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1841-1850 - History

1841-1850 - History

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1841-1850 Europe Immigration

1841-1850 - History

The Flood of 1844 in Buffalo. - This flood occurred October 18, 1844. It was the most disastrous that has ever occurred since the city was founded. It came without warning, an avalanche of waters upon a sleeping community, many of whom were drowned and many of whom had narrow escapes from a similar fate.

For several days before the occurrence of the flood a strong north- east wind had been driving the water up the lake, but on the evening of the 18th a sudden shift of the wind took place, and it blew from the opposite direction with a tremendous force, never before or since known to the inhabitants of Buffalo. It brought with it immense volumes of water, which overflowed the lower districts of the city and vicinity, demolishing scores of buildings, and spreading ruin along the harbor front, playing havoc with shipping, and causing an awful destruction of human life.

The municipal rooms over Terrance market were filled with agonized people scanning dead bodies, fearfully expectant of finding the familiar forms of relatives and friends. A similar situation existed at the court house on Washington street, where the dead bodies were laid in windrows awaiting identification. At Huff's hotel, at the corner of Main and Scott streets, the water was six feet deep, and there the bodies of several young women, in their night clothes, were fished out of the basement windows. They were hotel waiters, drowned in their beds. In the lower districts there were many harbor craft and canal boats left by the receding waters, many canal boats being out on the commons, on Division, Eagle and Clinton streets. South Buffalo was strewn with miscellaneous wreckage of all kinds. At the corner of Main and Ohio streets the water was six feet deep and at Michigan and Exchange streets it was five feet deep. The onrush of waters made a break in the south pier, through which a schooner leaped without injury and ran aground at the foot of Ferry street.

In the evening before the storm the steamers St. Louis, Robert Fulton, Indian Queen and Julia Palmer left the port of Buffalo, for the upper end of the lakes with a full complement of passengers. When the St. Louis was opposite Dunkirk she broke her shaft, and when paying out into the trough of the sea four of her passengers were swept overboard and lost. With the power of one wheel aided by a jib and staysail together with good seamanship, she reached the Niagara river at daybreak next morning, and was blown into the river without regard to channel, the river being all channel on account of the height of the waters. She went in with her side and end alternately to the front. Capt. James Haggart came out with his steam ferry boat, which he had then been running four years, and brought in the disabled St. Louis to the foot of Ferry street.

The Indian Queen, the smallest of the four that went out into the lake on the evening before, was the only one able to reach the port of Buffalo on her return. The Robert Fulton, after losing two or three passengers, who were washed overboard, was piled upon the sand beach above Sturgeon point.

The Julia Palmer, with 300 passengers on board, was driven help- lessly down the lake into Buffalo bay, but when she was opposite the foot of Main street her anchors caught and held her fast, and there she rolled and pitched in a manner fearful to behold all the next day. On the morning of the 20th, the sea having gone down sufficiently, a relief boat went out and brought her safely into port, much to the relief of the passengers and the worn-out crew.

Among the other damages were the following: Schooners Potomac, G. H. Walker and Brandywine ashore at Erie. Schooner John Grant ashore at Erie. Schooner Henry Clay ashore near Erie. Schooner Lodi disabled and taken in tow by the Missouri. Schooner John Marshall wrecked near Mexico bay. Schooners Maria Hilliard, Wyandot, Mariam and Georgiana sustain injuries off Erie. The iron steamer Abert driven upon the beach at Buffalo and got off. Steamer Commodore Perry arrived at Buffalo in a shattered condition, losing one man, and ran into the steamers Great Western and Wayne. Steamer Chautauque ashore on her beam's end near Black Rock. Steamer Columbus driven into a pasture 200 feet from the creek. Brig Europe reached Buffalo damaged in her hull and outfit. Brig Uncle Sam, Capt. John Vail, and schooner Marion, Capt. Jerry Oliver, arrived at Buffalo during the gale with outfit badly damaged. Schooner Robert Wood, Captain Miner, of Oswego, damaged a cargo of merchandise in the gale on Lake Erie. The amount of merchandise, books and papers on the docks damaged and lost was over $10,000. A horse swam ashore from the Julia Palmer with a letter attached to its mane stating that they had burned all the wood and were "now burning the furniture." Fifty canal boats went ashore between Buffalo and Black Rock. Schooner Ashland beached near Erie street, Buffalo got off. Steamer G. W. Dale was floated across Ohio street, Buffalo. Steamer Bunker Hill high and dry up the creek. Schooner Hannah, of Oswego, with merchandise for Detroit, wrecked 20 miles below Malden and went to pieces, crew saved. Schooner Ottawa lost anchor and sails on Lake Erie, arrived at Detroit. Schooner Marengo arrived at Detroit from Lake Erie with the sails gone. Schooner Big Z ashore on Hog island, Detroit river got off. Schooner Congress went ashore two miles below Malden. Brig John Dougall, Canadian, bilged on Peach island, Lake St. Clair. Schooner Pacific wrecked and went to pieces near Dunkirk. Propeller Emigrant sustained serious damage on Lake Erie.

The gale was terrific, blowing from northwest, followed by cold. At Buffalo the loss of life and property was greater than all other ports combined, the water rising within the space of two hours to 22 feet. On Lake Ontario the schooner Charlton, owned by Fitzhugh & Company, while on the passage from the Welland canal, made Sodus harbor during the night, stranded on the bar, bilged, and filled with water. The mate of the schooner Nicholas Biddle was lost overboard in Lake Erie. Schooner Pennsylvania was wrecked on the north shore of Lake Erie and all lost, ten lives. A Canadian craft, name unknown, founded in Lake Erie with loss of thirteen lives. The small schooner Governor Marcy was wrecked near Point Albino with five lives lost. The schooner United States, laden with merchandise for Detroit, was driven ashore on Point Monyea, near Detroit river.

The number of lives lost at Buffalo were fifty-three and those on the lake twenty-five. The Fulton was a high-pressure boat, of 308 tons, and had been nine years in service. She had a large load of passengers on board and a full cargo of freight. The total number of casualties was eighty-five.

Copper Rock is Removed. -- The celebrated rock of pure copper on Lake Superior, and which caused so much speculation among scientists, arrived at Buffalo, in October, 1844, on board the revenue cutter Erie, Capt. Gilbert Knapp. It was brought from the shore of Lake Superior through the enterprise of Julius Eldred, of Detroit, to be placed in the National Institute at Washington. It was first shipped on board the schooner Algonquin, and transported over 300 miles to the head of the falls of Sault Ste. Marie. It was then transferred to a Mackinac boat, and after passing through the canal around the rapids, it was shipped on board the schooner William Brewster for Detroit, where it arrived October 11. At Detroit it was placed on board the revenue cutter and taken to Buffalo as above stated. Thence it was transferred on cars to its destination. It was pure native copper without alloy. The weight of the rock was never definitely ascertained, but was estimated at 2,200 pounds. Its dimensions were 3 feet 4 inches broad by 3 feet 8 inches long. It was the largest specimen of native copper in the world.

Passenger Steamboat Empire. Built at Cleveland, O., in 1844. First steamboat in the United States to measure over 1,000 tons, and when she came out was 200 tons larger than any other steam vessel in the world length over all 260 feet engines inclined low pressure, below deck 600 horse power later converted into propeller. From "American Steam Vessels." Copyright 1895, by Smith & Stanton.
Steamer Empire Built. - The steamer Empire, built at Cleveland in 1844, was the first steamboat constructed in the United States to measure over 1,000 tons, and when she came out was over 200 tons larger than any steam vessel in the world. She measured 260 feet over all. She was of excellent model, sharp at both ends, instead of the round bluff bow and square stern, the usual build of lake vessels at that time. She was also the fastest boat on the lakes, and her first year sailed from Detroit to Buffalo in 20 hours and 25 minutes, and from Cleveland to Buffalo in 12 hours and 44 minutes. Later she was made a propeller.

Other Events of 1844. - In 1844 a new departure was made in the management of certain lines, for the "new and fast sailing packet Prince Edward carried reverend gentlemen of all denominations free." However it appears that accommodations on board of passenger vessels were not always of the best, for Bonnycastle complains that the charge for wine "was shameful, 7s 6d per bottle, and stuff of most inferior quality." The first sad casualty of the season was the loss of the schooner Wave, on Lake Michigan, with 13 lives, followed about the same time by the foundering of the Victor and loss of 8 lives on that lake. Three vessels were simultaneously wrecked near St. Joseph, Lake Michigan, during a severe gale March 27, the schooner Jefferson, Captain Dougall Ocean, Captain Davis, and brig Rosa, Captain Whiting. The two former had cargoes of stone, the latter no cargo. During this storm the wreck of the ill-fated schooner Wave drifted ashore at Racine, and three bodies were recovered. A party from Buffalo in search of sunken wrecks in Lake Erie discovered the schooner Young Sion, laden with railroad iron, off Walnut creek, also the steamer Erie, six miles off Silver creek, but were unsuccessful in raising them. On May 4 the schooner Freedom, Captain Ward, capsized 15 miles above Fort Gratiot lighthouse and 3 miles off shore. There were six persons on board, three of whom were drowned. The vessel was loaded with lumber and shingles. On the 18th of the same month the schooner Nicholas Biddle, lying under bare poles, capsized about two miles above Cleveland the crew was all saved and the vessel subsequently recovered. The schooner Shamrock, laden with pork and flour from Toledo, capsized eight miles above Gravelly bay, and one man was lost the vessel was recovered a few days afterward. The new survey steamer Colonel Abert made her trial trip at Buffalo May 18, and gave the utmost satisfaction. January 1: Steamer St. Clair left Cleveland for Detroit, the first clearance of the season 4, scow Flat Foot ashore at Madison, Lake Erie. May: Schooner Smead capsized off Port Stanley schooner Aurora capsized on Lake Ontario during a storm two lives lost. June 5: The Empire launched in Cleveland from the shipyard of G.W. Jones, 1,200 tons burnen(sic) schooner Edwin Jenny sunk on Lake Erie by collision. July: Schooner Argyle, in command of Captain Teal, damaged during a storm near Gravelly bay saved from being wrecked by the schooner Tom Corwin, in command of Captain Cannon 15, british schooner Kent ashore near Grand River. August: Schooner Daniel Whitney, from Kalamazoo, in command of Captain Crooker, wrecked on Lake Michigan and all hands lost. September: Steamer Perry sustains injuries from collision with piers at Huron harbor during a severe storm equinoxial storm accompanied with snow at Cleveland. October: Steamer Fairport burned at the dock in Newport, St. Clair river barge Sandusky ashore at Cattaraugus creek, becomes a total wreck schooner Hannah wrecked near Malden propeller Emigrant, with 9,000 bushels of wheat from Chicago, ashore at Goderich brig Alert, in command of Captain Scovill, ashore at Point Wabashanks 29, schooner Philadelphia, in command of Captain Conner, ashore at Cleveland schooners Ainsworth, Juliet and Cambridge ashore at Huron during a gale on Lake Erie schooner Pennsylvania wrecked at Point Albino schooner Highlander, in command of Captain Jacques, wrecked on Lake Erie. November: Brig Clarion and schooner Wabash ashore near Buffalo 20, schooner Essex with cargo of wheat from Sandusky, ashore at the mouth of the Niagara river owned by Doolittle, Mills & Co. 24, steamer Rochester ashore near Oswego passengers taken off by the Telegraph schooner Gates ashore near Oswego 23, schooner Charleston ashore and full of water, Sodus harbor. December 6: Schooner H. M. Kinne ashore near Goderick, after running on Point Wabashank reef schooner W. Foster ashore near Ft. Gratiot schooner Champion ashore near Point Wabashank schooner Jenny wrecked at Buffalo crew saved schooner Richmond lost on Lake Michigan.

Some of the transcription work was also done by Brendon Baillod, who maintains an excellent guide to Great Lakes Shipwreck Research.

1841-1850 - History

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January 13, 1840 - Off the coast of Long Island, New York, 139 people lose their lives when the steamship Lexington burns and sinks four miles off the coast.

May 7, 1840 - The Great Natchez Trace Tornado strikes Natchez, Mississippi and wreaks havoc. In the second most deadly tornado in U.S. history, 317 people are counted among the dead and 209 are injured.

December 2, 1840 - President Martin Van Buren is defeated for reelection by William Henry Harrison. Harrison, a Whig, receives 234 Electoral College votes to 60 and also wins the popular vote contest.

March 9, 1841 - The Supreme Court of the U.S. states that in the case of the slave ship Amistad that the Africans who had wrested control of the ship had been bound into slavery illegally.

April 4, 1841 - President William Henry Harrison, sworn into office only one month before on March 4, dies of pneumonia. His tenure of one month is the shortest in history and his death in office the first for a president of the United States. He is succeeded by Vice President John Tyler.

January 31, 1842 - Elizabeth Tyler, the president's daughter, marries William Nevison Walker, at the White House in Washington, D.C.

February 6, 1843 - At the Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City, the first minstrel show in the United States debuts.

November 28, 1843 - The Kingdom of Hawaii is officially recognized by European nations as an independent nation. This date signifies Hawaiian Independence Day.

April 6, 1844 - Edgar Allan Poe, the highly regarded writer of short stories, departs his home in Philadelphia for New York City. Although most of this best works were written while in the City of Brotherly Love for two years, he left the city with $4.50 to his name.

March 3, 1845 - Congress overrides a presidential veto. President Tyler's veto of a military appropriation was overturned.

American inventor Elias Howe, working as a machinist after losing his factory job in the Panic of 1837, invents his sewing machine. Howe would patent the device on September 10, 1846.

January 5, 1846 - The United States House of Representatives changes its policy toward sharing the Oregon Territory with the United Kingdom. On June 15, the Oregon Treaty is signed with Great Britain, fixing the boundary of the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel from the Rocky Mountains to the Straits of Juan de Fuca.

July 1, 1847 - The first adhesive postage stamps in the United States went on sale with Benjamin Franklin gracing the 5 cent stamp and George Washington fronting the 10 cent stamp.

July 24, 1847 - One hundred and forty-eight Mormons under Brigham Young settle at Salt Lake City, Utah after leaving Nauvoo, Illinois for the west on February 10, 1846 due to violent clashes over their beliefs, which included the practice of polygamy through the end of the 1800s.

January 12, 1848 - Abraham Lincoln, as Congressman from Springfield, Illinois, attacked President Polk's handling of the Mexican War in a speech in the House of Representatives.

November 7, 1848 - Zachary Taylor, hero of the Mexican War, defeats Lewis Cass in the presidential election of 1848. Whig Taylor garners 163 Electoral College votes to 127 for the Democratic candidate. This was the first U.S. election held on the same date in every state.

January 23, 1849 - The first woman doctor in the United States, Elizabeth Blackwell, is granted her degree by the Medical Institute of Geneva, New York.

April 4, 1849 - The first baseball uniforms are introduced by the New York Knickerbockers club blue and white cricket outfits were used.

1841-1850 - History

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WA Governor John Hutt lays the Foundation Stone of the first Church of St George , Perth , WA. This building, which is finally opened on 22nd January 1845, stands adjacent to the Law Chambers. About 600 people are present when the church is opened.

The steamer Clonmel, on its second voyage between Sydney and Melbourne , is wrecked near Corner Inlet .

Mariner, author and explorer Jorgen Jorgenson dies, age 60.

Angus McMillan sets out on further exploratory treks and founds the site of Port Albert near Corner Inlet, Vic.

SA Police pursue the French ship Ville De Bordeaux for evasion of Customs regulations Glenelg and Pt. Adelaide. It is a major French / British diplomatic incident.

Edward John Eyre , with John Baxter and three Aborigines, leave Fowlers Bay , SA, in an attempt to cross the Nullarbor Plain to King George Sound , WA.

The ship Parkfield arrives at Leschenault Inlet , WA, with the first settlers for the Australind colony .

The Supreme Court sits in Melbourne for the first time, in a small brick building on the south-west corner of King and Bourke Streets, that was previously used as the Land Office.

Two of John Eyre ‘s Aboriginal companions murder his companion, Baxter, steal most of his supplies and run away, leaving Eyre and Wylie to travel on alone.

Rev William Branthwite Clarke discovers gold near Hassan’s Walls near the Hartley Valley , NSW. It is the first recorded gold find in Australia.

