In January 1991, 18 Mirage 5 aircraft of the 3rd Tactical Wing were deployed to Turkey's Diyarbakır air base. During this operation, Belgian planes carried out several flights along the Iraqi border. After this operation the obsolete Mirage 5s were phased out.

On 15 July 1996, a C-130 with serial CH-06 carrying 37 members of the Dutch Army Fanfare Band and four Belgian crew members crashed at Eindhoven after a bird strike while executing a go-around, resulting in the loss of power to two engines. 34 passengers were killed, and only 7 survived. The accident is known in the Netherlands as the Herculesramp.

From October 1996, the Belgian Air Force cooperated with the Dutch Royal Air Force in the Deployable Air Task Force in patrolling former Yugoslavian airspace. F-16s of the 2nd and 10th Tactical Wings, operating from the Italian bases of Villafranca and Amendola, were assigned to missions insuring the control of a No-Fly Zone over Yugoslavia, and providing the air support necessary for UN and NATO troops. Between March 24 and June 10, 1999, 12 Belgian F-16s carried out 679 combat sorties – the first time since the second World War that Belgian aircraft took part in active war operations in enemy territory – against Serbia during the Kosovo crisis. The last Belgian F-16 detachment left Italy in August 2001.

On 29 March 2004, four F-16s from Kleine Brogel were transferred under NATO's Baltic Air Policing mission to the Šiauliai Air Base in Lithuania for three months, where they were employed in monitoring the Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian skies.

In 2005, the Helicopter Wing (WHeli – HeliW) deployed 4 A-109 (including 1 Medevac) in Bosnia (Tuzla). In July, four F-16s deployed to Afghanistan to support the NATO International Security Assistance Force.[1] At the same, the 80th UAV Squadron deployed its B-Hunter in Bosnia (Tuzla) for a four months period: 52 persons, 6 B-Hunter and 4 GCS. [2]

In 2006, Belgian Hunter unmanned air vehicles deployed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo as part of the EU EUFOR peacekeeping mission. At the same time, the Helicopter Wing (WHeli – HeliW) deployed 3 A-109 (including 1 Medevac) in Bosnia (Mostar), Operation codeword "Blue Bee". [3]

On 1 December 2006 the Belgian Air Component deployed again under Baltic Air Policing mission four F-16 MLU aircraft to Šiauliai Air Base in Lithuania, to defend the airspace of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ⎤]

From August 2008, four F-16s will be deployed to Kandahar in Afghanistan in support of the Dutch land forces. ⎥] In March 2011, Belgium deployed six F-16 Fighters to Araxos in Greece, in support of operation: Odyssey Dawn, to support the NATO operations over Libya. the aircraft were already at the base as part of a joint exercise and were transferred to NATO command. as of June 2011, the aircraft have flown over 1000 hours over Libya and attacked various military installations and targets, without causing any collateral damage to the civilian population.

On 12 September 2011 a wikileaks document showed a diplomatic cable from the American ambassador and the Minister of Defence Pieter De Crem that Belgium is interested in buying off-the-shelf Lockheed F-35 Lightnings by 2020. ⎦]

In 2013 the Belgian Air Force supported French operations in Mali providing Medevac heli support with 2 A-109 helicopters and 2 C-130 Hercules in a tactical air transport role

Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: History, Pathophysiology, Clinical Features and Rome IV

Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), the most common diagnoses in gastroenterology are recognized by morphological and physiological abnormalities that often occur in combination including motility disturbance, visceral hypersensitivity, altered mucosal and immune function, altered gut microbiota and altered central nervous system processing. Research on these gut-brain interaction disorders is based on using specific diagnostic criteria. The Rome Foundation has played a pivotal role in creating diagnostic criteria thus operationalizing the dissemination of new knowledge in the field of FGIDs. Rome IV is a compendium of the knowledge accumulated since Rome III was published 10 years ago. It improves upon Rome III by: 1) updating the basic and clinical literature, 2) offering new information on gut microenvironment, gut-brain interactions, pharmacogenomics, biopsychosocial, gender and cross cultural understandings of FGIDs, 3) reduces the use of imprecise and occassionally stigmatizing terms when possible, 4) uses updated diagnostic algorithms, 5) incorporates information on the patient illness experience, and physiological subgroups or biomarkers that might lead to more targeted treatment. This introductory article sets the stage for the remaining 17 articles that follow and offers an historical overview of the FGIDs field, differentiates FGIDs from motility and structural disorders, discusses the changes from Rome III, reviews the Rome committee process, provides a biopsychosocial pathophysiological conceptualization of FGIDs, and offers an approach to patient care.

Keywords: Biopsychosocial Model Classification Diagnosis Functional GI Disorders History Neurogastroenterology Patient Provider Relationship Rome Criteria Rome Foundation Rome IV Treatment approach.

Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Serija je u početku bila fokusirana na Jasona Gideona (Mandy Patinkin), Aarona "Hotcha" Hotchnera (Thomas Gibson) i ostatak JAP-a, koji su u prvoj sezoni još činili Elle Greenaway (Lola Glaudini), Derek Morgan (Shemar Moore), Spencer Reid (Matthew Gray Gubler), Jennifer Jareau ili "JJ" (A. J. Cook) i Penelope Garcia (Kirsten Vangsness).

U drugoj sezoni Greenaway napušta ekipu nakon šeste epizode ("The Boogeyman"), a nju je od devete epizode ("The Last Word") zamijenila Emily Prentiss (Paget Brewster), što je iznenadilo i Gideona i Hotchnera. Početkom treće sezone ekipu napušta i Gideon, nakon druge epizode ("In Name and Blood"). Od šeste epizode ("About Face") zamijenio ga je David Rossi (Joe Mantegna), osnivač JAP-a, koji se vratio nakon što se neko vrijeme bio povukao zbog pisanja knjiga.

