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Parakeet II YMS-434 - History

Parakeet II YMS-434 - History


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Parrakeet II

(YMS-434: dp. 350; 1. 136'; b. 24'6"; dr. 6'1"; s. 12 k., cpl. 50; a. 1 3", 2 20mm; cl. YMS-156)

The Parrakeet was laid down on 30 October 1943 as YMS-434 by J. M. Martinac SB Curp., Tacoma, Wash.launehed 10 May 1944, sponsored by Miss Dorinda Rathbone; and commissioned 15 November 1944, Lt. (j.g.) Donald Birdwell in command.

Upon completion of fitting out, YMS-4S4 was assigned to the Pacific Fleet and operated in the Aleutians and off the north western coast of the United States. Reclassified AMS 30 and named Parrakeet on 18 February 1947, she decommissioned on 21 May 1947 at Puget Sound. Struck from the Naval Register 23 June 1947, she was sold on 9 October and was renamed Dan. She stranded in Queen Charlotte Sound, B.C. on 30 March 1949 and was declared a total loss.


The True History of Netflix’s ‘The Liberator’

During World War II, the U.S. Army’s 45th Infantry Division, one of the most racially integrated units of the era, went into battle wearing on their shoulders the image of the Thunderbird, a supernatural entity said to protect humans from evil spirits and exact vengeance on their moral enemies. Composed of a disparate collection of Native Americans, Mexican Americans and Southwestern cowboys, the Thunderbird Division became known as one of the hardest-fighting combat groups of the war.

Premiering Veterans Day, a new Netflix series tells the story of this storied division as it fought across Sicily, Italy, France and into Germany. Based on the book by writer Alex Kershaw, “The Liberator” depicts how the Thunderbirds staggered through a withering 500-plus days of combat in less than two years, exacting a terrible toll on Axis troops while suffering nearly 10,500 casualties during the course of the war.

In addition to their impressive war experience, what set the division apart were three of its regiments—the 157th, 179th and 180th, made of young men mostly from Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and Oklahoma— that brought Mexican Americans and at least 1,500 Native Americans from 50 tribes together as a fighting unit.

A cross between “ Band of Brothers ” and A Scanner Darkly , the four-part miniseries uses animation to tell the real-life story of Felix Sparks , a company commander who eventually rose through the division ranks, and the experiences of the fictional Sergeant Samuel Coldfoot and Corporal Able Gomez, two composite stand-ins for the Indigenous and Mexican American soldiers, respectively, who made up the bulk of the Thunderbird Division.

“The two characters are based on several of the people on my book,” says Kershaw, author of The Liberator: One World War II Soldier's 500-Day Odyssey From the Beaches of Sicily to the Gates of Dachau. “When you watch it, a lot of the time you’re looking at a Native American and a Mexican American. You’re looking at a different racial dimension to World War II.”

The series and book highlight the truly gripping and powerful drama of the 45th Division. General George S. Patton regarded the Thunderbirds as “one of the best, if not the best division in the history of American arms.”

Guy Prestia, a Pennsylvania native, joined the Thunderbird Division just before it left in 1943 for North Africa, the staging area for the invasion of Sicily. The 45th played an important role in the campaign as part of Patton’s Seventh Army, experiencing fierce resistance against the Hermann Göring Division, an elite Nazi Panzer force. Following the conquest of Sicily, Prestia took part in the amphibious landings at Salerno and Anzio on the Italian mainland. The bloody battles took the lives of many men in the Thunderbird Division as they attempted to push inland toward Rome.

In May 1944, a Choctaw sergeant named Van Barfoot singlehandedly took out three machine gun nests and captured 17 German soldiers. Later that same day, Barfoot turned back a counterattack of three Nazi Tiger tanks by destroying the lead vehicle with a bazooka. For these feats, he would be given the Congressional Medal of Honor and was also commissioned as a second lieutenant.

“I wasn’t far from him,” recalls Prestia, now a spry 98 years old. “That was near Carano in Italy. Barfoot did a lot that day.”

A few days later, Salvador J. Lara also displayed bravery that earned him the Medal of Honor. The Mexican American led his rifle squad in several assaults against German strongholds, inflicting large numbers of casualties. In one attack, Lara severely wounded his leg but would not stop until the objective was complete.

