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Review: Volume 35 - Military History

Review: Volume 35 - Military History

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The weapons and armour of the Scottish warrior include some of historyâ s most famous and recognisable arms. From the mighty claymore two-handed sword to the diminutive sghian dubh, these instruments of warfare have given the military history of Scotland a distinctive flavour. Carried by men such as William Wallace, Robert the Bruce, and Bonnie Prince Charlie and used on the battlefields of Stirling Bridge, Bannockburn, Flodden and Culloden, they have become symbols of Scottish heritage and national identity.

In battle at Culloden Moor on 16 April 1746 the Jacobite cause was dealt a mortal blow. The power of the Highland clans was broken. And the image of sword-wielding Highlanders charging into a hail of lead delivered by the red-coated battalions of the Hanoverian army has passed into legend. The battle was decisive - it was a turning point in British history. And yet our perception of this critical episode tends to be confused by mistaken, sometimes partisan views of the events on the battlefield. So, what really happened at Culloden? In this fascinating and original book, a team of leading historians and archaeologists reconsiders every aspect of the battle. They examine the latest historical and archaeological evidence, question every assumption, and rewrite the story of the campaign in vivid detail. This is the first time that such a distinguished team of experts has focused on a single British battle. The result is a seminal study of the subject, and it is a landmark publication of battlefield archaeology.

The simple castles raised after the Norman conquest had been developed throughout 11th and 12th centuries, whilst the introduction of Islamic and Byzantine fortification techniques from the late 12th century led to further developments in castle architecture. These fortifications were to be well tested throughout the course of the 13th century as England was riven by the conflict, characterized by prolonged sieges, between the monarchy and powerful magnates. As well as providing the focus for warfare, castles increasingly became the centres of their communities, providing a more permanent base for the lord, his family and retainers, as well as acting as centres for justice and administration.

Alexander the Great is one of the most famous men in history, and many believe he was the greatest military genius of all time (Julius Caesar wept at the feet of his statue in envy of his achievements). Most of his thirteen year reign as king of Macedon was spent in hard campaigning which conquered half the known world, during which he was never defeated in open battle and never besieged a city he did not take. Yet, while biographies of Alexander abound, there are relatively few full-length books dedicated to the Macedonian army which made his dazzling conquests possible and which proved itself the most formidable machine of the age. Stephen English investigates every aspect of the Macedonian forces, analysing the recruitment, equipment, organisation, tactics, command and control of the fighting arms (including the famous pike phalanxes, elite Hypaspists and incomparable Companion cavalry),Some of Alexander's most famous battles and sieges are described in detail to show the army in action. With forensic thoroughness he draws on recent archaeological evidence and scholarship to present a detailed portrait of the army which demonstrated a superiority over its opponents equal to (but much longer-lasting than) that enjoyed by the German forces in the blitzkrieg campaigns of 1939/40. Alexnader's navy is also covered.

Book Reviews

Dement, Sidney Eric. Pushkin's Monument and Allusion: Poem, Statue, Performance. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2019. xii + 275 pp. $75.00. ISBN 978-1-4875-0552-3.

Guay, Robert E., ed. Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment: Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford Studies in Philosophy and Literature. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019. xv + 220 pp. $24.95 (paper). ISBN: 978-0-19-046402-8

Shkandrij, Myroslav. Avant-garde Art in Ukraine, 1910–1930: Contested Memory. Boston: Academic Studies Press, 2018. 202 pp. $99.00. ISBN 978-1-6181-1975-9.

Ament, Suzanne. Sing to Victory! Song in Soviet Society during World War II. Brighton, MA: Academic Studies Press, 2019. xxii + 301 pp. $109.00. ISBN 978-1-61811-839-4.

Fairclough, Pauline. Critical Lives of Dmitri Shostakovich. London: Reaktion Books, 2019. 190 pp. £11.99 (paper). ISBN 978-1-78914-127-4.

Morse, Ainsley, Maria Vassileva, and Maya Vinokur, eds. Linor Goralik: Found Life: Poems, Stories, Comics, a Play, and an Interview. Russian Library. New York: Columbia University Press, 2017. xvii + 377 pp. $14.95 (paper). ISBN 978-0-2311-8351-2.

Salys, Rimgaila, ed. The Contemporary Russian Cinema Reader, 2005–2016. Boston: Academic Studies Press, 2019. 402 pages. $29.95 (paper). ISBN 978-1-6181-1964-3.

Tihanov, Galin. The Birth and Death of Literary Theory: Regimes of Relevance in Russia and Beyond. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2019. xiv + 258 pp. $60.00. ISBN 978-0-8047-8522-8.

Kostetskaya, Anastasia. Russian Symbolism in Search of Transcendental Liquescence: Iconizing Emotion by Blending Time, Media, and the Senses. Crosscurrents: Russia's Literature in Context. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2019. xxviii + 156 pp. $90.00. ISBN 978-1-4985-9182-9.

Reese, Kevin. Celestial Hellscapes: Cosmology as the Key to the Strugatskiis' Science Fictions. Boston: Academic Studies Press, 2019. 278 pp. $109.00. ISBN 978-1-6181-1979-7.

Lenkhoff, Geil [Gail Lenhoff]. Kniaz' Feodor Chernyi v russkoi istorii i kul'ture: Issledovanie i teksty. Moscow: Al'ian-Arkheo, 2019. 350 pp. R750.00. ISBN 978-5-98874-168-8.

Halperin, Charles J. Ivan the Terrible: Free to Reward and Free to Punish. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2019. 360 pp. $45.00. ISBN 978-0-8229-4591-8.

Berelovich, Vladimir, Vladislav Rzheutskii, and Igor' Fediukin, eds. Ideal vospitaniia dvorianstva v Evrope, XVII–XIX veka. Historia Rossica. Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2018. 492 pp. R320.00. ISBN 978-5-444-80780-4.

Libbey, James K. Foundations of Russian Military Flight, 1885–1925. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2019. xii,+ 244 pp. $38.00. ISBN 978-1-68247-423-5.

Lomb, Samantha. Stalin's Constitution: Soviet Participatory Politics and the Discussion of the 1936 Draft Constitution. London: Routledge, 2018. xiii + 178 pp. $101.47. ISBN 978-1-138-72184-5.