Prije početka šeste sezone objavljeno je da će Brewsterina uloga biti reducirana tokom sezone, a da će ugovor s Cook biti okončan [6] zamijenila ih je Rachel Nichols u ulozi Ashley Seaver, kadetkinje FBI-a. Odluka da Cook i Brewster budu razriješen ugovora rezultirala je revoltom ljubitelja serije, koji su počeli potpisivati protestne peticije. [7] Posljedično, Cook i Brewster vraćene su u seriju za sedmu sezonu, a Nichols je otpuštena. [8] [9] Brewster je potom napustila seriju nakon te sezone [10] u osmoj sezoni zamijenila ju je Jeanne Tripplehorn u ulozi Alex Blake, lingvističke stručnjakinje. [11] Brewster se, međutim, ipak pojavila kao gošća u jubilarnoj 200. epizodi.

Nakon dvije sezone Tripplehorn je otpuštena [12] [13] u 10. sezoni glumačkoj ekipi pridružila se Jennifer Love Hewitt u ulozi Kate Callahan. [14] Tokom te sezone producenti su "ubili" lik Gideona van ekrana izvršna producentica Erica Messer rekla je da je ta odluka donesena jer je postalo jasno da se Patinkin neće vratiti u seriju, ali da bi Gideon mogao biti prikazan u prisjećanjima ako bi se ikad vratio.

Cook i Hewitt bile su na pauzi od snimanja zbog svojih trudnoća nakon završetka produkcije 10. sezone Aisha Tyler, koja glumi dr. Taru Lewis, pridružila se seriji na početku 11. sezone u epizodnoj ulozi iako se pojavila u većini epizoda. Cook se vratila nakon sedme epizode te sezone, [15] ali se Hewitt nije vratila. [16] Moore je napustio seriju pri kraju iste sezone razmatrao je da to uradi u 10. sezoni, kad mu je istekao prethodni ugovor, ali su ga uvjerili da ostane kako bi se njegovom liku omogućio odgovarajući oproštaj. [17] [18] Messer je rekla da je prvobitno bilo planirano da Moore snimi šest epizoda, ali je odlučeno da se to produži na prvih 18 jer se šest "nije činilo dovoljnim". [19]

Sedmicu nakon Mooreovog odlaska Brewster se drugi put pojavila kao specijalna gošća u 12. sezoni još je jednom postala članica glavne postave. [20] [21] [22] [23] Moorea je u 12. sezoni zamijenio Adam Rodriguez u ulozi Lukea Alveza, agenta iz Jedinice za hvatanje bjegunaca. [24] Tyler je također promovirana u glavnu postavu od te sezone. [25] Nakon toga Gibson je suspendiran, a kasnije je dobio otkaz zbog sukoba s jednim od producenata na setu njegov lik Hotchner izbačen je iz serije. [26] [27] Gibsona je zamijenio Damon Gupton u ulozi Stephen Walker, iskusni profiler iz Programa za analizu (kontraobavještajnog odsjeka FBI-a), koji je u JAP donio svoje vještine u hvatanju špijuna. [28] Guptonov ugovor nije obnovljen nakon 12. sezone, a CBS je naveo da je njegov odlazak bio "dio kreativne promjene u seriji". [29] Daniel Henney, koji je bio među glavnim glumcima u spin-offu Zločinački umovi: Preko granice, tumačeći lik Matta Simmonsa, pridružio se glavnoj seriji u 13. sezoni, također kao član glavne postave. [30]

Termin "UnSub", koji se vrlo često koristi u seriji, skraćenica je od izraza "unknown subject", tj. "nepoznati subjekt" u istrazi.

Glavni Uredi

Lik Glumac Pozicija Sezone
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
Mandy Patinkin Jason Gideon Stariji nadzorni specijalni agent Glavni [N 1] Ne pojavljuje se Gost [N 2] Ne pojavljuje se Gost [N 2]
Thomas Gibson Aaron Hotchner Šef jedinice Glavni [N 3] Ne pojavljuje se
Lola Glaudini Elle Greenaway Nadzorna specijalna agentica Glavni Ne pojavljuje se
Shemar Moore Derek Morgan Nadzorni specijalni agent Glavni Gost Ne pojavljuje se
Matthew Gray Gubler Dr. Spencer Reid Nadzorni specijalni agent Glavni
A. J. Cook Jennifer Jareau Veza s medijima / Nadzorna specijalna agentica Glavni Epizodni Glavni
Kirsten Vangsness Penelope Garcia Tehnička analitičarka / Veza s medijima Također u glavnoj ulozi Glavni
Paget Brewster Emily Prentiss Nadzorna specijalna agentica / Šefica jedinice Ne pojavljuje se Glavni Ne pojavljuje se Gost Ne pojavljuje se Gost Glavni
Joe Mantegna David Rossi Stariji nadzorni specijalni agent Ne pojavljuje se Glavni
Rachel Nichols Ashley Seaver FBI-kadetkinja / Specijalna agentica Ne pojavljuje se Glavni Ne pojavljuje se
Jeanne Tripplehorn Dr. Alex Blake Lingvistička stručnjakinja Ne pojavljuje se Glavni Ne pojavljuje se
Jennifer Love Hewitt Kate Callahan Tajna agentica Ne pojavljuje se Glavni Ne pojavljuje se
Aisha Tyler Dr. Tara Lewis Forenzička psihologinja Ne pojavljuje se Epizodni Glavni
Adam Rodriguez Luke Alvez Agent u Jedinici za hvatanje bjegunaca Ne pojavljuje se Glavni
Damon Gupton Stephen Walker Nadzorni specijalni agent Ne pojavljuje se Glavni Ne pojavljuje se
Daniel Henney Matt Simmons Agent za specijalne operacije Ne pojavljuje se Gost Ne pojavljuje se Gost Glavni
  1. ^Mandy Patinkin pojavio se samo u prve dvije epizode treće sezone.
  2. ^ abBen Savage glumi mladog Gideona.
  3. ^Thomas Gibson pojavio se samo u prve dvije epizode 12. sezone.