Gas lighting on Sydney ‘s streets is turned on for the first time.

A copper deposit is discovered and worked on the banks of the Onkaparinga River (Noarlunga), SA.

Explorer Edward John Eyre and his Aboriginal campanion are saved for almost certain death when they encounter Capt Rossiter of the French whaler Mississippi at Rossiter Bay , near Esperance , WA.

Assignment of convict labour ends. New South Wales bounty system of assisted immigration suspended.

Explorer Edward John Eyre and his Aboriginal companion Wylie arrive in Albany , WA, after walking from Fowlers Bay , SA.

John Lort Stokes , exploring the Gulf of Carpentaria aboard HMS Beagle, discovers and names the Flinders and Albert Rivers.

Savings Bank of Port Phillip established.

Melbourne is divided into four wards – Bourke Ward: north-west Gipps Ward: north-east La Trobe Ward: south-east and Lonsdale Ward: south-west.

First Chief Justice of NSW, Sir Francis Forbes dies, age 57?

Economic Depression hits, resulting in a general financial collapse. A fall in wool prices sees the cessation of overseas investment and financial dislocation in all the colonies combines to bring down the rickety facade of prosperity.

Legislation passed in WA allowing Aborigines to give evidence ( SA does not pass legislation until 1844).

Buildings completed – Victoria Barracks , Sydney ( George Barney ) Pitt Street Congregational Church, Sydney (John Bibb) St John’s Church, ACT Fort Denison , Sydney Harbour (work begun but then abandoned until 1855)

The first public execution held in Melbourne . Hanged were two Tasmanian Aborigines involved in the murder of two whalers. Truganini and two other females were aquitted.

A new law for insolvency passed in New South Wales . The insolvent person has to surrender all of his estate. He has to make a declaration stating why he had reached his present financial position and after satisfying the requirements of the Law, he could apply to the Commissioner of Insolvent Estates for a certificate of release.

Gov George Gipps proclaims Moreton Bay district open to free settlers.

A native police force comprised of 25 Aborigines formed at Narre Warren , near Dandenong , Vic, under command of Henry Dana .

Western Australian businessman and politician, Sir George Shenton , born.

Gov George Gipps visits Brisbane , amends the town plans, and rejects the squatters’ request for Cleveland to be the port.

Australian Roman Catholic Church heirarchy established. John Bede Polding becomes Archbishop of Sydney .

The first statue to be erected in Australia in unveiled in Sydney near the present State Library of NSW. It is of Gov Richard Bourke .

A German settlement is established at Lobethal , SA.

An escape attempt at Norfolk Island in the brig Governor Phillip is quelled. Six convicts are killed, four are later executed.

Imperial Waste Lands Act increases the minimum price of land in all the Australian colonies to £1 acre – half the proceeds to be used to encourage migration. Wakefield, Torrens & Hutt ‘s plan from the SA Foundation Act of 1834, is to be half adopted in the other colonies i.e. NSW WA & Tas.

All South Australian births, deaths and marriages are now required to be registered.

The first land sales are held in Brisbane , which is now open for free settlement. Because this is a miserable flop, later sales are held in Sydney .

Benjamin Boyd arrives at Port Jackson in his brig, Wanderer. He opens the Royal Bank of Sydney soon after.

Sydney is incorporated as a city.

Representative government introduced in NSW . A 36 seat Legislative Assembly is formed.

South Australia becomes a crown colony, losing its semi-independent status, with a nominated Legislative Council.

Sydney Herald becomes the Sydney Morning Herald .

The newly formed Australian Jockey Club holds its first race meeting at Homebush Racecourse.

HM Corvette Fly and the cutter Bramble arrive at Port Jackon under Capt Francis Price Blackwood , to begin a survey of the Barrier Reef and Torres Strait.

Sydney elects its first council. They are the first popular elections in NSW. John Hosking is elected mayor.

Handel’s Messiah is performed for the first time in Australia at Sydney ‘s Royal Victoria Theatre.

Melbourne ‘s first Municipal Council elected. Henry Condell becomes the first mayor.

The Hunter River Steam Navigation Co. begins a Sydney – Brisbane service.

Australia slides into economic depression because of drought, falling wool prices and the rising cost of labour.

Captain Charles Dutton and sheep farmer Francis Bagot stumble across some ‘moss- coloured stones’ on land they didn’t own at Kapunda , SA, believing it to be copper. Incredibly, they had to keep their find a secret for two years while the assay results confirming it as copper ore returned by sea from Wales.

John Clements Wickham arrives in Brisbane as police magistrate. He is appointed Government Resident on 1st January 1853.

80 are arrested after the military are called in to quell a riot at the Parramatta Female Factory.

Foundation stone of the Australian Subscription Library’s new building in Macquarie Street, Sydney , laid by Alexander Macleay .

The Great Comet makes its appearance in southern skies.

The Bank of Australia fails in the financial depression.

The first elections for the NSW Legislative Council held.

Gov George Gipps orders the removal from office of Justice John Walpole Willis , resident Judge in the Port Phillip District, after powerful interests in Melbourne petition for his recall.

First Italian opera – The Barber of Seville – performed in Sydney .

Adelaide Observer first published.

Assisted immigration by the British Government reintroduced.

First horse race meeting in Brisbane .

Maitland , NSW, declared the first district council area.

New NSW Legislative Council meets for the first time. Alexander Macleay elected speaker William Charles Wentworth becomes the leader of the non-official majority.

Sir John Eardley-Wilmot arrives in Hobart to take office as Lieut-Gov of Tasmania, replacing Sir John Franklin .

Bushranger Martin Cash captured in Hobart . He is later sentence to death, commuted to life, then pardoned in 1853.

Unemployed labourers and mechanics are given relief work on roads by the NSW Government.

Thomas Sutcliffe Mort establishes a wool auctioning agency in Sydney .

South Australia’s Legislative Council meets for the first time.

Benjamin Boyd takes up 259 acres of land at Twofold Bay .

SA Legislative Council meets for the first time.

The first land sales take place at Ipswich , Qld.

South Australian farmer John Ridley invents the wheat stripper.

Comedian and entertainment entrepreneur Harry Rickards born.

The Australind scheme collapses. Land sales cease immediately.

Henry John Lindeman establishes Cawarra vineyard on the Paterson River in the Hunter Valley , NSW.

The excavation of Argyle Cut , The Rocks, Sydney , begins.

Buildings constructed – Hero of Waterloo Hotel , Sydney Seahorse Hotel, Boydtown, NSW NSW Legislative Assembly building, Sydney ( Mortimer Lewis )

Gov George Gipps jostled by a crowd of unemployed men in Hyde Park, Sydney .

Regular monthly sea mail service begins between UK and Sydney .

Foundation stone of the monument to Surveyor-General Col William Light in Light Square, Adelaide, is laid.

The first sale of land at Seymour , Vic, conducted.

Occupation regulations issued limiting area and stock-carrying capacity of Squatters’ runs and making it obligatory to hold a separate licence for each run. Squatters meet in Melbourne on 1st June to protest against new land regulations.

A public meeting of pastoralists in Sydney protests occupation regulations and forms the Pastoralist Association.

The Queen’s Theatre opens in Melbourne .

The Great Potato Famine begins. A blight attacks the plants and destroys the crops. Ireland is one of the worst effected. Many Irish people decide to migrate to Australia.

Squatters meet in Melbourne to protest against new land regulations.

Naval surgeon and pastoralist Sir John Jamison dies, age 67?

A fierce storm drives the emigrant ship Cataraqui ashore on King Island . Of the 115 people on board, only nine survive.

Explorer Ludwig Leichhardt leaves Sydney on his first expedition into the Australian outback from Jimbour Station, Darling Downs , to Port Essington , NT.

Explorer Charles Sturt leaves Adelaide , SA, on an expedition to find the inland sea rumoured to exist in central Australia.

Explorer Ludwig Leichhardt embarks on his first expedition to Port Essington , NT.

More floods in Melbourne . The Yarra River breaks its banks.

Explorer Charles Sturt , exploring Broken Range near the site of Broken Hill , first gathers the desert pea that bears his name.

Explorer Ludwig Leichhardt discovers and names the Dawson River.

The ship Royal George arrives in Port Phillip from London carrying 21 "exiles" – convicted criminals given a conditional pardon upon landing – causing a public outcry.

Author Ada Cambridge born in St Germans, Norfolk, England.

A public meeting in Melbourne to separate from NSW decides to send a petition to England.

Dr Christopher Rawson Penfold establishes a vineyard at Magill, SA, with cuttings from France and Spain.

Swimming baths opened on the south bank of the Yarra River , Melbourne .

The first bowling green in Tasmania established at Sandy Bay near Hobart .

First known exhibition of pictures in Australia held in Hobart .

Explorer Ludwig Leichhardt discovers the Mackenzie River.

Explorer Charles Sturt ‘s party reches Depot Glen (the site of Milparinka, SA). where they are forced to remain for six months owing to the lack of rain.

Explorer Ludwig Leichhardt discovers and names the Isaac River.

Hobart Savings Bank opens.

Cutter America wrecked in Torres Strait , Qld.

Queen’s Theatre Royal, Melbourne , opens.

Shepherds William Strear and Thomas Pickett discover outcrops of copper close to the Burra Burra Creek, SA. Special survey of 20,000 acres undertaken and divided between South Australian Mining Association and Princess Royal Mining Association.

Explorer Ludwig Leichhardt reaches the Lynde River, his first encounter with a stream flowing into the Gulf of Carpentaria .

Brig Mary wrecked off Flinders Island , Bass Strait 17 lives lost.

Gold discovered near Montacute , SA.

Emmigrant ship Cataraqui wrecked off King Island only 9 of the 415 on board survive.

Actor and theatrical entrepreneur James Cassius Williamson born.

Explorer Charles Sturt reaches his farthest point towards the centre of Australia, beyond Eyre Creek but short of the Tropic of Capricorn.

South Australian Mining Association begins mining operations at the Burra Burra Mine , SA.

Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick Holt Robe appointed Governor of SA , replacing George Grey . Grey leaves Adelaide for New Zealand to become Lieut-Gov.

Six unofficial members of Tasmania ‘s Lesislative Council walk out in protest over taxes to pay for police and judicial establishments.

Sir Thomas Mitchell leaves Sydney on an overland expedition to Port Essington , NT.

The first recorded game of bowls in Australia is played at the back of the Beach Tavern, Sandy Bay , Tas. T. Burgess defeated F. Lipscombe.

Explorer Charles Sturt ‘s party set off from Depot Glen to return to Adelaide Sturt, too ill to ride, is carried on a dray.

Explorer Ludwig Leichhardt arrives in Port Essington , NT, after a journey of 14 1/2 months. They return to Sydney by sea, arriving 25th March 1846.

Buildings constructed – All Saints Church, Bathurst , NSW

Wellington , NSW, gazetted as a village.

Spanish Benedictine monks Dom Rosendo Salvado and Dom Joseph Benedict Serra leave Perth for the Victoria Plains to establish an Aboriginal mission at New Norcia .

The population of South Australia at census, is 22,390, including 132 at Port Lincoln and 70 on Kangaroo Island. Adelaide ‘s population is 13,871.

South Australia’s Governor Frederick Holt Robe imposes a royalty in SA on minerals, which leads to a public outcry.

Colonial shipbuilder Henry Kable dies, age 82?

Early colonial administrator, Joseph Foveaux dies, age 80?

Barque Orwell arrives at Moreton Bay with 51 Coolies from India to work for Robert Towns, Benjamin Boyd and others.

Sir John Eardley-Wilmot dismissed as Governor of Tas , allegedly for not surpressing homosexuality among convicts.

The sending of convicts to Tasmania is suspended for two years.

Sir Thomas Mitchell establishes a base camp on the Maranoa River.

The Argus newspaper, published by William Kerr, commences business in Melbourne .

Brisbane ‘s first newspaper, the Moreton Bay Courier (later the Brisbane Courier, then Courier-Mail ) begins publication.

The first river steamer service, the Experiment, runs between Brisbane and Ipswich , Qld.

Four guards are killed in an uprising on Norfolk Island . 12 convicts are subsequently executed.

Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy appointed Civilian Administrator, Captain- General and Governor-in-Chief of NSW, Van Diemen’s Land and South Australia and their dependencies (12th July 1846 to 17th January 1855). George Gipps leaves Sydney to return to England.

Martial Law proclaimed for one night in Melbourne , following rioting between Orangemen and Roman Catholics during which shots were fired.

Scientist and explorer Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay born.

John Horrocks uses the camel for exploration for the first time in Australia.

Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy arrives in Sydney and takes up the post of Governor.

South Australian pioneer Robert Gouger dies in Norwood, England, age 44 – pension denied.

Alexander Berry ‘s ship Coolangatta wrecked on the coast south of Moreton Bay . The locality today bears the ship’s name.

A Lands Act is passed in UK offering squatters long leases in unsettled districts and other previleges.

Having reached the Barcoo River (which he names the Victoria), Sir Thomas Mitchell turns back and returns to Sydney (arrives 29th December).

Christ’s College, near Longford , Tas, opens.

New South Wales proposes the resumption of transportation of convicts. Public meetings opposing the proposal are held.

Orange , NSW, proclaimed as a village. Land sales begin a year later.

Explorer Ludwig Leichhardt embarks on his second expedition to try to cross the continent from Brisbane to Perth . He returns unsuccessful on 31st July 1847.

Buildings constructed – Australian Museum north wing, Sydney ( Mortimer Lewis ) Melbourne Hospital (Samuel Jackson) old Princess Bridge, Melbourne ( David Lennox ).

George Barney and party leave Sydney in the barque Lord Auckland to found the Gladstone colony in northern Australia centred on Port Curtis.

Sir William Denison takes up his appointment as Lieut-Gov of Tasmania.

Colony of Gladstone (Qld) proclaimed.

A petition from New South Wales and Tasmania relating to the abolition of Transportation sent to Queen Victoria .

The Adelaide And Suburban Building Society becomes the first building society in the colony of South Australia.

Lieut-Col Frederick Chidley Irwin becomes Governor of WA following the death of Andrew Clarke on 11th February.

Former Governor of NSW, Sir George Gipps dies, age 55?

Explorer and surveyor Edmund Besley Court Kennedy commences an expedition from Sydney to trace the Victoria River (now the Barcoo ) to its mouth, which he believed would be on the Gulf of Carpentaria .

Benjamin Boyd ‘s ship Velocity arrives at Twofold Bay , NSW, with 65 Melanesian labourers to work on his estates.

Gladstone colony disbanded on the instructions of the Colonial Office.

Henry George Grey (Earl Grey), minister of the Colonial Office, orders the closing of the convict establishment in NSW and the transfer of remaining coinvicts to Tas .

A meeting of citizens in Hobart prepares a submission to Queen Victoria for the abolition of transportation to Tasmania.

Adelaide is bombarded with hailstones ranging in size from marbles to pigeon’s eggs.

HMS Rattlesnake ( Capt Owen Stanley ) arrives in Sydney to begin a 3-year survey in Australian waters.

Charles Perry is consecrated an Anglican Bishop in London. He is to take charge of the new Diocese of Melbourne, created a few days earlier.

Beginning of period of severe drought in NSW.

Explorer and Premier of Western Australia, Lord John Forrest , born at Bunbury , WA.

Feminist and social reformer Rose Scott born at Glendon, near Singleton, NSW.

The Aboriginal station at Wybalenna on Flinders Island is closed down the 47 residents are transferred to Oyster Cove, south of Hobart .

Melbourne hosts its first Intercolonial Race Meeting.

Golf is introduced to Australia by the James Graham Fife who creates a course at Flagstaff Hill, Melbourne , on the site of Flagstaff Gardens .

Government decides that the recovery from the depression is sufficient to start land sales in Port Phillip again.

Lady Mary FitzRoy, the wife of NSW Governor, and the Governor’s aide-de-camp are killed when thrown from a carriage at Parramatta, NSW.

South Australian Germans publish the first German language newspaper in Australia.

Johann Gramp establishes his Orlando vineyard , the first in the Barossa Valley , SA, at Jacob’s Creek , near Rowland’s Flat.