Waterlow, Jonathan. It's Only a Joke, Comrade! Humour, Trust and Everyday Life under Stalin. Oxford: n.p., 2018. xxii + 285 pp. £14.99 (paper). ISBN 978-1-9856-3582-1.

Rimmington, Anthony. Stalin's Secret Weapon: The Origins of Soviet Biological Warfare. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. xiv + 262 pp. $45.00. ISBN 978-0-19-092885-8.

Launius, Roger D. Reaching for the Moon: A Short History of the Space Race. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2019. viii + 248 pp. $30.00. ISBN 978-0-300-23046-8.

Pazderka, Josef, ed. The Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968: The Russian Perspective. Harvard Cold War Studies. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2019. xvi + 288 pp. $95.00. ISBN 978-1-7936-0292-3.

Bykova, Marina F., and Vladislav A. Lektorsky, eds. Philosophical Thought in Russia in the Second Half of the 20 th Century: A Contemporary View from Russia and Abroad. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2019. xii + 430 pp. $176.00. ISBN 978-1-3500-4058-8.

Hudson, Jennifer M. Iron Curtain Twitchers: Russo-American Cold War Relations. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2019. xxx + 338 pp. $115.00. ISBN 978-1-4985-5926-3.

Lakhtikova, Anastasia, Angela Brintlinger and Irina Glushchenko. Seasoned Socialism: Gender and Food in Late Soviet Everyday Life. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2019. xvii + 373 pp. $35.00 (paper). ISBN 978-0-253-04096-1.

Siegelbaum, Lewis H. Stuck on Communism: Memoir of a Russian Historian. Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies. Ithaca: Northern Illinois University Press, 2019. x + 202 pp. $27.95 (paper). ISBN 978-1-5017-4737-3.

S ocial S ciences , C ontemporary R ussia , and O ther

Schechter, Brandon M. The Stuff of Soldiers: A History of the Red Army in World War II through Objects. Battlegrounds: Cornell Studies in Military History. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2019. xxvi + 315 pp. $36.95. ISBN 978-1-5017-3979-8.

Epstein, Mikhail. The Phoenix of Philosophy: Russian Thought of the Late Soviet Period (1953–1991). New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2019. viii + 300 pp. $120.00. ISBN 978-1-5013-1639-5.

Reddaway, Peter. The Dissidents: A Memoir of Working with the Resistance in Russia, 1960–1990. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 2019. vii + 316 pp. $29.99. ISBN 978-0-8157-3773-5.

Kovalev, Andrei. Russia's Dead End: An Insider's Testimony from Gorbachev to Putin. Translated by Steven I. Levine. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2017. xliv + 347 pp. $24.95 (paper). ISBN 978-1-64012-233-8.

Grant, Thomas D. International Law and the Post-Soviet Space I: Essays on Chechnya and the Baltic States. Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society 199. Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag, 2019. xxxv + 405 pp. $50.00 (paper). ISBN 978-3-83821-279-1.

Grant, Thomas D. International Law and the Post-Soviet Space II: Essays on Ukraine, Intervention, and Non-Proliferation. Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society 200. Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag, 2019. xlii + 480 pp. $50.00 (paper). ISBN 978-3-83821-280-7.

Nordenman, Magnus. The New Battle for the Atlantic: Emerging Competition with Russia in the Far North. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2019. xv + 244 pp. $38.00. ISBN 978-1-68247-285-5.

Güney, Nurşin Ateşoğlu, ed. The New Geopolitical Realities for Russia: From the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2019. xviii + 143 pp. $90.00. ISBN 978-1-7936-0244-2.

Van der Pijl, Kees. Flight MH17, Ukraine and the New Cold War: Prism of Disaster. Geopolitical Economy. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2018. 208 pp. £18.99. ISBN 978-1-5261-3109-6.

Rubin, Dominic. Russia's Muslim Heartlands: Islam in the Putin Era. London: Hurst and Company, 2018. xi + 345 pp. $29.95. ISBN 978-1-84904-896-5.

Adamsky, Dmitry. Russian Nuclear Orthodoxy: Religion, Politics, and Strategy. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2019. 376 pp. $30.00. ISBN 978-1-5036-0864-1.

Medvedev, Sergei. The Return of the Russian Leviathan. New York: Polity Books, 2019. 250 pp. $69.95. ISBN 978-1-5095-3604-7.

Rowley, Alison. Putin Kitsch in America. Quebec: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2019. ix + 197 pp. $27.95. ISBN 978-0-7735-5901-1.

Smith, Mark B. The Russia Anxiety: And How History Can Resolve It. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019. xxv + 480 pp. $29.95. ISBN 978-0-1908-8605-9.

SIAM Review

This expository paper explores the relationships among a number of algorithms for solving eigenvalue problems, including the power method, subspace iteration, the $QR$ algorithm, and the Arnoldi and symmetric Lanczos algorithms. The symmetric Lanczos algorithm is shown to be identical to the three-term recursion (Stieltjes procedure) for computing orthogonal polynomials with respect to a measure on the real line. The connection between measures on the line and symmetric tridiagonal (Jacobi) matrices is investigated. If such a matrix is transformed by a step of the $QR$ algorithm, there is a corresponding transformation in the measure. The tridiagonal matrices are also exploited for the construction of Gaussian quadrature formulas for measures on the line. The developments on the real line are replicated with suitable modifications on the unit circle via Lanczos-like procedures for unitary operators. The best-known procedure of this type is the recursion of Szego for computing orthogonal polynomials on the unit circle. The approach taken in this paper is to develop recursions that compute orthogonal Laurent polynomials (rational functions) rather than polynomials. These recursions are then modified to yield the Szegö recursion.

Technology and the West

This broad-ranging anthology provides a condensed overview of technology in Western civilization. Its twenty-one carefully selected articles and overview essays demonstrate the complex relationship between technological and social change from antiquity to the present. Specific topics include the origins of contemporary social and political institutions in the irrigation civilizations of antiquity, technology and the military, popular perceptions of the early industrial revolution in Europe, the difference between invention and innovation, the role of government in the development of technology, the nature of technical expertise, and nuclear power and the environment.