Članovi JAP-a Uredi

Sporedni likovi Uredi

Važniji negativci Uredi

  • Argentina: AXN
  • Australija: Channel 7
  • Austrija: ATV
  • Belgija: Frankofona: RTL-TVi (kao Esprits Criminels) Flandrija: VT4
  • Bolivija: AXN
  • Brazil: AXN
  • Bugarska: Fox Crime (bug.Престъпни намерения - Zločinačke namjere)
  • Češka: AXN (češ.Myšlenky zločince, slovač.Myšlienky vraha)
  • Čile: AXN
  • Danska: Kanal 5
  • Ekvador: AXN
  • Estonija: Fox Crime, TV3 (est.Kurjuse kannul)
  • Finska: Nelonen (Criminal Minds - FBI-tutkijat)
  • Francuska: TF1 (fra.Esprits Criminels)
  • Grčka: FX, ANT1, NET
  • Gvatemala: AXN
  • Holandija: Veronica
  • Hrvatska: HRT 2 RTL 2 (starije epizode)
  • Indija: Star World
  • Irska: RTE2
  • Italija: RAI 2
  • Izrael: Yes Action (hebr. מחשבות פליליות - Zločinačke misli)
  • Japan: WOWOW (jap. クリミナル・マインド FBI行動分析課 - Zločinački um: FBI-eva jedinica za analizu ponašanja)
  • Kanada: CTV Two
  • Kolumbija: AXN
  • Kostarika: AXN
  • Latvija: AXN
  • Malezija: FOX
  • Meksiko: AXN i Azteca 7 (Mentes Criminales)
  • Norveška: TV2 i TV2 Zebra (reprize)
  • Novi Zeland: TV One
  • Njemačka: Sat.1
  • Peru: AXN
  • Poljska: AXN i TVP 2
  • Portugal: SIC
  • Rumunija: AXN
  • Rusija: Fox Crime (rus.Мыслить как преступник - Misliti kao zločinac)
  • Saudijska Arabija: FX (Bliski istok i Sjeverna Afrika)
  • Singapur: MediaCorp Channel 5
  • Srbija: Fox Crime, RTS1
  • Švedska: Kanal 5
  • Švicarska: 3 Plus TV (njem.) i RSI la1 (ita.)
  • Turska: DiziMax, FOX
  • Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo: Sky LIVING
  • Ukrajina: НТН (ukr.Мислити як злочинець - Misliti kao zločinac)
  • Venecuela: AXN
Sezona Br. epizoda Originalno emitirana Datumi izdavanja DVD-ova
Premijera Finale Regija 1 Regija 2 Regija 4 Diskovi
1. 22 22. 9. 2005. 10. 5. 2006. 28. 11. 2006. 12. 2. 2007. 3. 11. 2007 [33] 6
2. 23 20. 9. 2006. 16. 5. 2007. 2. 10. 2007. 5. 5. 2008. 1. 4. 2008 [34] 6
3. 20 26. 9. 2007. 21. 5. 2008. 16. 9. 2008. 6. 4. 2009. 18. 3. 2009 [35] 5
4. 26 24. 9. 2008. 20. 5. 2009. 8. 9. 2009. 1. 3. 2010. 9. 3. 2010 [36] 7
5. 23 23. 9. 2009. 26. 5. 2010. 7. 9. 2010. 28. 2. 2011. 2. 3. 2011. 6
6. 24 22. 9. 2010. 18. 5. 2011. 6. 9. 2011. 28. 11. 2011. 30. 11. 2011 [37] 6
7. 24 21. 9. 2011. 16. 5. 2012. 4. 9. 2012 [38] 26. 11. 2012 [39] 7. 11. 2012. 6
8. 24 26. 9. 2012. 22. 5. 2013. 3. 9. 2013 [40] 9. 12. 2013 [41] 4. 12. 2013 [42] 6
9. 24 25. 9. 2013. 14. 5. 2014. 26. 8. 2014 [43] 8. 12. 2014 [44] N/D 6
10. 23 1. 10. 2014. 6. 5. 2015. 25. 8. 2015. 7. 12. 2015. 2. 12. 2015. 6
11. 23 30. 9. 2015. 4. 5. 2016. 30. 8. 2016. 5. 12. 2016. 7. 12. 2016. 6

Sezonski rejting (baziran na prosječnom broju gledalaca po epizodi) serije na CBS-u:

Sezona Epizode Satnica (IVZ) Premijera Finale TV-sezona Plasman Gledaoci
(u milionima)
Datum Gledaoci
(u milionima)
Datum Gledaoci
(u milionima)
1. 22 Srijeda, 21:00 22. 9. 2005. 19,57 [45] 10. 5. 2006. 12,67 [46] 2005/06. #28 12,63 [47]
2. 23 20. 9. 2006. 15,65 [48] 16. 5. 2007. 13,21 [49] 2006/07. #24 14,05 [50]
3. 20 26. 9. 2007. 12,66 [51] 21. 5. 2008. 13,15 [52] 2007/08. #24 12,78 [53]
4. 26 24. 9. 2008. 17,01 [54] 20. 5. 2009. 13,99 [55] 2008/09. #11 14,95 [56]
5. 23 23. 9. 2009. 15,85 [57] 26. 5. 2010. 12,97 [58] 2009/10. #16 13,7 [59]
6. 24 22. 9. 2010. 14,13 [60] 18. 5. 2011. 12,84 [61] 2010/11. #10 14,11 [62]
7 24 21. 9. 2011. 14,14 [63] 16. 5. 2012. 13,68 [64] 2011/12. #15 13,2 [65]
8. 24 26. 9. 2012. 11,73 [66] 22. 5. 2013. 11,01 [67] 2012/13. #20 12,15 [68]
9. 24 25. 9. 2013. 11,27 [69] 14. 5. 2014. 12,03 [70] 2013/14. #12 12,66 [71]
10. 23 1. 10. 2014. 11,74 [72] 6. 5. 2015. 9,61 [73] 2014/15. #11 14,11 [74]
11. 22 30. 9. 2015. 10,08 [75] 4. 5. 2016. 8,84 [76] 2015/16. #16 12,2 [77]
12. 22 28. 9. 2016. 8,92 [78] Još nepoznato N/D 2016/17. Još nepoznato Još nepoznato

*Najbolji rezultat: "The Big Game" – 26,31 milion gledalaca (22:30 /IVZ/ sedmica 29. 1. 2007) (nakon 51. SuperBowla). [79]

Zločinački umovi: Ponašanje sumnjivaca Uredi

U epizodi "Fight" iz 5. sezone predstavljen je drugi tim JAP-a i pokrenuta je nova serija pod nazivom Zločinački umovi: Ponašanje sumnjivaca (engleski: Criminal Minds: Suspect Behavior ). Premijeru je imala 16. februara 2011. na CBS-u [80] , ali je otkazana zbog lošeg rejtinga odmah nakon 1. sezone, koja je imala 13 epizoda. [81] 6. septembra iste godine CBS DVD izdao je cijelu seriju na setu od 4 diska.