The Liberator: One World War II Soldier's 500-Day Odyssey from the Beaches of Sicily to the Gates of Dachau

Written with Alex Kershaw's trademark narrative drive and vivid immediacy, The Liberator traces the remarkable battlefield journey of maverick U.S. Army officer Felix Sparks through the Allied liberation of Europe—from the first landing in Italy to the final death throes of the Third Reich.

Sparks takes center stage in “The Liberator.” Awarded the Silver Star for valor, the heroic second lieutenant was one of only two men from his unit to make it back to Allied lines after being cut off by the Germans at Anzio. Later, as captain of E Company in the 157th Infantry Regiment, Sparks’ talent for leadership came through in how he treated his Mexican American subordinates. Having grown up in Arizona, Sparks witnessed firsthand the intolerance inflicted on many Latinos.

“He told me they were treated like second-class citizens and there was terrible discrimination,” Kershaw says. “Before Sparks went into combat in Salerno, he was worried. Are they going to die for a country that treats them that way? After the first day of battle, he was so proud because they were fantastic soldiers.”

After Italy, the 45th Division went to France, where it participated in its fourth amphibious landing of the war at St. Maxime. The Thunderbirds continued to push the Germans back to their own border while liberating numerous towns and cities and breaching the Maginot Line.

The 45th broke through the Siegfried Line and entered Germany in March 1945. The unit fought in the battles of Aschaffenburg and Nuremburg, then was ordered at the end of April to make a bee-line for Berchtesgaden with hopes of capturing Nazi leader Adolf Hitler at his Alpine retreat. Along the way, the unit was ordered to make a detour to a place called Dachau.

“We didn’t know what that was,” says 95-year-old Dan Dougherty, who joined the Thunderbirds just after the Battle of the Bulge. “We hadn’t been told about concentration camps. The only thing they warned us about was lice.”

“Going in was the terrible experience,” he recalls. “We came along a long train of boxcars, full of emaciated corpses. It just blew everybody away.”

It was at Dachau that Sparks, then a lieutenant colonel, truly became a legend to the troops. They already loved him for his compassion and his fierceness as a leader. However, they worshiped him after he stood up to a superior officer for assaulting a soldier.

Major General Henning Linden led the 42nd Division into Dachau at about the same time as Sparks did as commander of 3rd Battalion with the 157th Regiment. When the two units met inside the large camp, Linden tried to take control of the situation—and grab the headlines as liberator. Sparks was having none of it, and told his superior officer that he was under orders to seal off his portion of the concentration camp. The lieutenant colonel then ordered a private to escort the general out of their zone.

“Linden took his riding crop and wacked the private on the helmet,” Kershaw says. “Sparks told me it wasn’t hard but he snapped. He pulled out his pistol, pointed it at the general’s head and said, ‘You touch another one of my men and I will (expletive) kill you right here right now.’ He was a god to his men after that.”

Sparks was eventually relieved of command of his battalion, though by that time, the war was nearly over and the serious fighting was all but finished. Sparks would later go to college under the G.I. Bill and become a lawyer, eventually serving as a Colorado Supreme Court Justice.

Sparks, who died in 2007, was deeply moved by his time with the Thunderbirds. He became an advocate for civil rights and spoke out frequently against racism of any kind. He also stood up to Holocaust deniers and angrily told them what he witnessed.

“I hero-worship this man like no one else from World War II,” Kershaw says. “I admire and respect his toughness, his resilience, his spirit, his love, his huge humanity, his compassion. He was a working-class American hero like I have never before in my life come across. He was a kickass warrior who led Mexican Americans, Native Americans, poor cowboys, kids that had nothing. He turned them into an amazing fighting team that defeated Nazism.”

Prestia was also impressed by Sparks’ concern for others, especially the soldiers under his command. He recalls one incident in France when the battalion commander put his life on the line for his men. Several soldiers had been wounded by the Germans and Sparks went into the line of fire to get them.

“He was in the open,” Prestia recalls. “Across the field there was a machine gun nest set up. They had him right in their sights. The German commander told his gunners, ‘Don’t you fire on that man. Anybody who has that kind of courage to pull his soldiers to safety, you don’t shoot anybody like that.’”

Like the Thunderbird, the Liberator himself was a force for good against the spirits of evil.

About David Kindy

David Kindy is a journalist, freelance writer and book reviewer who lives in Plymouth, Massachusetts. He writes about history, culture and other topics for Air & Space, Military History, World War II, Vietnam, Aviation History, Providence Journal and other publications and websites.