General readers and students will find this collection accessible and engaging.

Introduction by Terry S. Reynolds, Stephen H. Cutcliffe.
Overview: Technology and History: "Kranzberg’s Laws"
Melvin Kranzberg
Technology and the West Through Britain’s Industrial Revolution (To Ca. 1850)
Technology in the Preindustrial West
Terry S. Reynolds, Stephen H. Cutcliffe.
The First Technological Revolution and Its Lessons
Peter F. Drucker
Greek Catapults and Catapult Technology: Science, Technology, and War in the Ancient World
Barton C. Hacker
The Technical Act: The Act of Invention: Causes, Contexts, Continuities and Consequences
Lynn White, Jr
Air Pollution and Fuel Crises in Preindustrial London, 1250-1650
William H. Te Brake
The Replacement of the Longbow by Firearms in the English Army
Thomas Esper
On the Social Explanation of Technical Change: The Case of the Portuguese Maritime Expansion
John Law
Muskets and Pendulums: Benjamin Robins, Leonhard Euler, and the Ballistics Revolution
Brett D. Steele
The Philosophy of Luddism: The Case of the West of England Woolen Workers, ca. 1790-1809
Adrian J. Randall
Roads, Railways, and Canals: Technical Choices in 19th-Century Britain
Francis T. Evans
The Expansion and Diffusion of Western Industrial Technology (Ca. 1850 to Present)
Technology and the Industrial West
Terry S. Reynolds, Stephen H. Cutcliffe.
Economic Development and the Transfer in Technology: Some Historical Perspectives
Nathan Rosenberg
The Weapons of the West: Military Technology and Modernization in 19th-Century China and Japan
Barton C. Hacker
The "Industrial Revolution" in the Home: Household Technology and Social Change in the 20th Century
Ruth Schwartz Cowan
The Development of the Diesel Engine
Lynwood Bryant
The Emergence of Basic Research in the Bell Telephone System, 1875-1915
Lillian Hoddeson
Flexibility and Mass Production at War: Aircraft Manufacture in Britain, the United States, and Germany, 1939-1945
Jonathan Zeitlin
Spage-Age Europe: Gaullism, Euro-Gaullism, and the American Dilemma
Walter A. McDougall
Nuclear Power and the Environment: The Atomic Energy Commission and Thermal Pollution, 1965-1971
J. Samuel Walker

Osiris, Volume 35

Since the early modern period, science has played an ever-growing role in healthcare, agriculture, the regulation of food and drink trades, and the standardization of nutrition guidelines. Yet until now, few studies had explored the historical processes through which scientific claims of knowledge gained the power to shape food supply chains and consumer choices. This volume of Osiris reveals how sciences of food have been informed by, and helped to shape in turn, an array of institutions, labor regimes, cultural practices, and ethical commitments.

The essays delve into a range of topics, from early modern dietetics and debates about cannibalism to modern ready-to-eat rations and Ayurvedic recipes, from analyses of hungry model organisms to the dining rituals of Silicon Valley entrepreneurs and their patrons. As Food Matters shows, the history of knowledge about food has always raised debates about the shifting definition and boundaries of expertise: between traditional recipes and experimental protocols between domestic craft skill and laboratory procedure between the management and redistribution of resources for the social body on the one hand, and the subjective experiences of individual bodies on the other. At a moment when the authority of science is being questioned by a variety of publics, Food Matters is a timely reminder that such tensions, always present in food-related domains, reflect broader historical developments through which science became a prevalent force in shaping all aspects of public and private life.

On the Virtues of Historical Entomophagy
E. C. Spary and Anya Zilberstein

A Natural History of the Kitchen
Anita Guerrini

Digesting Faith: Eating God, Man, and Meat in Seventeenth-Century Rome
Bradford Bouley

Food, Population, and Empire in the Hartlib Circle, 1639&ndash1660
Ted McCormick

Perceptions of Provenance: Conceptions of Wine, Health, and Place in Louis XIV&rsquos France
Alissa Aron

Why Drink Water? Diet, Materialisms, and British Imperialism
Joyce E. Chaplin

The Shape of Meat: Preserving Animal Flesh in Victorian Britain
Rebecca J. H. Woods

The Introduction of Chemical Dyes into Food in the Nineteenth Century
Carolyn Cobbold

The Technopolitics of Food: The Case of German Prison Food from the Late Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries
Ulrike Thoms

Nutritional Modernity: The German Case
Corinna Treitel

The Scientific Lives of Chicha: The Production of a Fermented Beverage and the Making of Expert Knowledge in Bogotá, 1889&ndash1939
Stefan Pohl-Valero

Historicizing &ldquoIndian Systems of Knowledge&rdquo: Ayurveda, Exotic Foods, and Contemporary Antihistorical Holisms
Projit Bihari Mukharji

Local Food and Transnational Science: New Boundary Issues of the Caterpillar Fungus in Republican China
Di Lu

Hungry, Thinking with Animals: Psychology and Violence at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
Dana Simmons

World War II and the Quest for Time-Insensitive Foods
Deborah Fitzgerald

Meat Mimesis: Laboratory-Grown Meat as a Study in Copying
Benjamin Aldes Wurgaft

Breakfast at Buck&rsquos: Informality, Intimacy, and Innovation in Silicon Valley
Steven Shapin


It is rare that the acquisition of a slide-based artwork into a fine art museum collection consists of unique in-camera originals as these works are usually sold as editions and the artist will typically retain the master slides. A common scenario is that museums will obtain a number of sets of slides that are first-generation duplicates from the in-camera original, with an additional clause in the artist’s certificate that future copies should be requested from the artist. There is often an assumption that the museum will use the duplicates provided for display.

The quality of the slides that a museum receives varies. An artist such as James Coleman employs an archivist and his slides are tightly managed and kept under controlled environmental conditions. All of his images have been shot on identical slide stock using the same camera. The slide duplicates that form part of the acquisition are produced as three identical sets made at the same time, using the same stock and the same duplicating machine.

Works by other artists may be produced in a more ad hoc fashion and be created and stored under less strictly controlled conditions. It is not unknown for slides that form the artist’s master set to have been used for display and to have faded or suffered damage. Duplicates taken from these for subsequent exhibitions are produced by different labs on different stock and it is from these slides that a selection is often made and given to the museum as part of the acquisition.