William and Henry Dangar set up a meat-canning works at Newcastle , NSW.

Buildings constructed – Lands Department Building, Hobart ( William Porden Kay ) foundation stone of New Norcia monastery , WA, laid Supreme Court , Adelaide (Richard Lambeth)

Paddlesteamer The Brothers vegins the Sydney – Manly ferry service.

Explorer Ludwig Leichhardt sets out from Canning station on the Darling Downs in a second attempt to cross the country from east to west.

During his second attempt to cross the country from east to west, explorer Ludwig Leichhardt (age 35) issues his last communication from Cogoon. He is not seen or heard of again.

Benalla , Vic, declared a town. Land sales begin 28th June 1849.

Explorer and surveyor Edmund Besley Court Kennedy leaves Sydney on HMS Rattlesnake, at the commencement of an expedition in which he plans to land at Rockhamption Bay, and then travel overland to Cape York, where supplies would be replenished from the Rattlesnake.

Johann Gramp , born at Eichigt, Bavaria, in 1819, is naturalised. He migrated to South Australia in 1837 and lived for a year on Kangaroo Island. In 1846 he settled at Jacob’s Creek where he established what became Orlando Wines a year later.

Former Lieut-Gov of Tasmania , Col William Sorell , dies age 72?

Colonial government official Alexander Macleay dies, age 81.

Electors in Port Phillip District, in protest against an absentee government in Sydney , refuse to nominate representatives to the New South Wales Legislative Council, but elect Earl Grey as the Member for Melbourne .

Henry Fox Young replaces Frederick Holt Robe as South Australia’s Governor.

The British Government revokes an Order-In-Council abolishing transportation to NSW.

Destitute Board established in SA for the welfare of immigrants (Immigration Officer John Brown appointed by the Foundation Act of SA 1834 – Under his instructions, he was to act as ‘protector to the emigrant labourers’ and ‘at all times give them employment on the Government work’… This concept of ‘work for the dole’, was first applied to ‘Keepers of The Park Lands’)

Augustus Charles Gregory leads an expedition to the Murchison district of WA and discovers good pastoral land.

The Australian newspaper first published.

The Port Phillip Patriot newspaper becomes the Melbourne Daily News.

Newspaper entrepreneur Sir John langdon Bonython born.

The convict ship Governor Phillip wrecked off Cape Barren Island 16 die from drowning or starvation before help arrives.

The first sale of land is held in Colac , Vic.

Gov Charles Fitzgerald wounded by Aborigines while exploring with Gregory near Champion Bay, WA.

The first 240 Government assisted immigrants arrive at Moreton Bay , Qld, on the Artemisia.

Edmund Besley Court Kennedy fatally speared by Aborigines his Aboriginal guide Jacky Jacky continues alone to Cape York. He is rescued by Ariel at Port Albany (24th) six days later, two other survivors are rescued at Weymouth Bay.

Constitutional Association formed in Sydney to effect electoral and land reforms.

Australia’s first iron smelting works opens in Mittagong , NSW.

Buildings constructed – St Philip’s Anglican Church , Church Hill, Sydney ( Edmund Blacket ) St Mark’s Church , Darling Pt, Sydney ( Edmund Blacket )

The Port Phillip Herald newspaper becomes the Melbourne Morning Herald.

The Plymouth, the first of a number of ships carrying people to the California goldfields , leaves Port Jackson for San Francisco.

Australia’s first Prime Minister, Edmund Barton , born in Glebe, Sydney .

The Fortitude arrives at Moreton Bay with 253 migrants from Britain for Rev John Dunmore Lang ‘s Cooksland cotton growing scheme. Its temporary headquarters are set up at Fortitude Valley , named after the ship which brought them there.

The first German migrants arrive in Melbourne in the Godeffroy.

Gas lighting is introduced in Melbourne by William Overton, a confectioner. At considerable personal expense, he succeeds in the manufacture of gas and uses it to light his large premises in Swanston Street, Melbourne.

A public meeting in Perth requests that WA be converted to a penal settlement to aid the flagging state of the colony.

Mass meetings held in Melbourne and Sydney in opposition to the re- introduction of transportation.

The town of Armidale , NSW, gazetted.

Caroline Chisholm establishes the Family Colonisation Loan Society in London to help families migrate to Australia.

The town of Wangaratta , Vic, surveyed. Land goes on sale 22nd January 1851.

Aborigines kill two brothers from Gregory Blaxland ‘s Gin Gin station, leading to the massacre by whites of a large number of Aborigines.

The first clipper ship to come to Australia, the Phoenicians, arrives at Port Jackson after a 90 day journey from Britain, compared to the average 140 days.

The convict transport Randolph arrives at Port Phillip , but Gov. charles Joseph La Trobe refuses to take its convicts and orders the ship to proceed to Sydney .

Public anger at the continuance of the practice of transportation of convicts is so his, when the convict transport Randolph arrives at Port Jackson, Gov Charles Augustus Fitzroy orders it to sail to Moreton Bay . All subsequent convict transport ships are sent direct to Moreton Bay .

A hurricane blows down houses and levels chimneys in Melbourne . The Yarra and Maribyrnong Rivers are in high flood. At Dight’s Falls the Yarra rises 37 feet above its normal level.

Melbourne has its heaviest snowstorm.

Benjamin Boyd ‘s Royal Bank closes. It is subsequently liquidated.

Sydney Railway and Tramway Co. incorporated by act of parliament.

Town of Geelong , Vic, incorporated.

Castaway Barbara Thompson is rescued by HMS Rattlesnake at Evans Bay, Cape York peninsula , after living with Aborigines for five years.

Wagga Wagga , NSW, and Dubbo , NSW, proclaimed as towns.

Geraldton , WA, laid out as a town. Land sales commence in June 1850.

Port Essington , NT, is again abandoned and the settlers return to Sydney .

The Adelaide is the second last ship to bring "exiles" to Australia. It arrives at Port Phillip with 281 exiles on board, but is refused entry and sails on to Port Jackson.

Apples grown in Tasmania are first exported the initial consignments are bound for New Zealand and the California goldfields .

Buildings constructed – first wing of the Treasury Building , Sydney ( Mortimer Lewis ), now incorporated into the Intercontinental Hotel Richmond Villa , Sydney Pentridge Gaol , Melbourne .

The Australian Museum opens a small zoo in Hyde Park, Sydney .

Australia’s first adhesive postage stamps issued in New South Wales. Adhesive postage stamps first issued in Victoria two days later. They feature Queen Victoria and are the first stamps in the world to be printed using the lithography process.

Australian Philosophical Society (late the Royal Society of NSW ) formed in Sydney .

The first refrigeration plant in the world is built by James Harrison in Victoria. The process he develops relies on the formation of ice by evaporation.

Pioneer farmer Elizabeth Macarthur dies, age 82?

Railway between Adelaide and Port Adelaide authorised by an act of parliament.

Naval officer and explorer Capt Owen Stanley dies, age 38.

The Bangalore brings the last "exiles" to Australia – all 392 on board disembark at Moreton Bay .

Sir Frederick William Holder , Premier of SA and first Speaker in the House of Representatives, born.

The transportation of convicts to WA begins. Captain Edmund Yeamans Walcott Henderson (Royal Engineers), appointed first Comptroller-General of Convicts in WA , arrives off Fremantle with first shipment of 75 transportees aboard the chartered Indiaman Scindian.

First Unitarian Church congregation in Australia formed in Sydney .

Pioneer settler and explorer William Lawson dies, age 76.

The Australian Colonies Government Act receives royal assent in Britain – providing for the separation from New South Wales of the Port Phillip District, to be known as Victoria , and for the eventual self-government of the Australian colonies. ( SA already has this right under the Foundation Act of 1834).

Slain’s Castle, the first of the ship to sail under Caroline Chisholm ‘s Family Colonisation Loan Society scheme, leaves England with 150 migrants.

The University of Sydney is constituted by an act of parliament.

The NSW Legislative Council adopts a policy not to accept any more transported convicts.

The original Princes Bridge over the Yarra River , Melbourne , opens demolished 1884.

United Operative Masons Society formed in Melbourne .

A game of "Australian Rules Football" played in Melbourne – 12 players per side – as part of the celebrations for Victoria’s separation from NSW. It was the forerunner to but not exactly the same as what today is known as Australian Rules Football .

Melbourne ‘s Pentridge Gaol , recently completed, receives its first prisoners.

The first Australian branch of the YMCA formed in Adelaide , SA.

William Beaumont and James Waller open their zoological gardens at their Sir Joseph Banks Hotel , Botany, NSW.

James K. Polk, 1845-1849

James K. Polk became the first dark horse candidate for president when the Democratic convention in 1844 became deadlocked and the two favorites, Lewis Cass and former president Martin Van Buren, could not win. Polk was nominated on the ninth ballot of the convention, and was surprised to learn, a week later, that he was his party's nominee for president.

Polk won the election of 1844 and served one term in the White House. He was perhaps the most successful president of the era, as he sought to increase the size of the nation. And he got the United States involved in the Mexican War, which allowed the nation to increase its territory.

1840 to 1849 Important News, Key Events, Significant Technology

British Colonists Arrive In New Zealand , The Treaty of Waitangi was signed in 1840. The British government had sent a representative to New Zealand to calm Maori tribesmen. At Waitangi, in February 1840, the majority of the Maori chiefs agreed to cede sovereignty of the islands to Queen Victoria. In exchange for this they wanted the precedence of own lands and a guarantee of protection.

First Postage Stamp , Under a number of reforms proposed by Sir Rowland Hill including a standard price for sending a letter (prior to this, it was the person who received the letter who paid how much was due depending on weight and distance traveled). In 1840, the first stamp is issued which featured a black and white portrait of Queen Victoria costing one penny (more often referred to as the "Penny Black").

The First Afghan War , The British Army's occupation of Kabul and other areas was set off by a number of difficulties that were started by the insurrection. The insurrection followed after the stoppage of subsidies that were paid to the tribal chiefs. Alexander Burnes, the British political agent, was murdered in November and the embassy was overrun by the Ghilzais. Sir William MacNaghten, the senior British envoy, was killed in December.

Wagon Trains Start The Journey To California , Covered Wagon Trains took immigrants on a journey from Missouri River towns to what is now the state of California. The trip was about 2,000 miles and each night the Covered Wagon Train would form a circle for shelter from wind and extreme weather, they would put all the animals in the center to prevent them from running away or being stolen by Native Americans.

Britain takes Hong Kong , Hong Kong Island was handed to Britain by China in 1842's Treaty of Nanking. Although, it was not until after the Second Opium War that the European government gained a larger part of the harbor. It was the First Opium War that had made it an important port to the British merchants, and it was appointed a Crown dependency. Hong Kong was, in the treaty, ceded to Britain in perpetuity, but in 1997 Hong Kong was handed back to China and went back to Chinese Rule.

Massachusetts Child Employment Laws , Massachusetts became the first state to pass laws limiting how many hours a child laborer could be forced to work. The new laws limited a child under the age of twelve's workday to a maximum of 10 hrs.

The Oregon Trail , The first 'wagon train' was the wave of migration that started in 1843, and had followed John Bidwell's 1841 train, and Elijah White's 1842 expedition to Oregon. The 1843 wagon train was comprised of about nine hundred people. Bidwell's immigrants had been split on going to California and Oregon. The definition of this as the first wagon train is made by its number of participants. The earlier ones had only been small expeditionary groups.

Morse's first electronic telegram , Samuel Morse had created an electromagnetic telegraph in 1836 and he had written the code that was to be transferred on it. Morse Code used dots, dashes and spaces to represent the letters of the alphabet. The U.S. government had requested a line be built between Baltimore and Washington, and it sent the first message on May 24th, 1844. The code also represents numbers.

The U.S. Naval Academy of Annapolis , The U.S. Naval Academy of Annapolis was founded in 1845 for officers of the U.S. Navy and Marines. It was started by the Secretary of the U.S. Navy, George Bancroft, who had moved the Philadelphia Naval Asylum School to what had been the Army's Fort Severn. Its first class had comprised of fifty midshipmen.

Florida Becomes The 27th state of the United States of America , On March 3, 1845, Florida became the 27th state of the United States of America. At that time Florida was best known for it's cotton plantations because the climate suited the crop well.

Texas Becomes The 28th state of the United States of America , Texas, after gaining independence from Mexico in 1836 , became the largest state in the contiguous United States in 1845.

Baseball Rules Defined For First Time , The New York Knickerbockers are formed and define a set of rules similar to the game today. There is major dispute over who first created Baseball. Because of games like "town ball" played in many Northern states, many believe that the game of Baseball called "Town Ball" as played today originated in Philadelphia in 1833 .

The Rubber Band , One Year after Charles Goodyear had patented vulcanized rubber, Stephen Perry patents the Rubber Band.

1920's Fashion

Ladies Dresses From The Decade

Part of our Collection of Childrens Clothes From the Decade

Childrens Toys From The 1920's

1920s Music

Oregon splits from England , Oregon's border to Canada is set to the 49th Parallel in 1846, which was the same year that its lands were separated from the United Kingdom. You should note that the earlier Oregon Country was the land that ran between the California and Alaska coastlines. It wasn't until after the separation from England, and its incorporation into the United States that its current boundaries were set.

Iowa Becomes The 29th state of the United States of America , Iowa, formerly part of the French controlled Louisiana, became part of the United States following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. It became the Territory of Iowa in 1833 and a US state in 1846.

U.S. - Mexican War 1846 to 1848 , After Texas became a US state the year before, the United States and Mexico go to war over the disputed area. American forces invade and conquer New Mexico, California and parts of Northern Mexico. Another American army captured Mexico City, forcing Mexico to agree to the sale of its Northern territories to the U.S for $15 million.

U.S. - First official Game Of Baseball , The first official game played under New York Knickerbockers Base Ball Club rules was on June 19, 1846 in Hoboken, New Jersey, between the Knickerbockers and the New York Base Ball Club (with the Knickerbockers losing 23-1). Find Out More About The Origins and History Of Major League Baseball including origins, records, great players and the modern game.

Smithsonian Institution , is established as an educational and research institute it is administered and funded by the government of the United States and by funds from its endowment. The Smithsonian institute was funded by the British scientist James Smithson, who had never visited the United States himself, as an "Establishment for the increase & diffusion of Knowledge among men." The work on the Smithsonian Institution Building on the National Mall started in 1846 and was completed in 1855 .

Jane Eyre published , Jane Eyre was published in October of 1847. The book by Charlotte Brontë used its autobiographical means to talk about the social interaction that was beyond the period's literary discourse. Objections to the book were common, and Brontë had used a male pseudonym, Currer Bell, because of the public's inability to appreciate its author being a woman. Jane's discussions of fidelity, hypocrisy and Rochester's numerous liaisons was more than its readers could appreciate at the time.

Mormon Followers Led By Brigham Young Arrive in Utah , Followers of "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints", more commonly referred to as the Mormon Church, arrive in Salt Lake City, Utah. Salt Lake City is still home to the headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS) and over 50% of the population are still practicing members of the church today.

Chloroform Used As General Anaesthetic , Obstetrician James Young Simpson first used chloroform for general anesthesia during childbirth. Prominent churchmen objected and quoted Genesis "God Intended Women to Suffer Pain During Childbirth." But the next year, when giving birth to her seventh child, Queen Victoria asked for Chloroform to ease her labor pains. Chloroform went on to be used during surgery around the world.

Antiseptic Use In Hospital , Surgeon Joseph Lister (Scotland) begins cleaning wounds, surgical equipment and insists his surgical team clean hands with Carbolic Acid prior to operating. The number of patients who then became infected decreased considerably and the process was adopted around the world revolutionizing medical care.

The California Gold Rush starts , It was James Marshall that found the first nugget on January 30th, 1848 at Coloma. His find was to draw half a million people to California, and his initial discovery meant that other prospectors were able to uncover beds on the Trinity and Feather rivers. The Gold Rush is said to have taken place between 1848 and 1855.

Wisconsin Becomes The 30th state of the United States of America , Wisconsin Territory was organized in 1836 and Wisconsin gained statehood in 1848.