Inside the Flying Coffins

"Flying coffins." "Tow targets." Pilots and glider-borne infantry had colorful and well-earned nicknames for their ungainly planes. But according to at least one veteran flight officer, the most common moniker for the combat glider was way off base: "Silent Wings."

Inside the cockpit of the Waco GC-4A combat glider.

"For us it was louder than hell," said pilot Donald MacRae, who flew troops into battle on D-Day and in the invasion of The Netherlands. The glider's spartan construction provided no insulation from the roar of the C-47 tow plane's engines, the pounding of the natural elements, and the din of enemy anti-aircraft fire, he said.

MacRae, who flew with the 37th Troop Carrier Squadron of the 316th Troop Carrier Group, said the glider had few provisions for passengers' safety and none for their comfort. There were four basic instruments on the control panel, which the pilots mistrusted. Air pockets and 40-mph winds created violent turbulence. Enemy fire on descent was constant, and many pilots were taken out before they could land.

Diagram of the Waco GC-4A combat glider.

With no parachutes onboard, glidermen took pain to protect their pilots. According to MacRae, "Some of the guys found an extra flak jacket for me &ndash not to wear but to sit on. They didn't want anything coming up from underneath the plane to hit anything vital."


USS YMS-328

USS YMS-328 was a US Navy YMS-1-class (YMS-135 subclass) Yard Mine Sweeper (YMS), built in Ballard, Washington at Ballard Marine & Railway in Ballard, Washington (Seattle). She was classified as a Mark II design and her hull is constructed completely out of 3" vertical grain Douglas-fir. Sister ships include Jacques Cousteau's RV Calypso. After naval service during World War II, she became a private yacht. Later renamed Wild Goose she is most notable for having been owned by actor John Wayne. The yacht was listed on the US National Register of Historic Places on 19 July 2011. [2] [3] [4]

YMS-328 was delivered on 26 May 1943. She served in the Aleutian Islands during World War II, sweeping enemy minefields at Attu and US minefields at Kiska, and patrolling out of Adak. She was en route to Dutch Harbor to be fitted for the invasion of Paramishiru Island in Japan, when Japan surrendered. YMS-328 returned to Bremerton, Washington. She was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register in 1946.

YMS-328 was sold privately in 1948 to Vancouver Tug & Barge owner Harold Jones. He named her La Beverie. Upon Jones's death in 1956, millionaire Max Wyman purchased the yacht and renamed her the Wild Goose II. Wyman traveled the world on the yacht including Tahiti, Bora Bora, and Hawaii. In 1962, she was bought by John Wayne and went through a major renovation. Wayne changed her name to Wild Goose. He kept the ship for the last 17 years of his life. He entertained a who's who of the time including Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. [4] [5]

This ship was featured in the 1967 film The President's Analyst, doubling as a Canadian spy ship. [6]

The travels of the ship were well documented during Wayne's ownership in the 1993 book On Board with the Duke authored by his former captain Bert Minshall. Minshall was on Wild Goose for 16 years with Wayne. The vessel is now still in operation for dinner cruises in Newport Beach, California by Hornblower Cruises.


History

YMS-434 was laid down on 30 October 1943 by J. M. Martinac Ship Building Corp. of Tacoma, Washington launched 10 May 1944 sponsored by Miss Dorinda Rathbone and commissioned 15 November 1944, Lt. (j.g.) Donald Birdwell in command.

Upon completion of fitting out, YMS� was assigned to the U.S. Pacific Fleet and operated in the Aleutians and off the northwestern coast of the United States.

Reclassified AMS� and named Parrakeet on 18 February 1947, she decommissioned on 21 May 1947 at Puget Sound. Struck from the Naval Register 23 June 1947, she was sold on 9 October and was renamed Dan. She stranded in Queen Charlotte Sound, British Columbia, on 30 March 1949 and was declared a total loss.


  1. ↑ 1.01.1 Radigan, Joseph M. (2005). "Lapwing (MSC[O] 48), ex-AMS-48, ex-YMS-268". NavSource Online. NavSource Naval History . http://www.navsource.org/archives/11/19268.htm . Retrieved 2007-12-28 .

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The Courts Intervene

As several local desegregation suits worked their way through the federal courts in 1957 and 1958, Virginia elected a new governor in an atmosphere dominated by Massive Resistance. Two special committees of the General Assembly held hearings in each locality where there was a suit. Although the committees called the black plaintiffs to testify, few were intimidated into withdrawing from their cases. Making speeches fulminating against the federal judiciary, Almond won the 1957 Democratic gubernatorial nomination. His Republican opponent, state senator Theodore Roosevelt Dalton, rejected Massive Resistance in favor of a plan of restricted desegregation. A skilled communicator, Almond convinced white Virginians that they could have both continued segregation and stronger public schools. Almond won the governorship with 63.2 percent of the vote.