These very different scenarios may be indicative of the failings of a commercial gallery to understand what is involved in managing these works or the different artistic context in which these artworks were created. As touched upon earlier in this paper, in some cases slides may have been chosen by the artist as a precise aesthetic visual medium whereas in other cases they may have been used more as a tool for documentation, as in, for example, the context of conceptual art practices. When slides have been used more as a tool for documentation than as a precise aesthetic medium it is perhaps more common that the production and management of both the original master slides and their duplication has been less precisely managed.

Artist interviews are a standard tool of contemporary conservation practice. These interviews are formal moments in an ongoing dialogue between the artist and the museum that often continues for many years. The first interview is commonly conducted between conservators and the artist when a work comes into the collection, followed by the second interview at the point when the work is requested for display. During these interviews it is essential that the demise of 35 mm technology be discussed so that it is possible for conservators to work with these artists to understand more clearly the significance of slide technology to their works and to plan for the future of the work.

An Odious Story

A narrative history from the peak of Hitler’s powers up to his demise.

Some 75 years after their demise, Hitler and the Third Reich are arguably bigger business now than they have ever been. Their story still dominates television history, while popular history publishing is seemingly as dependent as ever on repackaging and reselling the baleful story of the former Bohemian corporal and his acolytes.

Bearing that in mind, it is interesting to note the arrival of the second volume of Frank McDonough’s The Hitler Years, taking events from the beginning of 1940 – with Hitler arguably at the peak of his powers – up to that grim demise in 1945. McDonough, a professor of international history at Liverpool John Moores University, is the author of a number of excellent monographs on, for instance, the Gestapo, or the run up to war in 1939.

The Hitler Years marks something of a departure, however, aiming squarely at a more popular market, with a straightforward chronological narrative which – while drawing on the author’s academic background – nonetheless wears its expertise lightly. The result is an impressive tome, beautifully presented, with a host of illustrations.

McDonough’s narrative rattles along, constantly engaging and enlightening and thankfully free from turgid academic jargon and modish buzzwords. Narrative is a skill the importance of which is perhaps underestimated in academic circles, where other aspects of the historian’s art are nowadays more highly prized. Yet the difficulty of maintaining tension and engaging the reader over 600 pages of a familiar story should not be underestimated. In that task, McDonough succeeds admirably.

McDonough is also reassuringly sensible in the historiographical positions that he adopts. He errs towards the structuralist view on the Holocaust, for instance, concluding that that monstrous crime was ‘not as coordinated or as predetermined as is often supposed’. He is also scathing of the view, now thankfully rather rare among serious commentators, that Hitler alone drove events, suggesting that the Führer and his senior commanders were much more united in outlook and intention than the latter were ever willing to admit.

Despite its impressive narrative sweep, The Hitler Years is arguably at its best when it detours into discrete, set-piece digressions, such as those on the White Rose protests led by the student Sophie Scholl – a subject especially close to the author’s heart – or the Stauffenberg bomb plot of July 1944. On these areas, McDonough is a sure-footed guide, as confident in relating the minutiae as he is with the bigger picture and adept at weaving the two together into a coherent whole.

There are a few caveats, of course. A book with as broad a scope as this would have benefited from a few more maps and some of those that there are would have benefited from a specialist eye. Also, though it is understandable that the primary focus should be on events in the various military theatres, a few more diversions to the German home front would have served well to explain better how that country continued the fight long after the possibility of victory had eluded it.

But these are minor points. The Hitler Years is no half-hearted rehash, it is a treat of narrative history. It may be a little thin on novelty, but it is a splendid work of synthesis and, as such, it is as readable as it is authoritative. Rarely has the odious story of the Third Reich been so elegantly presented.

The Hitler Years: Disaster 1940-1945
Frank McDonough
Head of Zeus 656pp £35

Roger Moorhouse’s latest book is First to Fight: The Polish War 1939 (The Bodley Head, 2019).

Today in History: Born on June 27

Henry VIII, King of England (1509-1547), founder of the Church of England.

Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter.

Jean Jacques Rousseau, French social philosopher (The Social Contract).

Luigi Pirandello, Italian playwright (Six Characters in Search of an Author).

Alexis Carrel, Nobel Prize-winning French surgeon and biologist.

Esther Forbes, author (Johnny Tremain).

Richard Rodgers, American composer.

Maria Goeppert Mayer, Nobel Prize-winning physicist.

Eric Ambler, British mystery writer (The Dark Frontier, Uncommon Danger).

Mel Brooks, comedian, actor, and director (The Producers, Blazing Saddles).

Available Issues

The Innes Review is a fully peer-reviewed journal promoting the study of the history of Catholic Scotland. It covers all aspects of Scottish history and culture, especially ones related to religious history.

Published continuously by the Scottish Catholic Historical Association since 1950, it contains articles and book reviews on a wide field of ecclesiastical, cultural, liturgical, architectural, literary and political history from earliest times to the present day. It is named after Thomas Innes (1662-1744), a missionary priest, historian, and archivist of the Scots College in Paris whose impartial scholarship stood out amongst the denominational prejudices of the time.

Editors and Editorial Board


Dr John Reuben Davies (University of Glasgow)

Assistant Editor

Dr Linden Bicket (University of Edinburgh)

Reviews Editor

Dr Miles Kerr-Peterson (University of Glasgow)
Please send books for review to Miles Kerr-Peterson, c/o 45 Grovepark Street, Glasgow, G20 7NZ

Editorial Board

Professor Dauvit Broun (University of Glasgow)
Professor S. J. Brown (University of Edinburgh)
Professor Thomas Owen Clancy (University of Glasgow)
Professor David N. Dumville (University of Aberdeen)
Professor John J. Haldane (University of St Andrews)
Professor Máire Herbert (University College, Cork)
Dr S. Karly Kehoe (Saint Mary's University, Canada)
Professor Michael Lynch (University of Edinburgh)
Professor Graeme Morton (University of Dundee)
Professor Clotilde Prunier (Université Paris Nanterre)
Dr Steven Reid (University of Glasgow)
Professor Daniel Szechi (University of Manchester)
Dr Eila Williamson (University of Glasgow)


The Scottish Catholic Historical Association promotes the study of Scotland's religious past in all its facets. It does this primarily through its journal The Innes Review which has been published continuously since 1950.