Glumačku postavu činili su Forest Whitaker u ulozi Sama Coopera, vođe tima, Janeane Garofalo, Michael Kelly, Beau Garrett, Matt Ryan, Richard Schiff i Kirsten Vangsness, koja je reprizirala ulogu Penelope Garcije iz originalne serije.

Zločinački umovi: Preko granice Uredi

Nova serija u sklopu franšize Zločinački umovi pod nazivom Zločinački umovi: Preko granice (engleski: Criminal Minds: Beyond Borders ) najavljena je u januaru 2015. Glavne uloge dobili su Gary Sinise (Jack Garrett) i Anna Gunn (Lily Lambert). Tyler James Williams dobio je ulogu Russa "Montyja" Montgomeryja, a Daniel Henney glumit će Matthewa Simmonsa. [82]

Serija će pratiti agente FBI-a koji pomažu državljanima SAD-a koji su se našli u nevolji u inozemstvu. [83] [84] CBS je emitirao tzv. backdoor pilot-epizodu 8. aprila 2015. u satnici rezerviranoj za Zločinačke umove kao unakrsnu epizodu pod naslovom "Beyond Borders" ("Preko granice"). [83] [85]

11. maja 2015. CBS je objavio da je 1. sezona ove serije naručena za TV-sezonu 2015/16.

Rodzina samolotów Potez 63 powstała na skutek zamówienia lotnictwa francuskiego z 1934 na samolot przeznaczony do eskortowania bombowców i realizujący modną w drugiej połowie lat 30. koncepcję "samolotu niszczycielskiego". Jako pierwszy w wytwórni Potez został zaprojektowany zgodnie z wymaganiami ciężki dwusilnikowy samolot myśliwski z trzyosobową załogą. Przewidywano od razu także budowę innych wersji samolotu, w oparciu o tę samą konstrukcję płatowca. Pierwszy prototyp, oznaczony jako Potez 63.01 napędzany silnikami gwiazdowymi Hispano-Suiza 14HB został oblatany 25 kwietnia 1936 roku. Po próbach, które trwały cztery miesiące dokonano w nim poprawek i zmieniono jego oznaczenie na Potez 630.01. W 1937 zbudowano też drugi prototyp Potez 631.01, z silnikami Gnome-Rhône, które były przewidywane jako podstawowy typ napędu. Ponieważ oba prototypy wykazywały dobre właściwości lotne i eksploatacyjne, w maju 1937 roku francuskie ministerstwo lotnictwa zamówiło 10 dalszych prototypów samolotów Potez 63 w różnych odmianach, w celu sprawdzenia ich przydatności i dokonania ich oceny do poszczególnych zadań (były to cztery myśliwce Potez 630, trzy Potez 631, dwa lekkie bombowce Potez 633 B2 i samolot rozpoznawczy Potez 637 A3 potem jeden Potez 633 przebudowano na wersję szturmową Potez 639 AB2, a Potez 637 na prototyp Poteza 63.11).

Lotnictwo francuskie zamówiło następnie w 1937 roku pierwszą partię seryjnych myśliwców Potez 631 C3, napędzanych silnikami Gnome-Rhône 14M, a później kolejne partie. Z powodu dopiero rozwijającej się produkcji silników, zamówiono też 80 prawie identycznych myśliwców Potez 630 C1, napędzanych silnikami Hispano-Suiza 14AB 10/11 (wizualnie różniły się wlotami powietrza na górze osłon silników). Potezy 631 modyfikowano też do wersji myśliwca nocnego Potez 631 CN2, różniącej się dwuosobową załogą. Pierwszy seryjny Potez 630 został zbudowany w lutym 1938 roku.

Oprócz wersji myśliwskich, francuskie lotnictwo zamówiło samoloty w wersji lekkiego bombowca Potez 633 B2, z silnikami Gnome-Rhône 14M, oraz samolotu rozpoznawczego Potez 637 A3. Ponieważ Potez 637 nie spełniał wszystkich wymagań, opracowano wersję rozpoznawczą i współpracy z wojskami lądowymi Potez 63.11 A3, wyróżniającą się przeszklonym nosem kadłuba w celu zapewnienia dobrych warunków dla obserwatora. Nowy samolot był przeznaczony w większym stopniu dla bliskiego rozpoznania i wypełniania takich zadań, jak korygowanie ognia artylerii. Potez 63.11 stał się najbardziej masowo produkowaną wersją rodziny. Pierwszy prototyp tej wersji oblatano 31 grudnia 1938 roku. Zamówiono też małą liczbę egzemplarzy w wersji myśliwca treningowego Potez 631 Ins, o podwójnym układzie sterowania.

Tempo produkcji było dość szybkie i pierwsze egzemplarze seryjne Potezów serii 63 zaczęto dostarczać do lotnictwa francuskiego w 1938 roku, a dostawy i produkcja trwała do 25 czerwca 1940 roku. Zbudowano jeszcze kilka innych odmian samolotu Potez 63 - bombowca nurkującego, samolotu szturmowego i nocnego myśliwca, lecz pozostały one w fazie prototypu.