Hungary splits from Austria , Engels described the revolutionary struggle of 1848 and 1849 as an act of terrorism by the Austrian government, and a degree of oppression was forced onto the Hungarians. His criticism of the Habsburgs is par for the course, and their beating of the Magyars only served as an inspiration to the other revolutionaries. Freed of Metternich, the Czechs, Poles, Moravians, Slovaks, Magyars, Rutherians, Romanians, Illyrians, Serbs and Croats were starting to see a degree of freedom (in which they started attacking each other). The Masses went to Pest (which is on the eastern side of Budapest) and pushed the Austrians for a reform. With the threat of revolution looming, the Austrian governors had no choice but to accept the Hungarian demands. The House of Habsburg was dethroned and, in an era of excitement, the first Republic of Hungary was born. After the revolution was suppressed, the Austrian Emperor settled everything down, and their advisors went on to manipulate the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry into a revolt against against the Hungarian government.

The Safety Pin , American inventor Walter Hunt patented the Safety Pin, then quickly sold his rights for $400.00.

1841-1850 - History

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1841 - Detail

May 1, 1841 - The first wagon train to California, with sixty-nine adults and several children, leave from Independence, Missouri. The journey would take until November 4.

Within two years, it would be considered a small excursion, when wagon trains would reach one thousand people in settlement of the west, but this wagon train, heading out over the Oregon Trail west before deking toward California, would be the first attempt to take a major group trip. There had been previous wagon trains, both on the Oregon Trail and Santa Fe trails since the early 1820's. John Bartleson and John Bidwell would lead the train over a haphazard wagon road created by three previous smaller parties. The trip would take five months at fifteen miles per day it would cover over two thousand miles, traversing the Oregon Trail and crossing the Great Salt Lake and Sierra Nevada Mountains.

The group consisted of Bartleson, chosen captain despite his temperament, and Bidwell, a twenty-one year old native of New York who had been slowly traveling west through his young life, reaching the Kansas City area after stops in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Iowa. He had left Ohio in 1838 with $75, eventually settling in Missouri, and beginning to teach. Josiah Belden, a Connecticutt orphan, age twenty-six in 1841, and later mayor of San Jose, California, would join the party. They would be directed, for parts of the journey, by Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, a Jesuit missionary who had been traveling Iowa, Montana, and Wyoming since 1838, and Thomas Fitzpatrick, a mountain man, trapper, and head of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, defunct since 1834. The party would be known as the Western Emigration Society.

The trip would head toward the Mexican Province of Alta California and the Mexican land grant of John Marsh called Rancho Los Meganos. Marsh was the second owner. It began in Sapling Grove in Westport, Missouri, west of Independence, and travel over the Oregon Trail. There is some disagreement over the date the party started, with May 1 and May 9 suggested. Once reaching Fort Hall in Idaho, the party started to disperse, with half deciding to continue on the road to Oregon, and the other half to their original destination along the north shore of the Great Salt Lake. They would abandon their wagons west of the lake before ascending the Sierra Nevadas to reach Alta California.

However, there were problems with an arrival of United States immigrants in Alta California. Mexican generals had orders to evict any Americans who tried to colonize Mexican territory. When a portion of the Bartleson-Bidwell company arrived at Mission San Jose, they were detained, but eventually allowed to stay if they became Mexican citizens.

Bidwell Account of the Journey - The Start

When we reached Sapling Grove, the place of rendezvous, in May, 1841, there was but one wagon ahead of us. For the next few days one or two wagons would come each day, and among the recruits were three families from Arkansas. We organized by electing as captain of the company a man named Bartleson from Jackson County, Missouri. He was not the best man for the position, but we were given to understand that if he was not elected captain he would not go and as he had seven or eight men with him, and we did not want the party diminished, he was chosen. Every one furnished his own supplies. The party consisted of sixty-nine, including men, women, and children. Our teams were of oxen, mules, and horses. We had no cows, as the later emigrants usually had, and the lack of milk was a great depriva- tion to the children. It was understood that every one should have not less than a barrel of flour with sugar and so forth to suit but I laid in one hundred pounds of flour more than the usual quantity, besides other things. This I did because we were told that when we got into the mountains we probably would get out of bread and have to live on meat alone, which I thought would kill me even if it did not others. My gun was an old flint-lock rifle, but a good one. Old hunters told me to have nothing to do with cap or percussion locks, that they were unreliable, and that if I got my caps or percussion wet I could not shoot, while if I lost my flint I could pick up another on the plains. I doubt whether there was one hundred dollars in money in the whole party, but all were en- thusiastic and anxious to go. In five days after my arrival we were ready to start, but no one knew where to go, not even the captain. Finally a man came up, one of the last to arrive, and announced that a company of Catholic missionaries were on their way from St. Louis to the Flathead nation of Indians with an old Rocky Mountaineer for a guide, and that if we would wait another day they would be up with us. At first we were independent, and thought we could not afford to wait for a slow missionary party. But when we found that no one knew which way to go, we sobered down and waited for them to come up and it was well we did, for otherwise probably not one of us would ever have reached California, because of our inexperience. Af- terwards when we came in contact with Indians our people were so easily excited that if we had not had with us an old mountaineer the result would certainly have been disastrous. The name of the guide was Captain Fitzpatrick he had been at the head of trapping parties in the Rocky Mountains for many years. He and the missionary party went with us as far as Soda Springs, now in Idaho Territory, whence they turned north to the Flathead nation.

Bidwell Account - The Separation

As I have said, at Soda Springs at the northernmost bend of Bear River our party separated. It was a bright and lovely place. The abundance of soda water, including the intermittent gushing so-called Steamboat Spring the beautiful fir and cedar covered hills the huge piles of red or brown sinter, the result of fountains once active but then dry all these, together with the river, lent a charm to its wild beauty and made the spot a notable one. Here the missionary party were to turn north and go into the Flathead nation. Fort Hall, about forty miles distant on Snake River, lay on their route. There was no road but something like a trail, doubtless used by the trappers, led in that direction. From Fort Hall there was also a trail down Snake River, by which trapping parties reached the Columbia River and Fort Vancouver, the headquarters of the Hudson Bay Company. Our party, originally sixty-nine, including women and children, had become lessened to sixty-four in number. One had accidentally shot and killed himself at the forks of the Platte. Another of our party, named Simp- son, had left us at Fort Laramie. Three had turned back from Green River, intending to make their way to Fort Bridger and await an opportunity to return home. Their names were Peyton, Rodgers, and Amos E. Frye. Thirty-two of our party, becoming discouraged, decided not to venture without path or guide into the unknown and trackless region towards California, but concluded to go with the mis- sionary party to Fort Hall and thence find their way down Snake and Columbia rivers into Oregon. The rest of us also thirty-two in number, including Benjamin Kelsey, his wife and little daughter remained firm, refusing to be diverted from our original purpose of going direct to California. After getting all the information we could from Captain Fitzpatrick, we regretfully bade good-by to our fellow emi- grants and to Father De Smet and his party. We were now thrown entirely upon our own resources.

Bidwell Account - The Arrival

We were now on the edge of the San Joaquin Valley, but we did not even know that we were in California. We could see a range of mountains lying to the west, the Coast Range, but we could see no valley. The evening of the day we started down into the valley we were very tired, and when night came our party was strung along for three or four miles, and every man slept right where dark- ness overtook him. He would take off his saddle for a pillow and turn his horse or mule loose, if he had one. His animal would be too poor to walk away, and in the morning he would find him, usually within fifty feet. The jaded horses nearly perished with hunger and fatigue. When we overtook the foremost of the party the next morning we found they had come to a pond of water, and one of them had killed a fat coyote when I came up it was all eaten except the lights and the windpipe, on which I made my breakfast. From that camp we saw timber to the north of us, evidently bordering a stream running west. It turned out to be the stream that w

had followed down in the moun- tains the Stanislaus River. As soon as we Wild grapes also abounded. The next day we killed thirteen deer and antelopes, jerked the meat and got ready to go on, all except the captains mess of seven or eight, who decided to stay there and lay in meat enough to last them into California! We were really almost down to tidewater, but did not know it. Some thought it was five hundred miles yet to California. But all thought we had to cross at least that range of mountains in sight to the west before entering the promised land, and how many more beyond no one could tell. Nearly all thought it best to press on lest the snows might overtake us in the mountains before us, as they had already nearly done on the mountains be- hind us (the Sierra Nevada). It was now about the first of November. Our party set forth bearing northwest, aiming for a seeming gap north of a high mountain in the chain to the west of us. That mountain we found to be Mount Diablo. At night the Indians attacked the captains camp and stole all their animals, which were the best in the company, and the next day the men had to overtake us with just what they could carry in their hands.

The next day, judging by the timber we saw, we concluded there was a river to the west. So two men went ahead to see if they could find a trail or a crossing. The timber seen proved to be along what is now known as the San Joa- quin River. We sent two men on ahead to spy out the country. At night one of them returned, saying they had come across an Indian on horseback without a saddle who wore a cloth jacket but no other clothing. From what they could understand the Indian knew Dr. Marsh and had offered to guide them to his place. He plainly said Marsh, and of course we supposed it was the Dr. Marsh before referred to who had written the letter to a friend in Jackson County, Missouri, and so it proved. One man went with the Indian to Marshs ranch and the other came back to tell us what he had done, with the suggestion that we should go on and cross the river (San Joaquin) at the place to which the trail was leading. In that way we found ourselves two days later at Dr. Marshs ranch, and there we learned that we were really in California and our journey at an end. After six months we had now arrived at the first settlement in California, November 4, 1841.

The early part of the decade began with a treaty signed with the Native American Sioux tribe and ended with Mexico selling the U.S. land along its southern border for $15 million.

  • The Treaty of Traverse des Sioux is signed with the Sioux Indians. They agree to give up their lands in Iowa and almost all of Minnesota.
  • The New York Daily Times appears. This will be renamed the New York Times in 1857.
  • A fire occurs at the Library of Congress, destroying 35,000 books.
  • Moby Dick is published by Herman Melville.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly is published to great success by Harriet Beecher Stowe.
  • Uncle Sam appears for the first time in a comic publication in New York. wins the presidency.
  • The "Know Nothing" Party is created as a Nativist party opposed to Catholics and immigrants.
  • The Coinage Act of 1853 is passed by Congress, reducing the amount of silver in coins smaller than a dollar.
  • Vice President William King dies on April 18th. President Pierce does not appoint a new Vice President for the rest of his time in office.
  • Mexico gives land along the southern border of present-day Arizona and New Mexico in exchange for $15 million.

Mid-Decade: Kansas-Nebraska Act to Election of James Buchanan

The Kansas-Nebraska Act was proposed during this period, which also included the publication of Henry David Thoreau's "Walden" and the election of James Buchanan to the presidency.

  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act is proposed that would separate the central Kansas Territory into two with the idea that the individuals in the territories would decide for themselves whether they would be pro- or anti-slavery. However, this was opposed to the Missouri Compromise of 1820 because they were both above latitude 36°30'. The act is later passed on May 26th. Eventually, this area would be called 'Bleeding Kansas' due to the fighting that would occur over the question of whether the area would be pro- or anti-slavery. In October, Abraham Lincoln gives a speech condemning the act.
  • The Republican Party is formed by anti-slavery individuals who oppose the Kansas-Nebraska Act. and the Japanese sign the Treaty of Kanagawa opening ports up to trade with the U.S.
  • The Ostend Manifesto is created declaring the U.S.'s right to purchase Cuba or take it by force if Spain does not agree to sell it. When it is published in 1855, it meets with negative public reaction.
  • Walden is published by transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau.
  • Over the course of the year, a virtual civil war happens in Kansas between pro- and anti-slavery forces.
  • Frederick Douglass publishes his autobiography entitled My Bondage, My Freedom.
  • Walt Whitman publishes Leaves of Grass.
  • Charles Sumner is beaten with a cane by Preston Brooks on the floor of the Senate for an anti-slavery speech. He does not recover fully for three years.
  • Lawrence, Kansas is the center of violence in Kansas when pro-slavery men kill an anti-slavery settler. Anti-slavery men led by John Brown then retaliate killing five pro-slavery men leading to the name "Bleeding Kansas." is elected as president of the United States.

1841-1850 - History


The First Propeller On The Lakes, 1841 - An Appalling Catastrophe -- The Theft Of The Milwaukee -- Progress Of Settlement -- Loss Of The Post Boy -- Other Events Of 1841 -- The Storm On November 18, 1842 -- Charles Dickens On The Lakes -- Early Propellers -- Wreck Of The Reindeer -- Other Events Of 1842 -- Oil Consumed In 1843 -- Iron Government Vessels -- A Dull Season -- A Most Deplorable Disaster -- Other Events Of 1843 -- The Flood Of 1844 In Buffalo -- Copper Rock Is Removed -- Steamer Empire Built -- Other Events Of 1844 -- Loss Of The Kent, 1845 -- A Round Trip Each Month During The Winter -- The Geo. M. Bibb Goes To New Orleans -- First Propeller With Upper Cabin -- Boisterous Weather -- Other Events Of 1845 -- Ice Jam At Buffalo, 1846 -- Thrilling Rescue Of The Helen Strong's Passengers -- A Memorable Storm -- Wreck Of The Schooner Lexington -- How The Chesapeake Went Down -- Other Events Of 1846 -- Appalling Loss Of The Phoenix, 1847 -- Drowned At The Sault -- Loss Of The Schooner Daun -- A Large Mineral Cargo -- Disaster On Lake Superior -- Other Events Of 1847 -- The Gale Of April, 1848 -- Explosion Of The Goliah -- Chicago's First Locomotive -- Niagara Falls Dried Up -- Other Events Of 1848 -- Vessel Sails For California From Cleveland, 1849 -- Cholera Breaks Out -- Fatally Scalded On The Passport -- Other Events Of 1849 -- Burning Of The Griffith, 1850 -- Wreck Of The Anthony Wayne -- Many Lives Lost On The Troy -- Extent Of The Losses In 1850 -- Other Events Of 1850.

Some of the transcription work was also done by Brendon Baillod, who maintains an excellent guide to Great Lakes Shipwreck Research.

1841-1850 - History

(Newspapers of Missouri)

Misc. Missouri Newspapers
1841-1850 Articles

Kansas City, Missouri -- at the beginning of the 1850s

Vol. 2. Palmyra, February 13, 1841. No. 29.

To issue State bonds to pay the State Debt.

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Missouri as follows:

1. The Governor of this State shall execute and deliver to the Bank of the State of Missouri the bonds of the State to the amount of two hundred and fifty-eight thousand two hundred sixty one dollars, the proceeds of which shall be applied and appropriated to the following purposes, viz: one hundred thousand dollars shall be applied to refund the said bank that amount heretofore advanced by the bank for the purpose of paying the volunteers and militia of the State, twenty seven thousand two hundred and sixty one dollars, shall be applied to pay interest due to the Bank from the State eighty-two thousand dollars, to be supplied to the payment of the volunteers and militia engaged in the Mormon and Osage wars, and other expenses attending those disturbances and which are still unpaid nineteen thousand dollars to be applied to the payment of the Volunteers and Militia engaged in the disturbances on the border of Iowa, and the other expenses attending these disturbances, and twenty-five thousand dollars to pay for work on the State Capitol.

The Mormon war men are claiming large sums, it is said $150,000 for horses killed in the Mormon war. If these, and the celebrated Osage war claims should be allowed, three fourths of a million will not pay the State debts. The bill introduced by the committee on military affairs, providing for the settlement and payment of the Iowa claims, is yet pending, and awaits a report from the committee of Ways and Means of (this) the Senate Bill.

Both houses have passed resolution to adjourn sine die on the 15th inst. I fear we shall not be able to do so, as business is still coming in, and much of the most important business remains to be acted on.

Vol. 2. Palmyra, April 17, 1841. No. 38.

Vol. 2. Palmyra, June 19, 1841. No. 46.

We learn from the Quincy Whig that Jo Smith, the Mormon Prophet, has been arrested under a writ issued by Gov. Carlin, in compliance with a demand made by Gov. Boggs two years ago, on the alleged charge of treason against the State of Missouri. Smith applied to Judge Douglas for a habeas corpus, which was granted, and is not yet disposed of. -- Era.

Vol. 15. Jefferson City, June 22, 1844. No. 786.