The Innes Review is dedicated to the study of the part played by the Catholic Church in the history of the Scottish nation. It is named after Thomas Innes (1662-1744), a missionary priest, historian and archivist of the Scots College in Paris whose impartial scholarship and helpful cooperation did much to overcome the denominational prejudices of his age.

The Scottish Catholic Historical Association holds annual conferences. Please click here for further information on the Association conferences. Previous conferences have focused on 'Glasgow - a story worth telling' (2008), 'Diaspora' (2009) and 'Liturgy and the Nation' (2010).'

Individual subscriptions to The Innes Review include membership of the Association. Click here for information on how to subscribe to the journal and join the Association.

Please click here for further information about the Scottish Catholic Historical Association.

Review: Volume 35 - Military History - History

An Indian's Views of Indian Affairs.
Digital History ID 4054

Annotation: Chief Joseph in the North American Review.

Document: An Indian's Views of Indian Affairs.

I wish that I had words at command in which to express adequately the interest with which I have read the extraordinary narrative which follows, and which I have the privilege of introducing to the readers of this Review. I feel, however, that this apologia is so boldly marked by the charming naiveté and tender pathos which characterize the red-man, that it needs no introduction, much less any authentication while in its smothered fire, in its deep sense of eternal righteousness and of present evil, and in its hopeful longings for the coming of a better time, this Indian chief’s appeal reminds us of one of the old Hebrew prophets of the days of the captivity.

I have no special knowledge of the history of the Nez Perces, the Indians whose tale of sorrow Chief Joseph so pathetically tells my Indian missions lying in a part at the West quite distant from their old home--and am not competent to judge their case upon its merits. The chief’s narrative is, of course, ex parte , and many of his statements would no doubt be ardently disputed. General Howard, for instance, can hardly receive justice at his hands, so well known is he for his friendship to the Indian and for his distinguished success in pacifying some of the most desperate.

It should be remembered, too, in justice to the army, that it is rarely called upon to interfere in Indian affairs until the relations between the Indians and the whites have reached a desperate condition, and when the situation of affairs has become so involved and feeling on both sides runs so high that perhaps only more than human forbearance would attempt to solve the difficulty by disentangling the knot and not by cutting it.

Nevertheless, the chief’s narrative is marked by so much candor, and so careful is he to qualify his statements, when qualification seems necessary, that every reader will give him credit for speaking his honest, even should they be thought by some to be mistaken, convictions. The chief, in his treatment of his defense, reminds one of those lawyers of whom we have heard that their splendid success was gained, not by disputation, but simply by their lucid and straightforward statement of their case. That he is something of a strategist as well as an advocate appears from this description of an event which occurred shortly after the breaking out of hostilities:

We crossed over Salmon River, hoping General Howard would follow. We were not disappointed. He did follow us, and we got between him and his supplies, and cut him off for three days. Occasionally the reader comes upon touches of those sentiments and feelings which at once establish a sense of kinship between all who possess them. Witness his description of his desperate attempt to rejoin his wife and children when a sudden dash of General Miles’s soldiers had cut the Indian camp in two: About seventy men, myself among them, were cut off. . . . I thought of my wife and children, who were now surrounded by soldiers, and I resolved to go to them. With a prayer in my mouth to the Great Spirit Chief who rules above, I dashed unarmed through the line of soldiers. . . . My clothes were cut to pieces, my horse was wounded, but I was not hurt. And again, when he speaks of his father’s death: I saw he was dying. I took his hand in mine. He said: “My son, my body is returning to my mother Earth, and my spirit is going very soon to see the Great Spirit Chief. A few more years and the white men will be all around you. They have their eyes on this land. My son, never forget my dying words. This country holds your father’s body--never sell the bones of your father and your mother. I pressed my father’s hand, and told him I would protect his grave with my life. My father smiled, and passed away to the spirit-land. I buried him in that beautiful valley of Winding Waters. I love that land more than all the rest of the world. A man who would not love his father’s grave is worse than a wild animal.”

His appeals to the natural rights of man are surprisingly fine, and, however some may despise them as the utterances of an Indian, they are just those which, in our Declaration of Independence, have been most admired. “We are all sprung from a woman,” he says, “although we are unlike in many things. You are as you were made, and, as you were made, you can remain. We are just as we were made by the Great Spirit, and you can not change us then, why should children of one mother quarrel? Why should one try to cheat another? I do not believe that the Great Spirit Chief gave one kind of men the right to tell another kind of men what they must do.”

But I will not detain the readers of the “Review” from the pleasure of perusing for themselves Chief Josephs statement longer than is necessary to express the hope that those who have time for no more will at least read its closing paragraph, and to remark that the narrative brings clearly out these facts which ought to be regarded as well-recognized principles in dealing with the red-man: 1. The folly of any mode of treatment of the Indian which is not based upon a cordial and operative acknowledgment of his rights as our fellow man. 2. The danger of riding rough-shod over a people who are capable of high enthusiasm, who know and value their national rights, and are brave enough to defend them. 3. The liability to want of harmony between different departments and different officials of our complex Government, from which it results that, while many promises are made to the Indians, few of them are kept. It is a home-thrust when Chief Joseph says: “The white people have too many chiefs. They do not understand each other. . . . I can not understand how the Government sends a man out to fight us, as it did General Miles, and then break his word. Such a Government has something wrong about it.” 4. The unwisdom, in most cases in dealing with Indians, of what may be termed military short-cuts , instead of patient discussion, explanations, persuasion, and reasonable concessions. 5. The absence in an Indian tribe of any truly representative body competent to make a treaty which shall be binding upon all the bands. The failure to recognize this fact has been the source of endless difficulties. Chief Joseph, in this case, did not consider a treaty binding which his band had not agreed to, no matter how many other bands had signed it and so it has been in many other cases. 6. Indian chiefs, however able and influential, are really without power, and for this reason, as well as others, the Indians, when by the march of events they are brought into intimate relations with the whites, should at the earliest practicable moment be given the support and protection of our Government and of our law not local law, however, which is apt to be the result of special legislation, adopted solely in the interest of the stronger race.