Warianty rodziny Potez 63:

  • Potez 630 C3 – samolot myśliwski z silnikami Hispano-Suiza HS-14A/B
  • Potez 631 C3 – samolot myśliwski z silnikami Gnôme-Rhône GR 14M4/5
  • Potez 631 CN2 – samolot myśliwski nocny z silnikami Gnôme-Rhône GR 14M4/5
  • Potez 632 Bp2 – morski bombowiec nurkujący (prototyp)
  • Potez 633 B2 – lekki dwumiejscowy samolot bombowy
  • Potez 634 – spotykane oznaczenie myśliwca treningowego Potez 631 Ins
  • Potez 635 CN2 – samolot myśliwski nocny (prototyp)
  • Potez 637 A3 – trzymiejscowy samolot rozpoznawczy
  • Potez 639 AB2 - dwumiejscowy samolot szturmowo-bombowy (prototyp)
  • Potez 63.11 A3 – trzymiejscowy samolot rozpoznawczy i współpracy z armią
  • Potez 63.12 C3 - samolot myśliwski z silnikami gwiazdowymi Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp Junior (prototyp)
  • Potez 63.13 Bp2 - bombowiec nurkujący (prototyp)
  • Potez 63.16 T3 - samolot szkolny (prototyp)

We francuskiej nomenklaturze, litera za oznaczeniem samolotu oznaczała jego przeznaczenie (np. A - rozpoznawczy, B - bombowy, C - myśliwiec), a dalsza cyfra - liczbę załogi.

Łącznie wyprodukowano do maja 1940 roku ponad 1115 samolotów serii Potez 63 wszystkich wersji, z czego w poszczególnych odmianach:

  • Potez 630 C3 – 86 sztuk (podawane też liczby 82-88)
  • Potez 631 C3 – 208 sztuk (podawane też liczby 207-215)
  • Potez 633 B2 – 71 sztuk
  • Potez 637 A3 – 61 sztuk
  • Potez 63.11 – 776 sztuki (z czego lotnictwu przekazano 712) (według innych danych [jakich?] 723)

Od maja 1938 roku samoloty Potez 630, a następnie inne warianty, były systematycznie wprowadzane do lotnictwa francuskiego. Mimo intencji konstruktora, by stworzyć szybki samolot myśliwski, zdolny do działań zarówno w dzień jaki i w nocy, to okazało się w praktyce, iż jako myśliwiec ma za słabe osiągi wobec rozwoju techniki lotniczej, natomiast najlepszym zastosowaniem dla tego samolotu jest rozpoznanie powietrzne zarówno w obszarze linii frontu, jak również na dalekim zapleczu wroga. Dlatego też zwiększono produkcję wersji rozpoznawczej, kosztem innych. Samoloty Potez 63.11 zaczęły wchodzić na wyposażenie jednostek od listopada 1939.

W momencie wybuchu wojny, francuskie lotnictwo miało 85 Рotezów 630 (z tego 65 w jednostkach bojowych), 206 Рotezów 631 (z tego 117 w jednostkach bojowych). Po wejściu na uzbrojenie okazało się, że silniki Hispano-Suiza myśliwców Potez 630 sprawiały dużo problemów, dlatego przed atakiem Niemiec na Francję Potezy 630 zastąpiono w jednostkach bojowych przez Potezy 631 i skierowano do jednostek szkolnych. Podczas kampanii francuskiej, Potezy 631 używane były w eskadrze myśliwskiej ЕСМ 1/16, pięciu eskadrach myśliwców nocnych ECN 1/13, ECN 2/13, ECN 3/13, ECN 4/13 i ECN 5/13 oraz dywizjonie lotnictwa marynarki wojennej F1C w Calais, w składzie dwóch eskadr AC1 i AC2. Dzienne myśliwce nie odnosiły dużych sukcesów, zwłaszcza w starciu z szybszymi i zwrotniejszymi myśliwcami Bf 109. Były one również mylone ze względu na podobieństwo z niemieckimi samolotami Bf 110. Najbardziej efektywne w działaniach okazały się myśliwskie Potezy lotnictwa morskiego. Wersje nocne, z powodu braku aparatury do wykrywania celów (w postaci np. radaru), były nieefektywne.

Podczas kampanii francuskiej w 1940 roku samoloty Potez 63.11 używane były w dużej liczbie w dywizjonach rozpoznawczych (GR) oraz dywizjonach współpracy z armią (GAO). Ponosiły one spore straty, głównie na skutek ognia artylerii przeciwlotniczej, ale też myśliwców niemieckich. Wysokie też był straty niebojowe, związane z trudnością właściwej obsługi samolotu w warunkach przerzucania między lotniskami polowymi. Na części samolotów zaczęto montować mocniejsze uzbrojenie w postaci dodatkowych karabinów maszynowych. Tak uzbrojone samoloty wykonywały również zadania szturmowe z lotu koszącego. W początkowej fazie wojny wykorzystywano również Potezy 637 do zadań rozpoznawczych nad Niemcami. Potez 637 był też pierwszym zestrzelonym samolotem francuskim, 8 września 1939, w walce powietrznej przez myśliwiec Bf 109.

Po zajęciu Francji przez Niemców kilka samolotów Potez 63.11 przeleciało do Wielkiej Brytanii. Wiele tych maszyn włączono do jednostek treningowych Luftwaffe. Wyposażono w te samoloty kilka jednostek francuskiego rządu Vichy w Afryce, walczyły one następnie przeciw aliantom w Syrii i podczas lądowania na Madagaskarze i w Północnej Afryce. Trzech Potezów 63.11 używało lotnictwo Wolnych Francuzów w Senegalu. Samoloty Potez 63.11 były używane do 1944 roku.

Ponieważ Francuzi pod koniec lat 30. zrezygnowali z rozwijania dwumiejscowych bombowców, najmniej liczną z wersji używanych w lotnictwie francuskim stał się Potez 633. Po wybuchu wojny, rząd francuski zarekwirował część samolotów, które miały być wysłane na eksport. Potezy 633 używane były głównie do szkolenia załóg w dywizjonach przezbrajanych na nowsze samoloty bombowo-szturmowe Breguet 691. Samoloty te wzięły mimo to udział w jednej akcji bojowej.