The Nauvoo Troubles. -- The high-handed and daring outrages perpetrated lately under the sanction of law, within the jurisdiction of his holiness, the Mormon Prophet, have been productive of a greater amount of intense excitement than has been witnessed since the expulsion of the tribe from Missouri. Meetings have been held at Warsaw, and mass meeting at Carthage, where denunciatory resolutions, couched in the severest language, deprecating the course of this fanatic impostor, were passed. In the language of the resolutions, the citizens are resolved to wage a war of extermination, if needs be, against the sect. They have found that law is but a mockery, and are fully resolved to put a check upon the hitherto uncurbed spirit of license which has reigned among them. -- For this purpose arms have been procured, and, as we have been informed by a gentleman passenger on the Die Vernon, 800 men were in training in Warsaw, on Friday, and they were expected to be reinforced by 200 more from the surrounding country. He also states that orders were expected to be issued for a march upon Nauvoo, on Wednesday next. It is painful to witness this, but there are points at which forbearance ceases to be a virtue. -- The outrages must have been indeed great that could excite so sudden and general a spirit of retaliation, and we are fearful that the next news that reaches us will be fraught with bloodshed and violence. We really, however, hope that the curse of intestine commotion may be avoided. Organ.

Vol. I. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., May 23, 1845. No. 5.

MONEY DIGGING. -- The Hampton Post tells a story about the jailor in Springfield who was persuaded by a negro in prison to take him to Westfield, where he, the negro, had concealed a large amount of treasure. They went in the night, dug in two or three places, of course to no effect, and at length [wandered off some] distance from a certain tree, and striking his spade into the ground, exclaimed in a tone of triumph. Here it is. I ain't mistaken this time no how. Now take of my hand-cuffs, boss Day, and I'll show you something worth looking at."

The hand-cuffs were removed, and in an instant, instead of feasting his eyes on sparkling gems and uncounted treasure, Mr. deputy Day found himself lying upon his back counting the stars. When he regained his feet, there was the spade, there the hand-cuffs, and there stood deputy Day but the prisoner had fled, leaving his old hat as security for his return. The deputy returned to Springfield a wiser man.

Vol. I. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., June 6, 1845. No. 7.

Horrible Murder -- Two Mormons Arrested.

On Sunday night last, a most horrible murder was committed, near the town of Franklin, Lee county, Iowa. The circumstances as near as we can gather them are as follows: An old man and his son emigrated to Iowa last spring, having in their possession a considerable sum of money, which they designed to invest in lands. On Saturday night last, three villains, evidently with a design of committing a robbery, entered the house where the old man and his son lodged. They were resisted, and in the fight that ensued, the old man received a wound that killed him instantly. The son was mortally wounded and died early next morning. The alarm having been given to the neighbors, the robbers fled without making any search for the money. These facts were learned from a lad who was in bed at the time of the murder but escaped with a deep wound.

On Sunday the inhabitants of Lee County turned out almost en masse, and instituted the strictest search for the murderers. They were tracked towards the river, by the blood, about four miles, and afterwards through Nashville. The party of pursuers at length discovered that they had crossed the river to Nauvoo, and followed after them. In Nauvoo they were ferreted out, and two of the murders by the name of Hodges, brothers, (one of them a Mormon Elder,) were arrested on yesterday morning. The third has so far eluded the vigilance of the pursuers.

Hodges resided in Nauvoo, and is a fair specimen of the Holy Brotherhood, and had he been pursued for any less offence, than that of murder, would have been shielded and protected by the Mormons but under the circumstances, it would have been their destruction, as they well knew, to have given him countenance they therefore, made a great ado, and after the murderers had been traced out, aided in the arrest.

This is the third midnight robbery that has been attempted in Lee County, within a few months, under circumstances which proved that the Mormons were concerned. While such a band of outlaws are suffered to remain in our midst neither life nor property is safe. --

Sydney Rigdon has established a Mormon Church in Pittsburg, of which he has been chosen Priest and Prophet. They profess the same principles of the Nauvoo Mormons, excepring they abjure the spiritual wife system.

Vol. I. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Oct. 10, 1845. No. ?

The Mormon Difficulties.

The disgraceful and sickening tragedy which the Mormons and anti-Mormons of Hancock county, Illinois, have recently been acting, is according to latest accounts likely to be brought to a close. Our readers are aware that for several days a contention has been going on in that quarter, which from the number of individuals engaged in it, the amount of property and life destroyed, and the means used for such destruction, may be called a civil war. The "anties" as they are called, in the first place burnt most of the Mormon houses in the county and not in Nauvoo and for a time seemed to carry everything before them the Mormons with the Sheriff of the county at their head rallied under the name of the "law and order posse," and seemed in a short time to get the better of their enemies. This band of individuals who so eminently deserve the name of law and order party, succeeded in killing two of the anties and appropriating to themselves most of the cattle, horses, hogs and provisions found in the county belonging to their opponents, which they drove off to Nauvoo. We incline to think there is much in the conduct of the Sheriff Backenstos, which calls for severe censure, perhaps condign punishment. The people of the surrounding counties were beginning to interfere, and the Governor had ordered out the Militia, indeed General Hardin had reached the theatre of action with a small force and with full authority from the Executive to adjust in some manner the difficulty. From the tone of public feeling as manifested, we conclude there will be no more fighting, and that the Mormons will be required to leave the county and the State next spring, which they will consent to do. Both parties are fully persuaded into the belief that they cannot live in the same section of the country and that one or the other must leave.

Vol. I. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Oct. 24, 1845. No. ?

Our latest dates from the "Mormon city" bring the intelligence, that the difficulties in that quarter have been compromised and the civil war ended. The Mormons have pledged themselves to leave the state early next spring and the "anties" have agreed to let them remain quiet that long. It is hoped there will be no out break before that time, when there will certainly be a separation, for both parties seem thoroughly convinced that the uncompromising nature of things demand it. There will be a small company of men under the Governor's officer stationed in Hancock county during the winter, to prevent or quell any invasion upon the rights of either.

The Mormons propose moving to some country beyond the Rocky Mountains. -- We hope they may find a land where they may enjoy their own peculiar faith and practice their ceremonies without interruption, and where they will not be obnoxious to others. They desire to sell all their possessions in Illinois except their Temple which they are willing to rent.

Vol. I. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Oct. 31, 1845. No. ?

THE MORMONS. -- A circular, addressed "to the whole Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints," informs us that on Sunday, the 5th of October, about five thousand Saints had the inexpressible joy, and great gratification to meet, for the first time, in the house of the Lord in the city of Joseph." The Temple was commenced on the 6th of April, 1841, and on this occasion, it was enclosed, windows in, with temporary floors, pulpits, and seats to accommodate so many persons preparatory to a general conference. On the 6th, 7th and 8th, meetings of the General Conference were held at which, finally, it was resolved unanimously, "that this people move, en masse, to the West," and "that we take all of the Saints with us, to the extent of our ability, that is, our influence and property." Committees were appointed for the sale of lands in the various settlements of Hancock county and captains of companies, "to remove in the spring," to the number of twenty-five, were appointed. From a letter addressed to the brethren throughout the United States, we make the following extract.

It is our design to remove all the Saints as early next spring as the first appearance of the first vegetation. In the mean time the utmost diligence of all the brethren at this place and abroad will be requisite for the removal, and to complete the unfinished part of the Lord's house, preparatory to dedication by the next general conference. The font and other parts of the Temple will be in readiness in a few days to commence the administration of holy ordinances of endowment, for which the faithful have long diligently labored and fervently prayed, desiring above all things to see the beauty of the Lord and enquire in his holy Temple. We, therefore, invite the saints abroad generally so to arrange their affairs as to come with their families in sufficient time to receive their endowments, and aid in giving the last finish to the house of the Lord, previous to the great immigration of the Church in the spring. A little additional help in the heat of the day from those abroad, to those here, who have been often driven and robbed will sweeten the interchanges of fellowship, and so far fulfil the law of Christ as to bear one another's burthens. The sacrifice of property that will probably accrue from a virtually coerced sale in a given short time together with the exhaustion of available means, that has arisen form an extensive improvement of farms, and the erection of costly public and private edifices together with persecutions and abundant labors of elders in preaching the gospel to the nations and also in self-defence from traitors and foes, hypocrites and knaves, are things that will suggest themselves to all the thoughtful humane and philanthropic. And we are confident in our Lord Jesus Christ that the balm and cordial adequate to the present crisis of affairs will come from the saints abroad to the utmost of their ability. And you cannot furnish it better, than to come up unitedly to the counsel of our epistle, promptly, diligently and to the letter. Therefore dispose of your properties and inheritances, and interests for available means, such as money, wagons, oxen, cows, mules, and a few good horses adapted to journeying and scanty feed. -- Also for durable fabrics suitable for apparel and tents and some other necessary articles of merchandise. Wake up, wake up, dear brethren, we exhort you, from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, and from Canada to Florida, to the present glorious emergency in which the God of heaven has placed you, to prove your faith by your works, preparatory to a rich endowment in the Temple of the Lord, and the obtaining of promises and deliverances, and glories for yourselves and your children and your dead. And we are well persuaded you will do these things though we thus stir up your pure minds to remembrance. In doing so the blessings of many, ready to perish like silent dew upon the grass, and the approbation of generations to come, and the hallowed joys of eternal life will rest upon you. And we cannot but assure you in conclusion of our most joyful confidence, touching your union and implicit obedience to the council of the Great God, through the Presidency of the saints. With these assurances and hopes concerning you, we bless you and supplicate the wisdom and furtherance of the Great Head of the church upon your designs and efforts. P. S. Let all wagons that are hereafter built be constructed to the track of five feet width from centre to centre. Families [may] properly travel to this place during the winter in their wagons.

There are said to be many good localities for settlements on the Pacific, especially at Vancouver's Island, near the mouth of the Columbia. --

Vol. I. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Nov. 21, 1845. No. ?

==> The new Empire in California is to be founded by the Mormons from present appearances. They are to leave Illinois in the spring, and go to California, but this is not publicly told. They have had three emissaries out exploring the country, and they have returned. The sites for their future cities, it is said, are located, and they are delighted with the idea of settling there (in California,) and establishing an empire of their own, which they will undoubtedly do. They are more united now than ever.

Vol. I. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Jan. 16, 1846. No. 31.

Vol. I. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Jan. 30, 1846. No. 33.

THE MORMONS. -- It is stated in the Jacksonville Journal, of Friday last, that Maj. Warren, with a pose of the Hancock Guard had passed through that place, having in custody Mr. Thatcher, County Court Clerk of Hancock county, who was on his way to Springfield, there to be freed on a writ of habeas corpus. Very recently, Mr. Thatcher was removed from office by the Jack-Mormon Commissioners of Hancock county, but he refused to deliver up the books to his successor. Backenstos, the Sheriff, was ordered to arrest him. The attempt of Backenstos to serve the order produced great excitement in the court room -- pistols were drawn on both sides, and the effusion of blood was only prevented by the [appearance] of Major Warren. He took Thatcher and the books into his custody, and informed the Commissioners that he would take the clerk to Springfield [---- --- -------]. Major Warren gives [us his opinion] that the Mormons [will not leave] in the spring. So we have [----ed and ------ -------] they do not, [-------- ------- ------]

Vol. I. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Feb. 27, 1846. No. 37.

We gather from several articles in the Warsaw Signal, and other quarters, that a portion, if not the whole, of the Mormons intend soon to commence their pilgrimage for California. That they should begin their journey so early in the season -- before the winter has terminated, and long before grass shall appear, upon which to subsist their cattle and horses -- is hazardous, and likely to be attended with severe trials and much suffering. But it is stated that from ten to twelve hundred has already crossed the river from Nauvoo, and are encamped on Sugar Creek, Iowa, seven miles distant. Among them were the Twelve, the High Council, all the principal men of the church, and about one hundred females. They were several days and nights in getting across the river. It is said to be the plan of the leaders to send this forward as a pioneer corps. They are to proceed about five hundred miles westward, where they are to halt, build a village, and put in a spring crop. They are to remain there until those who follow in the spring reach them -- when another pioneer company will start for a point five hundred miles still further west, where they will stop, build a village, put in a fall crop. The company remaining behind will, in the spring, move on to this second station, and in this manner they hope to accomplish the long journey which is in contemplation. --

Many of them who now go as pioneers, are to return, so soon as their crop is in, for their families. There is a [spice] of romance about this arrangement for their journey -- an apparent indifference to the sufferings which they must undergo -- a confidence in the plans and orders of their church leaders -- which must attract some portion of the public sympathy, even though it be undeserved. Their future journeyings will be observed with interest.

Vol. I. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Mar. 6, 1846. No. 38.

THE MORMONS. -- A letter from Warsaw to the editors, says that all was quiet in the county of Hancock that the anti-Mormons hoped they would leave that county quietly in the spring, but if they did not do so, they would force them to depart.

It is stated that Page, one of the Twelve, has revolted from their government, and declares them to be usurpers. He opposes emigration, and insists that there is no authority for the movement. The Warsaw Signal says:

The Strangites in Nauvoo are taking advantage of the unsettled state of the Mormons to create dissentions amongst them. They have now a pamphlet in press at Keokuk, the object of which is to turn the tide of emigration towards Wisconsin. These efforts, together with those of apostle Page, are likely to create considerable division.

The Mormons who start in the advance party are said to be well loaded with provisions. They also take a large number of cattle along, on which they can subsist so soon as grass is up.

Their course, it is said, will be directly up the Des Moines to the Indian Country, and from thence to the Missouri.

The Temple took fire on Wednesday of last week, from a stove pipe [sticking] thru the roof. It was extinguished without having done much damage.

Vol. I. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Apr. 24, 1846. No. 45.

From the St. Louis Reveille.

The Revolution in California.

The subjoined is but a portion of Capt. Sutter's letter, which has been translated from the Anzeiger des Wesiens by a friend of ours, who is perfectly familiar with the language, as the faithful style of the translation will show. Captain S. is not so explicit as we could wish. He leaves us on some points quite as much in the dark as we were before. Indeed, his account of the revolution is by no means satisfactory. Still is is more in detail than any that has yet reached us, and will be read with interest. The letter contains information upon other topics, which may be of importance to emigrants.

New Helvetia,
in Upper California, May 13, 1845.
In making the following communication to you, for the purpose of placing before my countrymen in the United States the condition of settlements here, it is by no means my design to give a general description of this great, fertile and delightful region. The settlement founded by me six years ago, New Helvetia, lies in 38 deg. 40 min. borth latitude -- about the same parallel with St. Louis. on the bank of the navigable river Sacramento.

The land route to us has lately become better known, and it is by no means so exposed to dangers and difficulties as formerly.

This preface leads me to our revolution which we accomplished in the beginning of the year (1845) and of which you have doubtless already had news in the United States. It has set me back a little, as throughout laws, &c., I am the poorer for it by a round $10,000. I had, besides, a flying battery and a detachment of California horsemen. We marched rapidly to Monterey, where we were received in the General's camp with great pomp and military honors. Leaving a strong garrison in the town, we pursued the retreating enemy, expelled them from a redoubt near Buenaventura, where they made a stand, and pressed them to San Fernando, where they again rallied and received reinforcements, consisting of 100 foreigners from New Mexico and the mountains, who served for pay, against the Government.

Note: Unfortunately this early letter from California contains no news of the Mormons coming into the new U. S. Territory. See the Aug. 15, 1846 issue of the Monterey Californian for a notice of that event.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. I. Liberty, Mo., Saturday, April 25, 1846. No. 4.

The Mo. Republican says: We are gratified to learn that there is a prospect of converting the Temple, recently erected at Nauvoo by the Mormons, to a useful and most charitable purpose. A wealthy gentleman from the south arrived here a few days since, en route, to purchase the Temple, if it can be bought for a reasonable price. His object, we understand, is to convert the Temple into an asylum for destitute widows and females, and to purchase lands and town lots, and endow it out of the rents of them. The scheme is not only a magnificent one, but it is conceived in a spitit of liberality and munificence ehich should hand the benefactor's name to the latest posterity. The author of this liberal proposition, we understand, is a bachelor, far advanced in life. If he is successful in his project, he will contribute much to the improvement and development of that section of our country. We hope, for the cause of humanity, that he may be successful.