WILLIAM II. HARE, Missionary Bishop of Niobrara.

My friends, I have been asked to show you my heart. I am glad to have a chance to do so. I want the white people to understand my people. Some of you think an Indian is like a wild animal. This is a great mistake. I will tell you all about our people, and then you can judge whether an Indian is a man or not. I believe much trouble and blood would be saved if we opened our hearts more. I will tell you in my way how the Indian sees things. The white man has more words to tell you how they look to him, but it does not require many words to speak the truth. What I have to say will come from my heart, and I will speak with a straight tongue. Ah-cum-kin-i-ma-me-hut (the Great Spirit) is looking at me, and will hear me.

My name is In-mut-too-yah-lat-lat (Thunder traveling over the Mountains). I am chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kin band of Chute-pa-lu, or Nez Perces (nose-pierced Indians). I was born in eastern Oregon, thirty-eight winters ago. My father was chief before me. When a young man, he was called Joseph by Mr. Spaulding, a missionary. He died a few years ago. There was no stain on his hands of the blood of a white man. He left a good name on the earth. He advised me well for my people.

Our fathers gave us many laws, which they had learned from their fathers. These laws were good. They told us to treat all men as they treated us that we should never be the first to break a bargain that it was a disgrace to tell a lie that we should speak only the truth that it was a shame for one man to take from another his wife, or his property without paying for it. We were taught to believe that the Great Spirit sees and hears everything, and that he never forgets that hereafter he will give every man a spirit-home according to his deserts: if he has been a good man, he will have a good home if he has been a bad man, he will have a bad home. This I believe, and all my people believe the same.

We did not know there were other people besides the Indian until about one hundred winters ago, when some men with white faces came to our country. They brought many things with them to trade for furs and skins. They brought tobacco, which was new to us. They brought guns with flint stones on them, which frightened our women and children. Our people could not talk with these white-faced men, but they used signs which all people understand. These men were Frenchmen, and they called our people ”Nez Perces,” because they wore rings in their noses for ornaments. Although very few of our people wear them now, we are still called by the same name. These French trappers said a great many things to our fathers, which have been planted in our hearts. Some were good for us, but some were bad. Our people were divided in opinion about these men. Some thought they taught more bad than good. An Indian respects a brave man, but he despises a coward. He loves a straight tongue, but he hates a forked tongue. The French trappers told us some truths and some lies.

The first white men of your people who came to our country were named Lewis and Clarke. They also brought many things that our people had never seen. They talked straight, and our people gave them a great feast, as a proof that their hearts were friendly. These men were very kind. They made presents to our chiefs and our people made presents to them. We had a great many horses, of which we gave them what they needed, and they gave us guns and tobacco in return. All the Nez Perces made friends with Lewis and Clarke, and agreed to let them pass through their country, and never to make war on white men. This promise the Nez Perces have never broken. No white man can accuse them of bad faith, and speak with a straight tongue. It has always been the pride of the Nez Perces that they were the friends of the white men. When my father was a young man there came to our country a white man (Rev. Mr. Spaulding) who talked spirit law. He won the affections of our people because he spoke good things to them. At first he did not say anything about white men wanting to settle on our lands. Nothing was said about that until about twenty winters ago, when a number of white people came into our country and built houses and made farms. At first our people made no complaint. They thought there was room enough for all to live in peace, and they were learning many things from the white men that seemed to be good. But we soon found that the white men were growing rich very fast, and were greedy to possess everything the Indian had. My father was the first to see through the schemes of the white men, and he warned his tribe to be careful about trading with them. He had suspicion of men who seemed so anxious to make money. I was a boy then, but I remember well my father’s caution. He had sharper eyes than the rest of our people.

Next there came a white officer (Governor Stevens), who invited all the Nez Perces to a treaty council. After the council was opened he made known his heart. He said there were a great many white people in the country, and many more would come that he wanted the land marked out so that the Indians and white men could be separated. If they were to live in peace it was necessary, he said, that the Indians should have a country set apart for them, and in that country they must stay. My father, who represented his band, refused to have anything to do with the council, because he wished to be a free man. He claimed that no man owned any part of the earth, and a man could not sell what he did not own.

Mr. Spaulding took hold of my fathers arm and said, “Come and sign the treaty.” My father pushed him away, and said: “Why do you ask me to sign away my country? It is your business to talk to us about spirit matters, and not to talk to us about parting with our land.” Governor Stevens urged my father to sign his treaty, but he refused. “I will not sign your paper,” he said “you go where you please, so do I you are not a child, I am no child I can think for myself. No man can think for me. I have no other home than this. I will not give it up to any man. My people would have no home. Take away your paper. I will not touch it with my hand.”

My father left the council. Some of the chiefs of the other bands of the Nez Perces signed the treaty, and then Governor Stevens gave them presents of blankets. My father cautioned his people to take no presents, for “after a while,” he said, “they will claim that you have accepted pay for your country.” Since that time four bands of the Nez Perces have received annuities from the United States. My father was invited to many councils, and they tried hard to make him sign the treaty, but he was firm as the rock, and would not sign away his home. His refusal caused a difference among the Nez Perces.

Eight years later (1863) was the next treaty council. A chief called Lawyer, because he was a great talker, took the lead in this council, and sold nearly all the Nez Perces country. My father was not there. He said to me: “When you go into council with the white man, always remember your country. Do not give it away. The white man will cheat you out of your home. I have taken no pay from the United States. I have never sold our land.” In this treaty Lawyer acted without authority from our band. He had no right to sell the Wallowa (winding water) country. That had always belonged to my fathers own people, and the other bands had never disputed our right to it. No other Indians ever claimed Wallowa.

In order to have all people understand how much land we owned, my father planted poles around it and said:

The United States claimed they had bought all the Nez Perces country outside of Lapwai Reservation, from Lawyer and other chiefs, but we continued to live on this land in peace until eight years ago, when white men began to come inside the bounds my father had set. We warned them against this great wrong, but they would not leave our land, and some bad blood was raised. The white men represented that we were going upon the war-path. They reported many things that were false.