Bombowce Potez 633 cieszyły się za to większym zainteresowaniem za granicą. 11 sztuk zostało zakupione przez Grecję, a 20 przez Rumunię. Dalszych zamówionych 20 rumuńskich, 13 greckich i 5 chińskich samolotów nie dostarczono. Greckie Potezy w składzie eskadry 31 Mira walczyły przeciw Włochom w 1940 i 1941 roku, a rumuńskie walczyły podczas wczesnego etapu wojny przeciw ZSRR. W 1943 roku Rumunia zakupiła od francuskiego rządu Vichy 67 Potezów 63.11, które przeznaczono do szkolenia. 40 Potezów 63.11 zakupiło od Niemców także lotnictwo węgierskie, gdzie następnie również używane były do szkolenia. Chiny zamówiły 1 samolot Potez 631, ale nie został dostarczony, lecz po wybuchu wojny przejęły go władze francuskie w Indochinach. Oprócz bombowców, Szwajcaria zakupiła 2 myśliwce Potez 630, a Jugosławia jeden.

W samoloty Potez 63.11 w marcu 1940 roku miał zostać wyposażony polski 1 dywizjon rozpoznawczy, dowodzony przez mjr pil. Edwarda Młynarskiego. Załogi zostały przeszkolone do maja 1940 roku w francuskich ośrodkach szkoleniowych i oczekiwały na przydział samolotów bojowych na lotnisku Bron w Lyonie. Tam też dwa takie samoloty zostały przemalowane w barwy Polskich Sił Powietrznych we Francji z okazji wizyty gen. Władysława Sikorskiego. Dywizjon ten nie wszedł do walki, lecz część polskich załóg latało na tych samolotach we francuskich dywizjonach rozpoznawczych: GR I/35, GR I/12, GA II/22 i GA I/36.

Samoloty serii Potez 63 były dwusilnikowymi dolnopłatami wolnonośnymi z podwójnym usterzeniem kierunku, o konstrukcji całkowicie metalowej, półskorupowej. Podwozie samolotu klasyczne, wciągane w locie do gondol silnikowych. Załoga trzyosobowa: pilot, nawigator/obserwator i strzelec pokładowy/radiooperator (Potez 630, 631 C3, 637, 63.11) lub dwuosobowa (Potez 633, 631 CN2). Potez 63.11 miał stanowisko obserwatora w oszklonym nosie kadłuba, a na górze kadłuba znajdowała się osobna kabina pilota ze stanowiskiem strzelca w jej tylnej części. Pozostałe wersje miały wspólną kabinę załogi z długą przeszloną osłoną, której fragmenty były odsuwane.

Potez 63.11 uzbrojony był standardowo w 3 karabiny maszynowe MAC kal. 7,5 mm: 1 stały pod kadłubem, strzelający do przodu i uruchamiany przez pilota, 1 ruchomy strzelca w górnym stanowisku strzeleckim i 1 stały pod kadłubem, strzelający w tył pod kątem 5° w dół. Część samolotów miało wzmocnione uzbrojenie, mogły one mieć 2 lub 3 stałe km pilota i 3 stałe km strzelające do dołu w tył. Pod skrzydłami można było podwiesić 4 bomby o masie 50 kg. Ponadto, samolot mógł zabierać 4 karabiny maszynowe podczepione w gondolach pod skrzydłami, co w maksymalnym wariancie dawało 11 karabinów maszynowych.

Potez 631 uzbrojony był w dwa działka 20 mm Hispano-Suiza S9 lub HS404 w nosie kadłuba i 1 ruchomy karabin maszynowy w górnym stanowisku strzeleckim (niektóre samoloty miały jedno działko i karabin maszynowy w nosie kadłuba). Na części samolotów późnych serii wzmacniano uzbrojenie przez dodanie 4 karabinów maszynowych MAC kal. 7,5 mm pod skrzydłami.

dwa silniki gwiazdowe, chłodzone powietrzem. Pojemność zbiorników paliwa: 946 l (Potez 63.11) lub 758 l (inne wersje).

Le Potez 630 fut originellement construit selon les spécifications demandées en 1934 pour la fabrication d'un chasseur lourd (qui amenèrent également la série des Breguet 690). Le premier vol du prototype eut lieu en 1936 et démontra alors d'excellentes qualités de vol.

Le Potez 630 était un monoplan entièrement métallique à ailes basses et empennage bi-dérive. Une longue verrière abritait le pilote, un observateur ou un commandant de mission, qui était seulement là si la mission le demandait, et un mitrailleur arrière qui maniait une mitrailleuse légère simple MAC 34 de 7,5 mm.

Après quelques changements mineurs, une commande pour 80 appareils fut passée en 1937. Dans le même temps, 80 chasseurs Potez 631 C3 furent commandés, ces derniers étant équipés de moteur Gnome et Rhône 14M en étoile plutôt que les Hispano-Suiza 14AB10/11 des Potez 630. 50 Potez 631 supplémentaires furent commandés en 1938, dont 20 destinés à la Finlande, qu'ils n'atteignirent jamais.

La motorisation du Potez 630 n'était pas exceptionnelle. La totalité de la production de série française souffrait du même handicap. Avec des moteurs conçus en 1935, il avait peu d'espoir de survie dans le ciel de 1940.

Les moteurs du Potez 630 se révélèrent si fragiles que la plupart des unités furent rééquipées avec des Potez 631 avant le début de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Ce dernier était inefficace comme intercepteur, moins rapide que certains bombardiers allemands et 130 km/h plus lent que les Bf-109E, cependant il resta en service jusqu'à l'armistice du 22 juin 1940.

Le Potez 633 connut le service opérationnel très brièvement dans l'aéronautique navale et l'Armée de l'Air quand des appareils de deux unités effectuèrent une sortie dans le secteur d'Arras le 20 mai 1940 deux jours plus tard les appareils furent retirés du front. Il y eut plusieurs cas de tir ami car on le confondait parfois avec le Messerschmitt Bf 110 [ 3 ] .

Les Potez 633 exportés en Grèce et en Roumanie virent plus d'actions, en nombre limité. Les Roumains les utilisèrent contre l'URSS et les Grecs durant la guerre italo-grecque. Un petit nombre de Potez 633 originellement destinés à la Chine furent réquisitionnés par l'administration coloniale en Indochine française et prirent part à la guerre franco-thaïlandaise au début de 1941.