Note: The above news item first appeared in the Apr. 16, 1846 issue of the Missouri Republican. The report may have not been entirely true -- at least it can be stated that no such rich southern gentleman ever purchased the Mormon property at Nauvoo.

Vol. I. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., May 8, 1846. No. 47.

THE TEMPLE AT NAUVOO. -- We are gratified to learn, says the St. Louis Republican, that there is a prospect of converting the Temple, recently erected at Nauvoo by the Mormons, to a useful and most charitable purpose. A wealthy gentleman from the south arrived here a few days since, en route, to purchase the Temple, if it can be bought for a reasonable price. His object, we understand, is to convert the Temple into an asylum for destitute widows and females, and to purchase lands and town lots, and endow it out of the rents of them. The scheme is not only a magnificent one, but it is conceived in a spitit of liberality and munificence ehich should hand the benefactor's name to the latest posterity. The author of this liberal proposition, we understand, is a bachelor, far advanced in life. If he is successful in his project, he will contribute much to the improvement and development of that section of our country. We hope, for the cause of humanity, that he may be successful.

Vol. I. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., May 15, 1846. No. 48.

An extra from the office of the Nauvoo Eagle, printed on Saturday morning, contains the proceedings of a meeting of the citizens who have recently purchased property in Nauvoo and the surrounding country, on the previous evening, and at which Servetus Tufts presided, and James Clark and W. E. Clifford acted as vice Presidents, and Wm. Picket as Secretary.

A committee of five persons appointed for that purpose, reported a preamble and resolutions, which are said to have been unanimously adopted. They are evidently intended to accrue further time for the removal of the Mormons, but we are apprehensive that this delay will not be granted, unless with stronger guarantees than are here offered. The preamble and resolutions follow.

Whereas, It is evident, from information that reaches us daily, that a disposition is manifested by persons in this, and the adjoining counties, to keep open unnecessary excitement for the purpose of driving the remaining portion of the Mormons from the county and State within a limited time, and as from our own observation, it will be impossible for the Mormons to leave at the time designated:

Resolved, That as a large body of the Mormons have already gone and as the entire Church organization has been broken up, and as the majority of the twelve with the leading men, have also left, it is to us satisfactory evidence that those who yet remain will also leave at an early day.

Resolved, That as we have purchased property, with the intention of making this our permanent residence, having in view the removal of the Mormons, according to their previous engagement as near as practicable, we should greatly deprecate any violent proceedings.

Resolved, That we cordially agree, and wish to see carried into effect, the previous arrangements made for the removal of the Mormons, and shall do all in our power, consistent with the dictates of humanity, for the accomplishment of that end.

Resolved, That, as we are the daily witnesses of the efforts making by the Mormons, we have entire confidence in the honesty of their purpose to remove, and that they are sparing no exertions to accomplish that end.

Resolved, That, as there are numerous peaceful negotiations going on, and purchasers daily coming in, it would be highly unjust in any way, prematurely to interrupt this state of things.

Resolved, That, as a large portion of the Mormons are very poor, and many of them infirm, forcible measures at this time, would tend to burthen the county with a great number of paupers, unless many who are unable to help themselves are destroyed.

Resolved, That, as those that are able, are disposed to assist their less fortunate brethren, it would be inhuman to interpose any obstacles to prevent such a purpose.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. I.   Liberty, Mo., Saturday, May 30, 1846. No. 9.

MORMONS. -- The persons appointed for the purpose, by Maj. Warren, have reported that the number of Mormons who left Nauvoo during the week ending on the 14th inst., may be set at thirteen hundred and fifty souls. The ferry at Nauvoo was kept running day and night, crossing thirty-five times in twenty-four hours at Fort Madison about thirty-five trips were made in a day some were crossing at Nashville, and some going by the river. The number of "new settlers," is estimated at two hundred heads of families. Three-fourths of the improved property on the "flats," has changed hands, on the hill the proportion of sales is not so great. Very few farms remain to be sold. The Hancock Eagle makes the total number of teams now on the opposite side of the river about fourteen hundred. They are designed to accomodate from seven to eight thousand persons. Some of them have pushed forward to the Des Moines river, and some are encamped on Sugar creek, but the slopes of the hills and the prairie opposite Nauvoo, are still ditted with clusters of tents and wagons. The Eagle thinks that twelve thousand have left the State, and that, in a few weeks, it may be announced that "the Mormons have left the State."

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. I.   Liberty, Mo., Saturday, June 6, 1846. No. 10.

The Mormons. -- According to the last report of the persons appointed for that purpose -- made for the week ending 22d ult. -- the Mormons continued to leave Nauvoo in great numbers -- the ferry boat at Nauvoo making thirty-two trips per day, and at Fort Madison forty-five. Five hundred and thirty-nine wagons passed over during the week -- which, at an average of three persons to each wagon, makes the total number leaving the State, one thousand six hundred and seventeen.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. I.   Liberty, Mo., Saturday, July 18, 1846. No. 16.

THE MORMONS. -- The last Sangamo Journal contains the following paragraph:

We understand that arrangements are about perfected, to secure the remaining Mormon vote in Hancock county, for J. T. Turner, next August. The object has been kept steadily in view by the Jack Mormons for months past, and will explain to the Anti-Mormons of the Military Tract a great many other things which otherwise cannot be well understood. Hence but few more Mormons will leave -- and those who remain will be protected in all their rascality in and about Nauvoo for the consideration of their votes.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. I.   Liberty, Mo., Saturday, July 25, 1846. No. 17.

ANOTHER RIOT IN NAUVOO. -- We published, from the Hancock Eagle, an intimation that Nauvoo would again be the theatre of a riot. Since then, we learn on Sunday a body of men, numbering about eighty strong, and armed, left that place for the purpose of inflicting summary chastisement on a party of desperadoes, who, it is said, had severely beaten a number of Mormons and new citizens, while harvesting in a field near Nauvoo five or six of whom were arrested on Saturday and lodged in jail. The harvesters were severely beaten, thrown into a ditch, and covered over with dirst and brush. Handbills have been issued, calling on the citizens to arm themselves for the preservation of law and order.

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., July 31, 1846. No. 7.

Capt. Allen, of the U. S. Dragoons, passed through this place on Wednesday last with upwards of 500 Mormons on his way to Fort Leavenworth. They were well drilled, and from all appearances we are led to believe they will make good soldiers, and render efficient service in the expedition for which they are intended. A large number of them were without shoes, and in fact the entire company were poorly clad. A few cases of sickness were among them, though none of a serious character. One of their men died on Tuesday, and was buried a few miles from this place. They elected their own officers from Captain on down, and will leave Fort Leavenworth about the middle of next week. They take with their company fifteen women, and a large number of boys -- the latter go as servants. We learn from a member of the company, that upwards of eight thousand are still in the camp near the Council Bluffs.

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., Friday, Sept. 4, 1846. No. ?

MORMONS. -- Another large body of Mormons, numbering from four to six thousand, have arrived at Council Bluffs, and are encamped there, most of whom design passing the winter there, and in the Indian purchase, where they have tracts of land under cultivation. They represent they have provisions enough to last them over a year.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. I.   Liberty, Mo., Saturday, Sept. 5, 1846. No. 23.

Mormons. -- Another large body of Mormons, numbering from four to six thousand, have arrived at Council Bluffs, and are encamped there, most of whom design passing the winter there, and in the Indian purchase, where they have tracts of land under cultivation. They represent that they have provisions enough to last them over a year.

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., Friday, Oct. 2, 1846. No. ?

From the Warsaw Signal Extra, Sept. 11.

A Battle Fought in Nauvoo.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. I.   Liberty, Mo., October 3, 1846. No. 27.

MORMON AND HANCOCK DIFFICULTIES. -- We have (from the Republican) intelligence from Nauvoo up to the evening of Monday last. At that time every thing was quiet. Most of the Mormons had crossed the river, and a large portion of them have gone off by boats. A majority went up the river, while a considerable number took a southern direction, many of them to this place. There were still a few families, and a considerable amount of stock, oxen, cows, &c., to be crossed over the river. On Sunday evening, Mr. Wood, the Mayor of Quincy, and another gentleman, arrived at Montrose with provisions, clothing, &c. to the amount of $300 -- contributed by the citizens of Quincy -- which, on Monday, they distributed as they thought most beneficial. Mr. Wood took a list of those remaining, and makes the whole number, men, women and children, six hundred and forty-one. A number of families had gone out from six to ten miles in the country, and it may be safely stated that the whole number of the Mormons remaining at Nauvoo, Montrose and the vicinity, does not exceed one thousand. The Anti-Mormons of Hancock county are contributing for the relief of the Mormons, in provisions, &c.

The Hawk-Eye complains of the number of Mormons settled in Iowa, and deprecates the continuance and increase of that description of people.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. I.   Liberty, Mo., October 10, 1846. No. 28.

IOWA. -- It is said that the troops recently ordered out by the Governor of Iowa were designed to prevent the refugee Mormons from settling in that State, and to conduct them beyond its limits. Many Mormons are already located in Iowa, and the people are very unwilling to have any increase of that troublesome population. Is is not to be wondered at that the people of Iowa should have insuperable objections to the settlement of Mormons in that State, for they have witnessed the troubles to which they have given rise in other places, and that from their principles, character and peculiar organization, they will certainly give rise to similar troubles, wherever they may be embodied. Where a large mass of fanatics are the slaves of impostor priests and believe in their miraculous power and yield implicit obedience to their commands, they are unfit to be citizens of a free republic. -- Era.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. I.   Liberty, Mo., October 17, 1846. No. 29.

Lieut. Col. Thompson, appointed to the command of the Mormon battallion, now on the way to Santa Fe, set out from Fort Leavenworth on the 28th, with an escort of fifteen men, to enter upon his duties.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. I.   Liberty, Mo., Nov. 7, 1846. No. 32.

Correspondence of the Tribune.

Council Bluffs, October 16, 1846.
Gentlemen: It may be interesting to some of your readers to know something about this section of the country.

The Mormons (or Latter day Saints) are settling around here, in large numbers. They are buying out the improvements of the "Half-breeds," and it is supposed they will abandon the idea of going to California, and locate here permanently. The greater portion of them (some 3 to 5000 in number) are on the South side of the river, about 17 miles above this. They will probably all get over to this side.

The same delusion (in fact worse) which prevailed amongst them at Far West and Nauvoo is still kept up. The means of living are abundant in Atchison and Holt, and if the Mormons have the money there will be no starvation amongst them. It is said the "Twelve," who are the leaders of the church, have a large sum of money, but are not disposed to help clothe and feed the poor, and consequently such are going below to seek employment. Saint Joseph seems to be their destination. I do not envy the people of St. Joseph their company. The poorest, and the meanest of the Mormons (as a Mormon told me) are the only class who are leaving.

At Home, November 2, 1846.
Gentlemen: During my stay at the "Bluffs," and on my homeward journey, I saw, and heard of some things which I eill add to my letter of the 16th of October. In relation to the Mormons, from the best information I could obtain, I would say there are about 5000 souls, encamped on the south side of the river, some 6 or 8 miles above Belleview in the country belonging to the Otoe, or Nemeba Indians. It is said that they have laid off a town and are building houses also a water mill and a carding factory. They have a great number of cattle and sheep, and are pretty well provided with provisions having provided themselves before leaving Nauvoo. There is a strong probability that they will have a "fuss" with the Otoes, as the latter are famous for stealing and robbing. On the North side of the Missouri, in the Pattawatomie county, the Mormons are scattered from the State line to the Booger river. They are living in tents, Waggons, Hay Houses, and all kinds of sheds and shanties that ever were invented. If the winter is a hard one many of the women and children must die with cold. Many of the Mormons have purchased out the "Half-breed" claims and are tolerably comfortably fixed. A good Dinner, Breakfast, or Supper can be obtained at Mr. Maggard, who lives at the Allcolt place. Nothwithstanding the Mormons claim to be the only true church many of them are but little, if any, behind the non-professors in swearing, drinking, gambling, dancing, &c., &c. I could not help asking myself, frequently, what will the world come to if the Mormon doctrine should become universal. It is painful to contemplate such a corrupt state of society.

. I predict that the Mormons will mix in "pretty smartly" amongst them, and then, after a while, another Mormon war will ensue. I hope not, but yet I fear it and believe it. No people who go in clans like the Mormons, and who hold out such sentiments, can ever live in peace with other people. Go where they will, whether to Oregon, California, or to the South Sea Islands, they will meet with the same difficulties they always have met with, if they have neighbors who are not Mormons. Any other religious society, whether Baptists, Methodists, Reformers, or what not would meet a like fate if they were to embody themselves, and act as the Mormons do. There are many honest, good meaning, sincere people amongst them I do not doubt, and I trust such will no longer be led by "false Prophets." It is thought by many persons that the signs of dissolution amongst them are very strong. [remainder not transcribed]

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., Friday, Nov. 20, 1846. No. ?

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., February 19, 1847. No. ?

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., March 5, 1847. No. ?

We learn from a gentleman from Atchison county, that there is a prospect of a serious difficulty between the Indians and the Mormons, who are located in their territory. The latter are charged with having committed depredations on the property of the former, and are requested to make reparations, and leave immediately, to which proposition this deluded religious sect do not appear willing to accede. We have long feared the consequences of their settlement on the Indian lands, and would that they were all safely landed in California.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. I.   Liberty, Mo., March 13, 1847. No. 50.

We learn by a gentleman from Atchison county that there is a prospect of a serious difficulty between the Indians and the Mormons, who are located in their territory. The latter are charged with having committed depredations on the property of the former, and are required to make reparation, and leave immediately, to which proposition this deluded religious sect do not appear willing to accede. We have long feared the consequences of their settlement on the Indian lands, and would that they were all safely landed in California. --

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., March 26, 1847. No. ?

For the Gazette.

Mr. Editor -- I noticed in the last number of your paper, a communication, (called the first book of Chronicles,) over the signature of scribe. We think that you too, Mr. Editor have been guilty of a dereliction of duty, in giving place to an anonymous communication of this character.

One word in relation to the Mormons. "A voter" said not a words in his communication, calculated to arouse their displeasure, or infringe upon their rights what he said to them we have no doubt was from good feelings and pure motives.

They are only transient citizens, and have no interests to be represented to the board [of St. Joseph trustees] . Most of them intend to emigrate this spring, and it is a well known fact to them, and to every one else, that they will never be called on for a single dime, to pay this debt of the corporation, nor to make further improvements. Yet this unprincipled Scribe, would arouse their jealousy, excite their passions, invite them in the poles, and into collision and strife with the permanent citizens.

==>The Mormons under Sidney Rigdon are publishing a paper, and flourishing at Greencastle, Pa. They have done away with public preaching forever, and supply its place by "lectures in the school of the prophets."

The Mormons at Voree, Wisconsin, are on the increase, having a paper, the "Zion's Reveille," and mustering some names not unknown in this State and Illinois. The first Presidency consists of J. J. Strang in the place of Joseph Smith "martyred," as they maintain -- Adams in place of Rigdon, "apostatized," -- and Joseph Smith, the son, a boy about 15 years old in place of his uncle Hyrum, also "martyred." Wm. Smith the last of the brothers is the Patriarch.

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., April 2, 1847. No. ?


We were favored with the perusal of a letter written by an officer in the command of Col. Cooke, who is at the head of the Mormon battalion on its way to California. This letter [is dated] on the 24th of November, at Los Playas, Sonora. The writer says:

We are now about 350 miles from Santa Fe, on our way to California. So far we have been successful in finding a good road, that may be considered a natural one, for we have had but little work to do. We find water scarce, and prospects still worse ahead, though I am in hopes we shall not suffer. The grass for the animals is very fine. We have crossed several high mountains, or rather [------] passes through them, without difficulty, and have suffered but little from cold. Our course has been further south than we wished to follow, but it necessary on account of water. We are fifty miles northwest of [-----], so by referring to the map you can see out present position. From here we go to San Bernardino, and thence to the Rio San Pedro, and down to the Gila from thence down that river to the Gulf of California and thence across to San Diego and up the coast to Monterey. -- We will require at least 70 days to perform the trip for our animals must necessarily fail, if we attempt to push them. -- They are our only hope and it behooves us to favor them in every possible way. -- This is a wild country, and too far from home ever to be settled by white men. -- The health of the command is good -- in fact, the air is too pure to have disease of any kind generated in it. This will be taken to Santa Fe by a Mexican, who was found trading here with the Indians.