The inevitable collision of Massive Resistance with the federal courts came in September 1958. Federal district court judge John Paul ordered black students admitted to Warren County High School in Front Royal, and to a high school and elementary school in Charlottesville. In Norfolk, U.S. district court judge Walter E. Hoffman issued a desegregation decree affecting six white schools. Almond closed all nine schools, locking out nearly 13,000 students. For the white majority, the terms of the debate changed: instead of segregation versus integration, now it was desegregation versus closed public schools. The attempt to substitute segregated private academies for the closed public schools was totally inadequate in the face of Norfolk’s ten thousand displaced students, while in the smaller communities of Charlottesville and Front Royal, a sharp fight among whites ensued, pitting pro–public school parents against backers of the segregated private efforts. White parents in Arlington, Norfolk, and other cities formed large public school committees and joined together on December 6 to form the Virginia Committee for Public Schools, which developed into the largest citizen organization involved in the school matter.

In addition to the middle-class parents in the school committees, Almond began to hear more influential voices of dissent about the school closings. At a December 1958 dinner meeting in Richmond, twenty-nine of the state’s leading businessmen told him that the crisis was adversely affecting Virginia’s economy. Almond chose to wait until two cases challenging the closing laws were decided—one in the federal courts and the other in the state’s highest court. Ruling on the same day, January 19, 1959, both courts found the closings unconstitutional. Almond made a fiery broadcast in reaction to the decisions and called a special session of the General Assembly. Supporters of Massive Resistance expected a defiant last stand, but Almond surprised them with a measure to repeal the closing laws and permit desegregation. Accordingly, on February 2, 1959, with national press coverage, seventeen black students in Norfolk and four in Arlington County peacefully enrolled in white schools.

To formulate a new plan, Almond appointed a legislative commission headed by state senator Mosby G. Perrow. This commission contained a majority who backed Almond’s acceptance of limited desegregation in place of Massive Resistance. Their program, called the Perrow Plan, left the burden of desegregation on black parents with its “freedom of choice” concept, repealed the compulsory attendance law, and relied on the Pupil Placement Board, using ostensibly nonracial criteria, to keep desegregation to a minimum. At the April 1959 special session, Almond declared that it was time for the General Assembly to retreat from Massive Resistance and adopt the new plan. Over the strong protests of Massive Resistance advocates, Almond’s plan narrowly passed. An attempt by Massive Resistance forces to defeat Almond’s supporters in the Democratic primary that summer failed.

Though Massive Resistance by the state government was over, Prince Edward County’s school board chose to close all its public schools rather than desegregate in September 1959. Using state tuition grants, whites established a segregated private school, while black students lacked any educational facility in the county. Not until 1964 did a U.S. Supreme Court ruling finally reopen the public schools in Prince Edward County. In the state as a whole, school desegregation proceeded at a very slow pace for almost a decade after the state officially dropped Massive Resistance. Only after the 1968 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Green et al. v. County School Board of New Kent County, Virginia , overturned the “freedom of choice” plan did large-scale desegregation take place.


Literature review

We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for records dated from inception to February 2020 and identified articles reporting anesthetic techniques for difficult airway in patients with OALL of the cervical spine. A comprehensive search strategy was employed using relevant search terms selected from the Medical Subject Headings, EmTree, and Entry terms. The search terms were as follows: (Hyperostosis, Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal OR Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis OR Vertebral Ankylosing Hyperostosis OR Forestier’s Disease OR Forestier Rotes Disease OR Forestier Disease OR Calcification of Anterior Longitudinal Ligament OR calcific anterior longitudinal ligament OR Anterior Longitudinal Ligament Calcification OR Anterior Longitudinal Ligament Ossification OR Ossification of Anterior Longitudinal Ligament OR OALL OR cervical osteophytes OR cervical osteophytosis) AND (airway management OR difficult intubation OR difficult laryngoscopy OR difficult airway OR failed tracheal intubation OR difficult tracheal intubation). The search language was limited to English, and a total of 70 articles were retrieved. After removing duplicates, a total of 59 titles and abstracts were screened for eligibility. Of these, 34 full-text articles were evaluated, and 23 papers were potential candidates. One article was excluded because the full text could not be found [7], leaving 22 articles (summarized in Table 1) [5, 6, 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27]. The excluded articles are presented in the appendix.