Plus de 700 Potez 63.11 furent livrés avant juin 1940 . Parmi ceux-ci, plus de 220 furent détruits ou abandonnés, en dépit de l'ajout d'une mitrailleuse supplémentaire : les plus lourdes pertes de tous les appareils français. Le Potez 63.11 continua à être utilisé par l'armée de l'air des forces de Vichy, entre autres, un groupe de chasse de nuit en est équipé lors de l'invasion de la Zone Libre. La production reprit sous contrôle allemand et un nombre significatif d'appareils fut utilisé par les Allemands, pour la plupart comme avion de liaison ou d'entraînement.

Tous les appareils de cette famille (à l'exception peut-être du Potez 63.11) possédaient des caractéristiques de vol agréables. Ils étaient conçus pour une maintenance facile et les derniers modèles avaient même un armement lourd pour l'époque (jusqu'à 12 mitrailleuses légères pour le Potez 63.11). Bien que de conception légère, ils démontrèrent qu'ils étaient capables d'absorber des dommages considérables. Malheureusement, les Potez 63, comme beaucoup d'appareils français de cette époque, n'avaient tout simplement pas des moteurs assez puissants pour leur assurer des performances convenables. En condition de combat réel, ils se révélèrent des proies faciles pour les Messerschmitt, tout comme leurs contemporains britanniques, le Fairey Battle et le Bristol Blenheim. Leur ressemblance avec les Bf 110 (bimoteur, empennage bi-dérive, long cockpit vitré) entraîna apparemment des pertes par des tirs amis.

Contrairement à la plupart des appareils français contemporains, la production des Potez fut raisonnablement rapide et les premières livraisons effectuées avant la fin de 1938. Le Potez 63 était conçu pour faciliter la production de masse et il en résulta qu'un Potez 630 était plus rapide et moins cher à construire qu'un Morane-Saulnier M.S.406. Tandis que le rythme de production augmentait, un certain nombre de modèles expérimentaux et de dérivés furent développés.

Versions de chasse Modifier

Une caractéristique typique des modèles 630 et 631 était leur armement frontal, qui consistait à la base en deux canons de 20 mm Hispano-Suiza HS-404 montés sous le fuselage, bien que parfois un des canons était remplacé par une mitrailleuse MAC 1934. Plus tard, les Potez 631 reçurent quatre mitrailleuses légères sous les ailes extérieures, il était même théoriquement possible d'en mettre six.

Tandis que le projet de chasseur de nuit Potez 635 CN2 était annulé et que le Potez 63.12 C3 équipé de moteurs en étoile Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp Junior restait à l'état de prototype, le premier lot de chasseurs lourds Potez 671 (dérivés du prototype Potez 670-01) était sur les chaines de montage quand les Allemands capturèrent l'usine SNCAN de Méaulte près d'Albert.

Prototypes Modifier

Les Potez 63.01 et 630.01 furent les deux premiers prototypes, ainsi que le Potez 630 CN.2 No.01, prototype de chasseur de nuit, et le premier modèle équipé en moteurs Gnome et Rhone: le Potez 631.01.

Versions d'entraînement Modifier

Un avion d'entraînement en double commande dérivé du Potez 630 fut proposé sous la dénomination Potez 634, mais l'Armée de l'air choisit à la place de mettre en ordre avec une conversion en moteur Gnome et Rhône, qui fut appelé Potez 631 Ins (pour instruction). Le Potez 63.16 T3 était un dérivé du 63.11 pour l'entrainement des équipages avec une largeur d'aile augmentée. Un seul prototype fut construit.

Versions de bombardement Modifier

Le Potez 633 B2 fut conçu pour répondre à la demande d'un bombardier léger biplace. Le Potez 633 conservait le fuselage, les ailes et les moteurs du 631 mais la position de l'observateur et les gondoles de canon furent supprimées tandis qu'une petite soute à bombes était ajoutée entre le pilote et le mitrailleur arrière. L'armement frontal consistait en une seule mitrailleuse légère dans le nez. La soute à bombes pouvait accueillir huit bombes de 50 kg ou deux de 200 kg . Il n'y avait pas d'officier de bombardement, le mitrailleur arrière dirigeait le bombardement grâce à un viseur de bombardement périscopique en avant de lui, une fonction qui se révéla irréalisable sur le terrain. Le premier bombardier biplace Potez 633.01 vola pour la première fois fin 1937. L'Armée de l'air commanda 133 Potez 633 en 1938, mais décida deux mois plus tard que tous les bombardiers légers devaient être triplaces, comme les Douglas DB-7 et Bloch MB.175. La commande pour les 633 fut donc transformée en plus de 631. Le 633 fut cependant proposé à l'exportation et obtint des commandes de la Roumanie, la Chine et la Grèce.

Un exemplaire du prototype de bombardier en piqué Potez 632 Bp.2 fut commencé, puis converti en Potez 633 équipé de moteur Hispano-Suiza. Il fut vendu à la Suisse pour évaluation. De la même manière, le seul prototype de bombardier biplace Potez 639 AB2 fut converti en Potez 633 standard.

1923� [ edit | edit source ]

After the Polish-Soviet war, the World War I vintage aircraft were gradually withdrawn, and the airforce was equipped mostly with French aircraft. From 1924󈞆, the typical fighter became SPAD 61 (280 planes). The standard light bombers also were French: Potez 15 (245), then Breguet XIX (250) and Potez 25 (316). Potez bombers were produced in Poland. The medium bombers were Farman Goliath and later a military variant of Fokker F-VII. Before developing fighters of its own design, 50 Czech biplane fighters Avia BH-33 were licence-produced under a designation PWS-A. The first Polish design was a high-wing fighter, PWS-10, which numbered 80 from 1932. The Polish naval airforce used a number of French flying boats, mainly Schreck FBA-17, LeO H-13, H-135 and Latham 43. All these aircraft were withdrawn from combat units by 1939.