This letter must put to rest a report which had found some believers here that Capt. Cook's command had been captured by the Mexicans. It is the latest intelligence from that quarter. -- Rep.

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., June 4, 1847. No. ?

SUFFERINGS OF THE MORMONS IN CALIFORNIA. -- In looking over a file of the Californian, brought to this city by a gentleman who recently arrived from that quarter, we met with the following heart sickening account of the condition of a party of Mormons, who were emigrating from this section of country to California. We copy from a paper of the 13th of February:

By the arrival of the brig Francisco, three days from Yerba Buena, Le Moine, master, brings to us the heart rending news of the extreme suffering of a party of emigrants who were left on the other side of the California mountain, about sixty in all, nineteen of whom started to come into the valley. Seven only have arrived, the remainder died, and the survivors were kept alive by eating the dead bodies. Among the survivors are two young girls.

A public meeting was held a Yerba Buena, and about eight hundred dollars raised for the relief of the survivors who still remain in the mountains. Messrs. Ward and Smith kindly offered the use of their :aunch, and a party, under [their] direction left, with the intention of disembarking at the foot of the mountain and then going onto it with packs of provisions. We have but few of the particulars of the hardships which they have suffered. Such a state of things will probably never again occur, from the fact, that the road is now better known & the emigrants will hereafter start [and] travel so as to cross the mountain by the 1st of October. The party which are suffering so much, lost their work cattle on the Salt Plains, on Hasiting's Cut Off, a route which we hope no one will ever attempt again.

Note: The Donner Party, which was trapped in the Sierras that winter was composed of Gentile emigrants, none of whom were associated with the Mormon Church.

Vol. 8. Palmyra, June 24, 1847. No. 49.

THE MORMON TEMPLE has been sold to a committee of the Catholic Church for $75,000, and is to [be] used for educational purposes, connected with the Church into whodr hands it has fallen contract requires only the sanction of the Bishop, to complete it. The last of the Mormons in Nauvoo, consisting of thirty or forty families, have left, to join the California expedition.

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., June 25, 1847. No. ?

A Legend of the Past.
The Apostle to the New World.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. II.   Liberty, Mo., June 26, 1847. No. 13.

The Mormons. -- The Warsaw Signal [understands] the Mormon Temple was [that day sold to a committee of the Catholic Church] for the sum of $75,000, and [that] the purchasers had also brought some considerable other property in the city. The [contract for the] the Temple, however was so far incomplete, as to require the ratification of the Bishop. It is understood the building is to be appropriated to educational purposes connected with the church into whose hands it has passed.

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., July 23, 1847. No. ?

Emigration to California.

The Western Expositor, contains a letter by Peter Quivvey, of Jackson county, who went out last year with a company of emigrants to California. This letter is dated on the 24th of March last, at Lower Puebla. We condense an account of it, which we copy.

The writer arrived at the first settlement in California on the 14th of October, after a very long and tiresome journey. Very soon after their arrival in California, hearing of the revolution, and that American colors were raised, these emigrants enlisted as volunteers in a regiment formed under Col. Fremont, with the promise of twenty five dollars per month -- sergeants thirty five. He speaks favorably of the country over which he has passed, and says, that if he were now back in Missouri with his family, and with his present knowledge of the country, he would not hesitate to move there.

The charms of the country must be very great to counterbalance the difficulties which the emigrants encounter in getting there, and of which he gives some account in this letter. He went out with Moran & Boon, who changed their minds on the route and went to Oregon. Gov. Boggs reached California about the same time Mr. Quivvey did, after much difficulty, having lost his cattle.

Benjamin Hudspeth had been appointed Captain of a Company in the California Battalion, with a salary of $120 per month.

The writer says that Gen. Kearney was then Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Upper and Lower California.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. II.   Liberty, Mo., Aug. 14, 1847. No. 20.

An extra from the office of the California Star, published at Yerba Buena, contains an address "to the Saints in England and America," which is signed by "S. Brannan, President." It proposes to give a brief view of the condition of the mormons since their advent in California. Mr. Brannan says they were six months in making the passage from New York to Yerba Buena, and that the colony enjoyed good health. In relation to the country and climate, he says they have not been disappointed in their expectations but like all other new countries, they 'found the account of it very much exaggerated' so much so that he recommends to all persons to provide themselves with thick clothing instead of thin. They were then -- the first of January -- busily engaged in putting in crops for the emigrating Mormons to subsist upon when they arrive. -- About twenty males of their number have, he says, 'gone astray after strange gods,' and refuse to assist in providing for their brethren.

The Mormons had commenced a settlement on the river San Joaquin, a large and beautiful stream emptying into the Bay of San Francisco. Twenty of their number were up at New Hope, ploughing and putting in wheat and other crops, and making preparations to move their families up in the spring. The Spaniards, or natives were kind to them, although they were much terrified by the reports circulated about them by the emigrants from Missouri. Governor Boggs was in the country, and during an interview which Mr. Brannan had with him, a few days previous, he says he expressed much dissatisfaction with the country, and spoke strongly of returning in the spring.

On the arrival of the Mormons at Yerba Buena, a few of the passengers endeavored to make mischief and trouble, but their designs were frustrated. Four persons were excommunicated from the church during the passage, for their wicked and licentious conduct -- Elder E. W. Pell, Orren Smith, A. T. Moses and Mrs. Lucy Eagar. The conduct of the two elders, is said to have been of the most disgraceful character. Afterwards, on their arrival, Elisha Hyate, James Scott and Isaac Adison were excommunicated -- the latter having returned to the United States -- and others deserved the same fate but their attention was then more particularly called to temporal than to spiritual affairs. Provisions were high, owing to the arrival of so many emigrants, and the provisioning of the army and navy. He repeats his recommendation that emigrants 'should come well supplied, which can be done only by coming by water." No intelligence has been received from the brethren at the Society Islands. Emigrants from New York and Boston were expected soon to arrive. -- Republican.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. II.   Liberty, Mo., Sept. 3, 1847. No. 23.

. We are informed that Gen. Kearney left Monterey on the 31st of May last. Besides officers, servants &c., there was an escort of thirteen of the Mormon Battalion.

Col. Fremont brought with him nineteen of the Topographical party taken from Missouri, in 1845 a number of these were Captains and other officers of the "California Battalion.".

Gen. K. had returned to Monterey but a few days previous to his departure, from a visit to Los Angeles. He found there, that the reports of the approach of an army under Gen. Bustamente, which had long kept the native population in excitement, were dying away. The time of the Mormon Battalion, stationed there and at San Diego, expired on the 16th of July, when the land forces in California would consist of Col. Stevenson's regiment, one company of dragoons (At Angeles) and one of light artillery at Monterey. An expectation was entertained that about one hundred of the Mormon Battalion would re-enter the service.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. II.   Liberty, Mo., Sept. 17, 1847. No. 25.

THE MORMONS. -- A passenger in the 'Lake of the Woods' from upper Missouri informs us that the mormons are in a flourishing condition, in their new location on the fine lands of the Pottawotomie purchase, on both sides of the river above Council Bluffs. They have planted immense fields of corn -- to the extent, it is estimated, of 30,000 acres -- and other grain and produce. They have built, also, a town called 'Winter Quarters,' which already contains a population of some seven thousand souls. This town is entirely picketed in. It is represented that the Mormons are on friendly terms with the Indians, are rarely molest them, although they are accused of occasionally stealing cattle.

Immense herds of Buffalo were seen on the plains, and crossing the Missouri, at the mouth of a stream called Stillwater.

Vol. 9. Palmyra, October 28, 1847. No. 15.

MORMONISM -- BLASPHEMY. -- William Smith -- the surviving brother of "Joe" -- has published a manifesto, in which he condemns Strang, the Mormon leader, as an impostor and announces his separation from him. In these companions of religion and truth, the Ottawa Free Trader tells the following story:

It appears that the prophet Strang needed a new house, and he determined his followers should build it for him. So he called them together and told them that in consideration that they would erect the house, the Lord had authorized him to promise them an extraordinary "indowment," [The] building was soon completed and now they apply for their reward. All the Saints are gathered together in the Church, the prophet takes them through a variety of ceremonies, such as hand washing, feet washing, etc., and concludes by anointing the heads of all with a composition "that had a queer smell." They are then directed to adjourn to another room that was totally dark there they were to receive the endowment, which was to be in the shape of an extraordinary and visible manifestation of the spirit, rendering them at once impregnable thenceforth to all the shafts of Satan. Arrived in the dark room, sure enough, the heads of all shine as if lit up with the brightness of the sun, and great was the rejoicing of the Saints thereat. But the prophet, William, who was present, although staggered a little, mistrusted that "all was not gold that glittered," so he took some of the ointment and submitted it to an examination, and lo! the discovery! He found that it was a mixture, oil and phosphorus! And that hence the whole illuminating operation was a cheat! He took the first opportunity to accuse prophet Strang publicly and before the whole congregation of the imposition, who so far from denying it, [coolly?] acknowledged the corn, and then preached a sermon justifying the act, and maintaining that all the Miracles of Christ, Moses, etc., were wrought in the same way, that it by natural means. Of course, William could no longer fellowship with such a man.

Note: J. J. Strang's 1847 disfellowshipping of William Smith from the "Strangite" church was disclosed in the Sept. 15, 1847 issue of the Quincy Whig. Subsequently the Quincy Whig and the Warsaw Signal announced that "William Smith had published "a Proclamation to the brethren -- in which he claims to be the true Church himself, and that the new 'Stake of Zion' is to be located at Palestine, Lee Co., Illinois, some where on Rock River." The details of William Smith's break from Strang were evidently printed in a late September, 1847 issue of the Ottawa, Illinois Free Trader.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. II.   Liberty, Mo., Nov. 12, 1847. No. 33.

THE MORMONS. -- The statements concerning the progress which this sect is making in their [new] location near Council Bluffs are almost incredible. It is said that they have 30,000 acres, in corn, and other produce in proportion. The population of Winter quarters is [7,000].

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. II.   Liberty, Mo., Dec. 10, 1847. No. 37.

From the St. Louis Republican.


Whatever has reference to the movements of this strange and infatuated people seems to be sought for with curiosity, at least if from no better motive. Driven from the home which they had selected in Illinois, they have been wandering in several directions, but the heads of the church have turned their faces towards California, seeking there some immunity from the persecution which attended their career in the United States but even there, we fear, there is no good will towards them. In California, certainly, they are already looked upon with suspicion, and this suspicion may soon take the shape of bitter persecution, if those who oppose them should obtain the mastery in that country. But our purpose now, is to give information of the progress of the colony which is to be located at the "Great Salt Lake City."

We had a conversation, yesterday, with Mr. Little, who has just arrived from the place we have named. The gentleman left our borders in March last, proceded to the Great Salt Lake, and is now on his return, having left the future home of the Mormons, late in August. We learb from him, that the country selected for the habitation of the Mormons, is about twenty miles east from the Great Salt Lake. In company with others, he explored the valley, and he represents that they found a range of some eighty miles in length, and perhaps ten to twenty miles in width. The preparations for the reception of the advancing company of Mormons, were not, we should infer, very extensive. A field of about one hundred acres of ground had been planted with corn, potatoes, turnips, and other edibles, but as the rain seldom fell there, they had to resort to the uncertain and laborious process of irrigation. They had engaged in the erection of a stockade, to protect the colony from the attacks of the Indians, covering some ten acres of ground, within which from a hundred and sixty to two hundred dwellings were to be erected. How this is to be done, is at best very uncertain. There is very little woodland in or near the Valley, and this is the greatest difficulty which the colonists have to encounter, both as a means of erecting their houses and for fuel. In time, seeds may be planted and forests grown, but this is a very uncertain dependence. Some parts of the valley have a very fertile appearance, but others, again, are exceedingly poor, and cannot be made to produce any thing. About forty miles from the place selected for the Mormon city, is the homestead of a farmer, whose name we have foregotten, who has peach trees growing, and a garden producing a good many of the vegetables common to this country with a fine stock of goats, horses, and cattle but, save this habitation, none other is to be found in that quarter.

On his return route, Mr. Little, who holds, we believe, some high office in the Mormon Church, met the Mormon emigrants in detached parties. He does not speak very flatteringly of their condition, though, with sanguine hopes, they were still moving on to their destination. Many of the heads of the families there, it will be remembered, taken up to fill the California Battalion and are still in California, and the women and children left to get along as they best could. In many cases, little boys were found driving the teams, barefoot, and the advanced parties were reduced to some extremity for the want of food. Two hundred of the oxen used in their teams had died after leaving Independence Rock, from eating some poisonous substance and exhaustion, and they were compelled to get along by using cows in their stead. All were, it is feared, stinted for provisions, and even after their arrival, unless game could be procured by their hunters, there is room to apprehend suffering from starvation -- Mr. Little representing at the same time, that in and around the Salt Lake Valley, very little game was to be found. On the whole, we are fearful that most distressing accounts will be received from this people, by the first arrivals next spring.

Mr. Little met with a good many adventures with the Indians, involving much risk, but as he escaped unharmed, it is hardly necessary to detail them. He has no grear love for any portion of California which he has visited, or of which, in his wanderings, he has had accounts from others and it is the tenor of his advice to all persons not to set their faces in the direction of California.

The following order, illustrating some of the difficulties which the California Battalion had to encounter, has been placed at our disposal: . [remainder not transcribed]

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. II.   Liberty, Mo., March 24, 1848. No. 52.


We learn from a reliable source, that several thousand English families, members of the Mormon Church, will arrive at New Orleans during this spring, on their way to join the settlement formed in the Great Salt Lake Valley. An agent of the Mormon Church has been sent to New Orleans, to provide passages for the emigrants on boats to this city, as fast as they arrive. Another agent is stationed in this city, to engage transportation for them up the Missouri to the present encampment of the Mormons on the Missouri river, called 'Winter Quarters.' This encampment is on land owned by the Omaha Indians, and in the immediate vicinity of Council Bluffs. From that point, or the vicinity they expect to send out all who are prepared to emigrate to the valley of the Salt Lake.

It is calculated that from eight to ten thousand souls, from England alone, will join the emigrating party this season. In addition, several other large parties are expected from other parts of Europe. At one time, it was the intention of the elders of the Church to send these emigrants by vessel to Charges, and thence across the Continent to the Pacific, and by vessels to California but since they have located their city in the Great Salt Lake Valley, and determined to build their Church there, they have instructed their disciples to take the overland route from the head of navigation on the Missouri. Those coming from beyond the seas will, as far as practical, take vessels for New Orleans, and thence by boats reach the general rendezvous on the Missouri. A deputation of the elders, now in this city are having printed a large edition of a Guide to the route for the present encampment on the Missouri, to their new city near Salt Lake. It is a very complete and minute work. They have measured the entire route with great accuracy, and noted all the points and peculiarities along it. They have given the latitude, longitude and altitude of all the important points, and noticed all the places where wood, water and grass can be obtained. In fact we have not at any time seen a more accurate work, or one so well calculated to assist the traveler on his way. In other respects, it is interesting as a scientific topographical survey of a large portion of the Salt Lake basin.

A party of several thousand will leave the encampment at "Winter Quarters," this spring, as early as the grass on the plains will permit. It is estimated that there are now upwards of twelve thousand souls in the vicinity of this encampment. At least half of these mormons will set out for their new residence this spring, and their places will be supplied by new-comers.

Their numbers are as extraordinary as their movements and purposes appear to be absurd. --

Vol. 9. Palmyra, May 18, 1848. No. 44.


Letters have been received in this city, by persons connected with the Mormon colony at the City of the Salt Lake, dated in the latter part of the December. -- They represent the situation of the [-------] as a comfortable one. They had not been molested by the Indians, many of them were in the habit of visiting the city. An inclosed square formed of continuous dwellings, facing inwards, intended for the defense of the [------] material, has been erected as well as other buildings for the saints, comprising some three thousand souls. Up to the time of writing, only two deaths had occurred in the colony. Last Fall, they sowed about three thousand acres of wheat, and they intended, besides, to put in a spring crop of about six thousand acres more. If their crops should prove good, they will have grain to spare to the emigrants to California, taking the Salt Lake route. They had erected two saw mills and a grist mill, and were industriously employed. Good potatoes were selling at ten dollars per bushel, peas fifty cents per pound, and other things at about the same rates. -- Repub.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. III.   Liberty, Mo., May 26, 1848. No. 9.