The United States Government again asked for a treaty council. My father had become blind and feeble. He could no longer speak for his people. It was then that I took my fathers place as chief. In this council I made my first speech to white men. I said to the agent who held the council:

The agent said he had orders, from the Great White Chief at Washington, for us to go upon the Lapwai Reservation, and that if we obeyed he would help us in many ways. “You must move to the agency,” he said. I answered him: “I will not. I do not need your help we have plenty, and we are contented and happy if the white man will let us alone. The reservation is too small for so many people with all their stock. You can keep your presents we can go to your towns and pay for all we need we have plenty of horses and cattle to sell, and we won’t have any help from you we are free now we can go where we please. Our fathers were born here. Here they lived, here they died, here are their graves. We will never leave them.” The agent went away, and we had peace for a little while.

Soon after this my father sent for me. I saw he was dying. I took his hand in mine. He said: “My son, my body is returning to my mother earth, and my spirit is going very soon to see the Great Spirit Chief. When I am gone, think of your country. You are the chief of these people. They look to you to guide them. Always remember that your father never sold his country. You must stop your ears whenever you are asked to sign a treaty selling your home. A few years more and white men will be all around you. They have their eyes on this land. My son, never forget my dying words. This country holds your fathers body. Never sell the bones of your father and your mother.” I pressed my fathers hand and told him I would protect his grave with my life. My father smiled and passed away to the spirit-land.

I buried him in that beautiful valley of winding waters. I love that land more than all the rest of the world. A man who would not love his father’s grave is worse than a wild animal.

For a short time we lived quietly. But this could not last. White men had found gold in the mountains around the land of winding water. They stole a great many horses from us, and we could not get them back because we were Indians. The white men told lies for each other. They drove off a great many of our cattle. Some white men branded our young cattle so they could claim them. We had no friend who would plead our cause before the law councils. It seemed to me that some of the white men in Wallowa were doing these things on purpose to get up a war. They knew that we were not strong enough to fight them. I labored hard to avoid trouble and bloodshed. We gave up some of our country to the white men, thinking that then we could have peace. We were mistaken. The white man would not let us alone. We could have avenged our wrongs many times, but we did not. Whenever the Government has asked us to help them against other Indians, we have never refused. When the white men were few and we were strong we could have killed them all off, but the Nez Perces wished to live at peace.

If we have not done so, we have not been to blame. I believe that the old treaty has never been correctly reported. If we ever owned the land we own it still, for we never sold it. In the treaty councils the commissioners have claimed that our country had been sold to the Government. Suppose a white man should come to me and say, “Joseph, I like your horses, and I want to buy them.” I say to him, “No, my horses suit me, I will not sell them.” Then he goes to my neighbor, and says to him: “Joseph has some good horses. I want to buy them, but he refuses to sell.” My neighbor answers, “Pay me the money, and I will sell you Joseph’s horses.” The white man returns to me, and says, “Joseph, I have bought your horses, and you must let me have them.” If we sold our lands to the Government, this is the way they were bought.

On account of the treaty made by the other bands of the Nez Perces, the white men claimed my lands. We were troubled greatly by white men crowding over the line. Some of these were good men, and we lived on peaceful terms with them, but they were not all good.

Nearly every year the agent came over from Lapwai and ordered us on to the reservation. We always replied that we were satisfied to live in Wallowa. We were careful to refuse the presents or annuities which he offered.

Through all the years since the white men came to Wallowa we have been threatened and taunted by them and the treaty Nez Perces. They have given us no rest. We have had a few good friends among white men, and they have always advised my people to bear these taunts without fighting. Our young men were quick-tempered, and I have had great trouble in keeping them from doing rash things. I have carried a heavy load on my back ever since I was a boy. I learned then that we were but few, while the white men were many, and that we could not hold our own with them. We were like deer. They were like grizzly bears. We had a small country. Their country was large. We were contented to let things remain as the Great Spirit Chief made them. They were not and would change the rivers and mountains if they did not suit them.

Year after year we have been threatened, but no war was made upon my people until General Howard came to our country two years ago and told us that he was the white war-chief of all that country. He said: “I have a great many soldiers at my back. I am going to bring them up here, and then I will talk to you again. I will not let white men laugh at me the next time I come. The country belongs to the Government, and I intend to make you go upon the reservation.”

I remonstrated with him against bringing more soldiers to the Nez Perces country. He had one house full of troops all the time at Fort Lapwai.

The next spring the agent at Umatilla agency sent an Indian runner to tell me to meet General Howard at Walla Walla. I could not go myself, but I sent my brother and five other head men to meet him, and they had a long talk.

General Howard said: “You have talked straight, and it is all right. You can stay in Wallowa.” He insisted that my brother and his company should go with him to Fort Lapwai. When the party arrived there General Howard sent out runners and called all the Indians in to a grand council. I was in that council. I said to General Howard, “We are ready to listen.” He answered that he would not talk then, but would hold a council next day, when he would talk plainly. I said to General Howard: “I am ready to talk today. I have been in a great many councils, but I am no wiser. We are all sprung from a woman, although we are unlike in many things. We can not be made over again. You are as you were made, and as you were made you can remain. We are just as we were made by the Great Spirit, and you can not change us then why should children of one mother and one father quarrel—why should one try to cheat the other? I do not believe that the Great Spirit Chief gave one kind of men the right to tell another kind of men what they must do.”

General Howard replied: “You deny my authority, do you? You want to dictate to me, do you?”

Then one of my chiefs--Too-hool-hool-suit--rose in the council and said to General Howard: “The Great Spirit Chief made the world as it is, and as he wanted it, and he made a part of it for us to live upon. I do not see where you get authority to say that we shall not live where he placed us.”

General Howard lost his temper and said: “Shut up! I don’t want to hear any more of such talk. The law says you shall go upon the reservation to live, and I want you to do so, but you persist in disobeying the law (meaning the treaty). If you do not move, I will take the matter into my own hand, and make you suffer for your disobedience.”