As programs progressed…

January 1953 brought Argenteuil its first fuselage project, the Mystère IV A. The first fuselage was delivered in March 1954, 14 months after it was launched. Those were the heroic days that saw the Argenteuil plant consolidate its specialization and rise to become a prominent link in Dassault’s industrial chain. The Mystère IV, Super Mystère B2, Mirage III, Mirage IV, Mirage F-1, Mirage 2000, Falcon 900, Mirage 2000-5 and Rafale fuselages were subsequently manufactured there.

A pre-production MD 620 missile was produced there in 1964. Ten or so components were built before the 1967 embargo.

1965 saw the initial moves to set up a chemical milling operation. The Mirage F-1 thus became the first aircraft to use chemically-contoured coating panels. The light-alloy and plastic chemical milling workshops were built in 1966 and 1967.

Technical systems to design, produce and manage production developed at a staggering pace over the 1980s. Starting with the Mirage 2000 in 1979, CAD, CADM, CADAM and then CATIA tools altered the concept of production facilities radically. New technology and equipment inevitably reshaped the way work was organized, streamlining operations into integrated workshops dedicated to a family of parts and having all the tools they need to produce them.

Argenteuil began contributing the Falcon assembly in 1984.

Two recent milestones in Argenteuil’s history came in 1996, when it built its 7000th fuselage, and in 2002, when it celebrated its 50th anniversary.


In tegenstelling tot veel moderne Franse vliegtuigen, was de productie van het Potez-vliegtuig redelijk snel en de eerste leveringen vonden plaats voor het einde van 1938. De 63 was ontworpen met het oog op massaproductie en als gevolg daarvan was één Potez 630 goedkoper en sneller te vervaardigen. dan één Morane-Saulnier MS.406. Naarmate het productietempo toenam, werden ook een aantal afgeleiden en experimentele modellen ontwikkeld.

    • Prototypes.
    • Potez 630.01: Het tweede prototype
    • Potez 630 CN.2 No.01: Nachtjager prototype
    • Potez 631.01: Het eerste door Gnome-Rhone aangedreven prototype.
      • Trainers.
      • Potez 631 Ins: (voor instructie) 630 conversie met Gnome-Rhône-motoren.
      • Potez 63.16 T3: Een trainervariant van de 63.11 met verschillende, grotere vleugels. Er is slechts één prototype gebouwd.
        • Bommenwerpers.
        • Potez 633.01: Het eerste prototype van de tweezits bommenwerper vloog eind 1937. De Armée de l'air bestelde 133 Potez 633's in 1938, maar twee maanden later besloot dat alle vliegtuigen in de categorie lichte bommenwerpers drie bemand moesten hebben, zoals de Douglas DB-7 en Bloch MB.175. De Franse order voor 633s werd omgezet in een order voor meer 631s. De 633 werd echter aangeboden voor export en trok bestellingen aan uit Roemenië, China en Griekenland.
        • Potez 632 Bp.2: Een voorbeeld van het prototype van de duikbommenwerper werd gestart, maar voltooid als een 633 echter met Hispano-Suiza-motoren. Het werd voor evaluatie aan Zwitserland verkocht.
        • Potez 639 AB2: Het prototype van de enkele tweezits aanvalsbommenwerper werd omgebouwd tot een standaard 633.
          • Verkenningsvliegtuigen.

          Ontevreden over zijn strategische verkenningsvliegtuigen zoals de lastige Bloch MB.131, vereiste de Armée de l'air de ontwikkeling van een afgeleide van de Potez 631 voor deze rol.

          • Potez 637: Strategisch verkenningsvliegtuig. De waarnemer was gehuisvest in een gondel onder de romp deze regeling resulteerde in een vliegtuig dat de meeste kwaliteiten van de 631 behield. In augustus 1938 werden 60 exemplaren besteld en afgeleverd.

          Tegelijkertijd was de Armée de l'Air wanhopig op zoek naar een nieuwe uitrusting van zijn leger-samenwerkingseenheden, die over bijzonder verouderde uitrusting beschikten, maar sinds de ontwikkeling van de 637 was hij volledig van mening veranderd over hoe de positie van de waarnemer moest worden geregeld. Potez moest daarom een ​​variant ontwikkelen die, met behoud van de vleugels, motoren en staartvlakken van de 631, de waarnemer onderdak bood in een meer conventionele neuskas.

          • Potez 63.11: Omdat de piloot boven de waarnemer moest zitten, was de romp groter, wat resulteerde in een verminderde topsnelheid en manoeuvreerbaarheid. Als gevolg hiervan bleek de 63.11 erg kwetsbaar, ondanks dat hij werd beschermd met wat bepantsering en een zelfdichtende basiscoating over de brandstoftanks. Omdat een secundaire lichte bommenwerpercapaciteit deel uitmaakte van de vereisten (hoewel deze zelden of nooit werd gebruikt), bood de romp plaats aan een klein bommenruim met maximaal acht bommen van 10 kg. Dit bommenruim werd naar late voorbeelden vervangen door een extra brandstoftank. Bovendien konden twee bommen van 50 kg-klasse worden vervoerd op hardpoints onder de binnenvleugels. De frontale bewapening was er oorspronkelijk één, daarna waren er drie MAC 1934's onder de neus, en veel 63.11's waren uitgerust met dezelfde extra kanonnen in vleugelgondels als de 631's.

          De eerste Potez 63.11 No.1 en de tweede No.2 prototypes vlogen voor het eerst in december 1938, en niet minder dan 1.365 exemplaren waren in bestelling in september 1939, waarvan er 730 werden afgeleverd, waardoor de 63.11 verreweg de meest talrijke variant van de familie was.

          Een typisch kenmerk van de 630 en 631 was de frontale bewapening, die oorspronkelijk bestond uit twee 20 mm Hispano-Suiza HS.404 kanonnen in gondels onder de romp, hoewel soms een van de kanonnen werd vervangen door een MAC 1934. Later in hun carrière 631's ontvingen vier soortgelijke lichte machinegeweren in gondels onder de buitenvleugels, hoewel het theoretisch mogelijk was om er zes te plaatsen.

          Watch the video: И-16 (May 2022).