A total of 23 patients with OALL of the cervical had a difficult airway. Only two patients were women [11, 13], and only one patient was younger than 50 years [13]. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested that the prevalence of OALL increases with age, and the morbidity rate was found to be significantly higher for men than for women [28]. Among the patients included, the most commonly involved cervical vertebrae were C3–C4, followed by C4–C5 and C5–C6, leading to dysphagia and airway obstruction, possibly due to excessive activity. Six patients had no symptoms before intubation [5, 6, 10, 12, 14, 21], and the rest of the patients had symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, dyspnea, airway obstruction, or restricted motion of the neck [8, 9, 11, 13, 15,16,17,18,19,20, 22,23,24,25,26,27]. Awake intubation was chosen for 10 patients [5, 11, 13,14,15, 20, 22,23,24,25], and rapid induction was chosen for 7 patients [6, 8, 9, 16, 17, 21, 23] fiberscope-assisted intubation was cited as the optimal choice in 13 articles [11, 13,14,15, 18, 20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27] other cases favored the direct laryngoscope [5, 6, 9, 16, 17, 19, 23] or the intubating laryngeal mask [13, 21]. A small-sized endotracheal tube was selected for 4 patients [6, 17, 25, 27], while a nasotracheal tube was selected for 2 patients [11, 22]. The majority of patients required multiple endotracheal intubation attempts, and four patients could not undergo the surgery because of intubation failure [5, 14, 15, 18]. A laryngeal mask airway was used in one patient [10], a facemask airway was used in one patient [12], and thyrocricoid puncture and retrograde intubation were attempted in one patient [16]. We also identified nine cases of emergency tracheotomies due to sudden upper airway obstruction induced by OALL of the cervical spine [18, 28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35].


Mexican Flag History

In the early 1300s, so the story goes, the wandering tribe of Mexica people were looking for a home. Persecuted and cast out from other nations, they believed that their god, Huitzilopochtli, would show them a sign - to guide them to their new settlement. The Mexica people (who would become part of the mighty Aztec Empire) believed that they would see an eagle perched on a prickly pear cactus, and that's where they would build their new city.

But then Mexican flag history took a strange turn. According to the legend the Mexica people did indeed see the sign - but it was on an unlikely spot. A small, swampy island in the middle of Lake Texcoco.

Just as the Mexican people still are today, the Mexicas were resourceful. They invented the chinampas system, which allowed them to create small garden islands, which would eventually help to dry out the land. As it dried, they built. Causeways were built across the lake to allow access to the island. In 1325, the city of Tenochtitlan was born.

When the Spanish saw this symbol of the empire - an eagle on a cactus, they misinterpreted the red and blue currents coming from the eagle's mouth. Someone thought it was a snake, and the symbolism of the eagle and snake stuck.

Chapter 2 - Revolution

The next chapter of Mexican flag history began in 1810. On September 16, the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and a group of revolutionaries began the fight for the independence of Mexico. Though this first phase of the revolution failed, eventually in 1821 Mexico gained its independence, and in 1824 the Estados Unidos Mexicanos (United Mexican States) were formed.

The flag with red and green, showing the eagle in the middle was first used in 1821, although it looked a little different than the current design.

Chapter 3 - Changes

Throughout Mexican flag history, the design has been changed several times. The current flag came into use on the 16th of September 1968. It was officially confirmed by law on the 24th of February 1984. Generally, throughout the years, there has always been an eagle and there have always been the three colours, green white and red. The ratios have changed, and the coat of arms have also changed numerous times.

The meaning of the colours has also changed. When they were originally adopted in 1821, green stood for independence, white for religion (Roman Catholicism) and red for union (between Americans and Europeans. This union between peoples native to Mexico and Spaniards in Mexico in particular was instrumental in winning the war).

Current meaning

At the end of the Mexican flag history, certain symbols and meanings were agreed upon. The new meanings of the colours are fairly recent: Green is hope, white is unity, and red is the blood of heroes. These meanings are not enforced by law, so they may continue to change.

Today the coat of arms is in the centre of the flag, showing an eagle eating a rattlesnake perched on the nopal (prickly pear) cactus. Underneath is a garland. On the left the garland is green oak, a symbol of strength. On the right is a laurel branch, symbolizing victory.

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