Too-hool-hool-suit answered: “Who are you, that you ask us to talk, and then tell me I sha’nt talk? Are you the Great Spirit? Did you make the world? Did you make the sun? Did you make the rivers to run for us to drink? Did you make the grass to grow? Did you make all these things, that you talk to us as though we were boys? If you did, then you have the right to talk as you do.”

General Howard replied, “You are an impudent fellow, and I will put you in the guard-house, and then ordered a soldier to arrest him.”

Too-hool-hool-suit made no resistance. He asked General Howard: “Is that your order? I don’t care. I have expressed my heart to you. I have nothing to take back. I have spoken for my country. You can arrest me, but you can not change me or make me take back what I have said.”

The soldiers came forward and seized my friend and took him to the guard-house. My men whispered among themselves whether they should let this thing be done. I counseled them to submit. I knew if we resisted that all the white men present, including General Howard would be killed in a moment, and we would be blamed. If I had said nothing, General Howard would never have given another unjust order against my men. I saw the danger, and, while they dragged Too-hool-hool-suit to prison, I arose and said: “I am going to talk now. I don’t care whether you arrest me or not.” I turned to my people and said: “The arrest of Too-hool-hool-suit was wrong, but we will not resent the insult. We were invited to this council to express our hearts, and we have done so.” Too-hool-hool-suit was prisoner for five days before he was released.

The council broke up for that day. On the next morning General Howard came to my lodge, and invited me to go with him and White-Bird and Looking-Glass, to look for land for my people. As we rode along we came to some good land that was already occupied by Indians and white people. General Howard, pointing to this land, said: “If you will come on to the reservation, I will give you these lands and move these people off.”

I replied: “No. It would be wrong to disturb these people. I have no right to take their homes. I have never taken what did not belong to me. I will not now.”

We rode all day upon the reservation, and found no good land unoccupied. I have been informed by men who do not lie that General Howard sent a letter that night, telling the soldiers at Walla Walla to go to Wallowa Valley, and drive us out upon our return home.

In the council, next day, General Howard informed me, in a haughty spirit, that he would give my people thirty days to go back home, collect all their stock, and move on to the reservation, saying, “If you are not here in that time, I shall consider that you want to fight, and will send my soldiers to drive you on.”

I said: “War can be avoided, and it ought to be avoided. I want no war. My people have always been the friends of the white man. Why are you in such a hurry? I can not get ready to move in thirty days. Our stock is scattered, and Snake River is very high. Let us wait until fall, then the river will be low. We want time to hunt up our stock and gather supplies for winter.”

General Howard replied, “If you let the time run over one day, the soldiers will be there to drive you on to the reservation, and all your cattle and horses outside of the reservation at that time will fall into the hands of the white men.”

I knew I had never sold my country and that I had no land in Lapwai but I did not want bloodshed. I did not want my people killed. I did not want anybody killed. Some of my people had been murdered by white men, and the white murderers were never punished for it. I told General Howard about this, and again said I wanted no war. I wanted the people who lived upon the lands I was to occupy at Lapwai to have time to gather their harvest.

I said in my heart that, rather than have war, I would give up my country. I would give up my father’s grave. I would give up everything rather than have the blood of white men upon the hands of my people.

General Howard refused to allow me more than thirty days to move my people and their stock. I am sure that he began to prepare for war at once.

When I returned to Wallowa I found my people very much excited upon discovering that the soldiers were already in the Wallowa Valley. We held a council, and decided to move immediately to avoid bloodshed.

Too-hool-hool-suit, who felt outraged by his imprisonment, talked for war, and made many of my young men willing to fight rather than be driven like dogs from the land where they were born. He declared that blood alone would wash out the disgrace General Howard had put upon him. It required a strong heart to stand up against such talk, but I urged my people to be quiet, and not to begin a war.

We gathered all the stock we could find, and made an attempt to move. We left many of our horses and cattle in Wallowa, and we lost several hundred in crossing the river. All of my people succeeded in getting across in safety. Many of the Nez Perces came together in Rocky Canon to hold a grand council. I went with all my people. This council lasted ten days. There was a great deal of war-talk, and a great deal of excitement. There was one young brave present whose father had been killed by a white man five years before. This mans blood was bad against white men, and he left the council calling for revenge.

Again I counseled peace, and I thought the danger was past. We had not complied with General Howard’s order because we could not, but we intended to do so as soon as possible. I was leaving the council to kill beef for my family, when news came that the young man whose father had been killed had gone out with several other hot-blooded young braves and killed four white men. He rode up to the council and shouted: “Why do you sit here like women? The war has begun already.” I was deeply grieved. All the lodges were moved except my brothers and my own. I saw clearly that the war was upon us when I learned that my young men had been secretly buying ammunition. I heard then that Too-hool-hool-suit, who had been imprisoned by General Howard, had succeeded in organizing a war-party. I knew that their acts would involve all my people. I saw that the war could not then be prevented. The time had passed. I counseled peace from the beginning. I knew that we were too weak to fight the United States. We had many grievances, but I knew that war would bring more. We had good white friends, who advised us against taking the war-path. My friend and brother, Mr. Chapman, who has been with us since the surrender, told us just how the war would end. Mr. Chapman took sides against us, and helped General Howard. I do not blame him for doing so. He tried hard to prevent bloodshed. We hoped the white settlers would not join the soldiers. Before the war commenced we had discussed this matter all over, and many of my people were in favor of warning them that if they took no part against us they should not be molested in the event of war being begun by General Howard. This plan was voted down in the war-council.

There were bad men among my people who had quarreled with white men, and they talked of their wrongs until they roused all he bad hearts in the council. Still I could not believe that they would begin the war. I know that my young men did a great wrong, but I ask, “Who was first to blame?” They had been insulted a thousand times their fathers and brothers had been killed their mothers and wives had been disgraced they had been driven to madness by whisky sold to them by white men they had been told by General Howard that all their horses and cattle which they had been unable to drive out of Wallowa were to fall into the hands of white men and, added to all this, they were homeless and desperate.

I would have given my own life if I could have undone the killing of white men by my people. I blame my young men and I blame the white men. I blame General Howard for not giving my people time to get their stock away from Wallowa. I do not acknowledge that he had the right to order me to leave Wallowa at any time. I deny that either my father

Additional information: [The North American review. / Volume 128, Issue 269, April 1879]


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