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Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system and the first of the gas giants. Its diameter is 11 times larger than Earth's diameter and a mass 318 times larger.
Like Mars, the best time to look at Jupiter in the sky is when it is in opposition, when the earth lies between Jupiter and the sun.
It takes almost 12 years to complete an orbit, but it has a relatively fast rotation period: 9h 50m 28s being considered the planet with the fastest rotation of the solar system.
The planet has a very complex and dynamic atmosphere, with stable weather patterns and an apparent layered structure that exhibit different colors. It is a planet with a warm interior, a consequence of its own gravitational action.
Jupiter will always be a difficult planet to study because of its harsh conditions. Its atmosphere is thought to be composed of clouds of ammonia ice in the first layer, followed by clouds of ammonium hydrosulphide and finally clouds of water.
The different colors in the observed clouds result from the temperature and therefore the depth to which they are found: brown clouds are the hottest, and therefore deepest, followed by white clouds, and the highest and colder red clouds. However these clouds occupy only the first 100 km of the interior of the planet.
As we penetrate inside, pressure increases as well as temperature. Jupiter, like the terrestrial planets, has a solid, dense core, eight times the mass of the Earth, although due to the pressure of 70 million atmospheres it has a diameter of only 11000 km (smaller than Earth). At this depth the temperature is 22000 K, or 21726 ° C.