For the Liberty Tribune.


We learn from Mr. Shrader, who passed through our town yesterday, on his way from Fort Kearny, that an express had just came in from the Mormons at Salt Lake, bringing the melancholy intelligence that the Indians in that quarter had murdered a number of men women and children at that place. No cause could be assigned for this outbreak among the Indians. The express has been sent in for the purpose of getting assistance, as it was feared the Indians would gather in still larger numbers, and murder all the Mormon emigrants at that place. From all accounts the Indians appear determined to make a battle with the emigrants on the plains this year. This calls loudly for troops on the frontier and indeed the mere name of having soldiers stationed convenient to [the lawless] red men, often deter them from committing acts of violence. It was feared that this news would prevent the Mormons from leaving their encampment at the Bluffs this spring -- St. Joseph's Gazette.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. III.   Liberty, Mo., September 8, 1848. No. ?

THE TEMPLE AT NAUVOO. -- We are pleased to learn, (says the Republican) that an arrangement has been made with the trustees, or those having charge of the Mormon temple at Nauvoo, by which that splendid edifice is to be devoted to useful purposes. It has been leased for a term of fifteen years, and is to be at once converted into a college building and to be occupied for that purpose. The institution is to be under the patronage of the Home Mission Society, and immediate steps will be taken to put it into operation. A better location cannot be found in the western country for such an institution, and it will, if properly conducted, receive the patronage of all the States bordering upon the Mississippi.

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri. Oct. 27, 1848. No. ?

NAUVOO -- THE TEMPLE. -- We learn that a company have purchased all the Mormon property, in the hands of A. W. Babbitt, the Mormon agent at Nauvoo, including the walls of the Temple and that arrangements have been made to rebuild it as soon as possible. The price paid was $12,000.

We also learn that the citizens of Nauvoo [are about to] or have done already, arrest a [-------- ---------] in Nauvoo, who is supposed to [be the ------------] individual who fired the [Temple ----- ------].

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri. Nov. 3, 1848. No. ?

FIRE AND DESTRUCTION OF THE MORMON TEMPLE. -- On Monday, the 19th inst., our citizens were awakened by the alarm of fire, which when first discovered, was busting out through the spire of the Temple, near the small door that opened from the east side to the roof, on the main building.

The fire was seen first about three o'clock in the morning, and not until it had taken such hold of the timbers and roof, as to make useless any effort to extinguish it.

The materials of the inside were so dry, and the fire spread so rapidly, that a few minutes were sufficient to wrap this famed edifice in a sheet of flames. It was a sight too full of mournful sublimity. The mass of material which had been gathered there by the labor of many years, afforded a rare opportunity for this element to play off some of its wildest sports. Although the morning was tolerably dark, still when the flames shot upward the spire, the streets and the houses, for nearly a mile distant were lighted up so as to render even the smallest object discernible. The glare of this vast torch, pointing sky-ward indescribably contrasted with the universal gloom and darkness around it -- and men looked on with faces sad, as if the crumbling ruins below were consuming all their hope.

It was evidently the work of an incendiary

There had been, on the evening previous, a meeting in the lower room, but no person was in the upper part where the fire was first discovered. Who he was, and what could have been his motives, we have no idea. Some feeling infinitely more unenviable than that of the individual who put the torch to the beautiful Ephesian structure of old, must have possessed him. -- To destroy a work of art, at once the most elegant in its construction, and the most renowned in its celebrity of any in the whole west, would, we should think, require a mind of more than ordinary depravity, and we feel assured that no one in this community could have been so lost to every sense of justice, and every consideration of interest, as to become the author of the deed. Admit, that it was a monument of folly, and of evil, and yet it was, to say the least of it, a splendid and a harmless one.

Its loss, no doubt, will be more forcibly felt by the people of this place than any other because, even the most dreamy will hardly think of soon seeing another such an ornament, and because it was on the eve of changing hands, and being converted into a commodious building of useful education such as the West greatly needs, and such as no one ought to be envious of. --

FROM CALIFORNIA AND THE MOUNTAINS. -- Mr. Goodyear, with a party of ten persons, recently arrived in our town from California and the Rocky Mountains, via the South Pass, bringing with them one hundred and twenty horses and several packs of peltries. They left California the latter part of April, -- and at that time the country was in a prosperous condition.

Mr. G. says that the people in California were still working old mines to a considerable extent, and that new ones had been discovered in various portions of the country. The old pioneers were anxious to reap the advantages accruing from the first settlement of a new country, under a free and enlightened government, and were in hopes that they would be kept in suspense no longer by oarty strife or individual quarrels. He passed through the Mormon settlement at the Great Salt Lake, and says that the insects had injured their crops to a considerable extent. They were generally of the opinion, however, that they would have a sufficient amount of bread stuffs for themselves, and some to spare to those who were coming on. The foremost company of their emigration was met on the head of Sweet Water, about two hundred miles from the Salt Lake -- also, two hundred wagons were met at the upper crossing of the north fork of the Platte. They were losing a large number of their cattle, owing to the lateness of the season, and the low state of the streams, many of which were heavily impregnated with saline and alkaline substances.

Mr. G. also states that he saw the California and Oregn emigration, the whole of which passed down the Great Bear river valley the latter part of July, towards Oregon and California, where they expected to arrive in good season. He learned after he left the valley of the Salt Lake, that a part of the Mexican trading expedition, who were on their return to Santa Fe had come into the Mormon camp for assistance and protection against the Utah Indians, and that some had gone back to California by the northern route rather than pass through the Utah country.

The people of Oregon had succeeded in making a partial treaty of peace with the Indians, with the exception of about twenty, who had occasioned the first difficulties, and who had been given to understand that they need not expect any good treatment from the whites. The Indians in the mountains were all peaceable.

We were politely firnished by Mr. G. with a copy of the "California Star," published at San Francisco by Messrs. Brannan & Kemble.

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., November 10, 1848. No. ?

A Mormon Colony having been formed in Texas, "the saints" lately commenced a negotiation for the purchase of a large tract of excellent farming land on the Pierdenales, above Fredericksburg. The Houston Telegraph says that their anxiety to purchase this land, aroused the suspicion that they had discovered mines upon it. They have a prophecy that new Jerusalem of their great prophet is to be found in Texas, and will ultimately congregate there. -- This appears to be unpleasant news to the Texians, and the Telegraph entertains apprehension of war between the Saints and other settlers, should they persist in their determination to occupy a tract on their Pierdenales.

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., February 16, 1849. No. ?

Notice to the Mormon Battalion of Volunteers.

The undersigned is now prepared to pay the Volunteers of the Mormon Battalion, their Extra pay, at this place, and for that purpose will remain at this Post, until the close of the present month -- where claimants can apply.

Powers of Attorney must in all cases be sworn to before a Magistrate, in Duplicate -- and the official character of the Magistrate must be certified to, by the Clerk of the County or Circuit Court, with his seal attached.

The testimony of two credible witnesses, before a Magistrate, that the individual claiming, is the identical person who served, and that he was honorably discharged, will be required, they must further swear that they are disinterested the official character of the Magistrate must also be certified by the Clerk of the Court with his seal of office.

The oath of identity must accompany the power of Attorney in each case.

Administrators can not receive. This gratuity goes, first to the widow, second to the children, third to the father and mother, and fourth to the brothers and sisters. Duly qualified Guardians can draw for Minors.

No payment can be made at Council Bluffs, until some time in March next -- so that all who deserve payment now, can receive it at this Office, by attending to the above requirements.
Paymaster U. S. Army.
Paymaster's Office,
Fort Leavenworth, Feb. 19, '49.

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., March 16, 1849. No. ?

Orson Hyde, of the 'Frontier Guardian,' speaks thus of our flourshing town:

St. Joseph. -- This flourishing town, the capital of Buchanan county, Mo., is one of the most important trading posts on the river. It is situated on a beautiful plain, protected from any encroachments of the rapid current of the Missouri river by a high bluff on the upper side. Its landing is good and its growth and prosperity are without an equal in the upper country. There is much capital already vested in merchandize in the forwarding and [commission] business, mills of various kinds, [------ --------]. and in short, almost every thing to [perfect] it as the great western emporium of trade and business. For Emigrants to California who design to take the route on the south side of the Great Platte river, this is the most natural and convenient point on the frontier to rendezvous at. But the "Bluffs" are the starting point for those who intend journeying on the route north of the Great Platte.

There are two well conducted papers published at St. Joseph, the Adventure and the Gazette. These journals, respectively advocate the two principal political creeds of the country and we hesitate not to say that emigrants can be supplied with all the sorts of goods, wares and merchandize at this place, and even with politics served up in a style to please the most fastidious appetite.

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., March 23, 1849. No. ?

Major Noah, in an interesting article in the Sunday Times, is of the opinion that the "ten lost tribes" of Israel were the originators of the cities whose ruins strew Mexico and central America. He concludes thus from a variety of circumstances, and especially from the fact that all our tribes of Indians, bearing the strongest marks of Asiatic origin, are identified with the Israelites by the following religious rites: 1. Their belief in one God 2. In their computation of time by their ceremonies of the new moon 3. In their division of the year into four seasons 4. In their erection of a temple, having an ark of the covenant, and also their erection of altars 5. By the division of the nation into tribes, with a chief or general sachem at their head 6. By their laws of sacrifices, ablutions, marriages, ceremonies in war and in peace, prohibition of eating certain things, by traditions, history, character, appearance, affinity of their language to the Hebrew, and finally by that everlasting covenant of heirship exhibited in a perpetual transmission of its seal in their flesh, a custom only of late relinquished.

The Phoenicians (Canaanites) had discovered the continent 500 years previous to the migration of the Israelites, and were, it is assumed, the builders of the pyramids of Mexico and Central America, and of Palenque, Cholula, Otumba, Tlascala and other cities, of which the ruins now excite our astonishment and also the introduces of hyeroglyphics, plemisphenes, zodiacs, temples, military roads, viaducts and bridges from Egypt, Tyre, Babylon and Carthage. In the apocryphal book of Esdrass, of great antiquity, it is said"

"Whereas, thou sawest another peaceable multitude, these are the ten tribes, which were carried away prisoners out of their own land, in the time of Osea, whom Salmanazer, King of Assyria, led away captive, and he carried them over the waters, so they came unto another land.

"And they took counsel among themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the heathen, and go into a further country, wherein mankind never dwelt, that they might there keep their statutes, which they never kept in their own land, (Assyria,) and there was a great way to go, namely, a year and a half."

According to Major Noah's theory, they marched towards the northeast coast of Asia, some remained in Tartary, and many went into China, where they have been 1600 years, and are numerous at this day. The main body crossed at Behring's Straits to our continent, the more hardy keeping to the north, Hudson's Bay and Greenland the more cultivated passed down on the shores of the Pacific, through California to Mexico, Central America and Peru, where they met their ancient enemies the Canaanites (Phoenicians,) whom, as once before, they dispossessed of the country. Furthermore it is contended that they resided in California when the ships of Solomon made their three years' voyage, and furnished the gold of Ophir to build the temple also that they are the settlers and proprietors of Mexico, Peru and the whole American continent, and have been here centuries before the advent of Christianity and patiently await the promise of redemption.

William Penn, in writing of the Indians, says: "I found them with like countenances to the Hebrew race. I consider these people under a dark night, yet they believe in God and immortality, without the aid of a [metaphysics]. They reckon by moons -- they offer their first ripe fruits -- they have a kind of feast of tabernacles -- they are said to lay there altars with twelve stones -- they mourn a year -- and observe the Mosaic law with regard to separation."

These facts, with the opinion of McKenzie, Bartram, Beltrame, Smith, Penn, Menassah Ben Israel, the earl of Crawford, Lopez de Gamara, Acosta, Malvenda, Major Long, Boudinot and Catlin, all eminent writers and travellers, go to prove that the "ten lost tribes" were the progenitors of the races found in the New World, on its discovery by Columbus.

Vol. II. St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Mar. 30, 1849. No. ?

THE MORMONS. -- We find in the N. York Sun a communication from somebody, who tells a rather improbable story about the motives and designs of the Mormons. He says:

"The Mormons in California are more bitter towards the government than is possible to conceive. They have cultivated a spirit of hatred ever since their expulsion from Missouri. Joe Smith then prophesied (and it was recorded, which is as sacred with them as the Bible,) that the time should come when they, the Missourians, should be trodden down and destroyed by a nation more mean than they -- meaning that the Indians should destroy the whole State of Missouri.

Since then, the infamous Brigham Young issued a written proclamation for all the Elders in the U. S. A., (mot of foreign nations,) to come direct to Nauvoo the command was obeyed, and about 12,000 persons were sworn to vengeance against this whole nation."

Mr. Editor, it is a small thing, so much so as to go unnoticed, to say that some hundreds of designing men, who have at least 50,000 people under their influence, are locating at the Great Salt Lake, California, with a design and a secret organization to destroy this nation? This is a fact! the writer has been with them, and feels and knows more than is possible to describe.

My object in stating there facts is not that I hate the Mormons, but that the thousands under their influence on the other continent, as well as this, may have a knowledge of the evil designs of their leaders, and not be led by them to the Salt Lake which [if] they do, will most assuredly result in their ruin.

That these Mormons are themselves ignorant, prejudiced and fanatical, may be admitted. Every man is in some respects ignorant, prejudiced and fanatical. That the Mormons have "blind", and worse than that, blind "guides" among them, is, we presume, true. The world at large, outside of Mormondom, furnishes samples in abundance, of this kind of leaders and guardians. But after all in all men -- at least with the exception of a small class -- there is a certain average of common sense and common honesty, which will not long suffer them to be the shallow dupes of gross villains -- the swallowers of pretences as truths, which experience after some time, must show to be lies -- unless at least the cheat and wickedness are profitable. Now the history of the Mormons is a history of persecution, distress and misery. And if really the Mormon organization have no virtue in it, the remarkable fact would be presented of a people changing to detected falsehood and folly, at the expense of every comfort in life and at hazard of life itself.

Admitting the point that they are cherishing a gross superstition, that superstition is a speculative error perhaps, no worse in its effect upon the moral and social condition of the Mormons than other speculative [points] of belief are upon the condition of the different sects into which Christendom is parceled out. The evidence of reported and trustworthy witnesses proves that the Mormons are industrious and peaceable that they pay attention to the schooling of their children that they preserve at least a decent exterior and are to external observation an orderly community. Such was the testimony of Capt. Allen, recently deceased of the U. S. Army, who had good opportunities of observing them and was himself not at all inclined to regard their religious belief with any favor.

We have said this much because we think it important that at this time more especially nothing should be done to interfere with the Mormons having fair play. They have selected a remote region -- shut off from the world at large 00 and where, if they desired, they could do but little mischief to others. They have got possession of the mountain valleys and arid wastes of the Great Basin. Let them keep possession unmolested. If they have capacity to rear up a flourishing and virtuous community -- we say it, in the name of our common humanity and of our common God -- let them do it.

"Willing to Praise but not Afraid to Blame."
Vol. IV.   Liberty, Mo., April 6, 1849. No. ?

THE MORMONS. -- Charles R. Dana, a delegate from the Mormons of Council Bluffs, is in Boston, soliciting aid for his people. The object is to aid the poor of the sect to emigrate to the settlement on the Great Salt Lake.

He represents that the number of Mormons now in Iowa is 17,000, and that the numver west of the Rocky mountains, is about 7,000. These comprise all the Mormons west of the Mississippi, who preserve a distinct association. Almost every village throughout the West, however, contains more or less of persons of this singular faith. They are numerous in our own city, and are generally good citizens.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Apr. 6, 1849. No. ?

FROM THE MOUNTAINS. -- Major G. C. Matlock. Agent for the Sioux and other Indians arrived in this place last evening direct from the Upper Missouri. He reports the snow above Fort Pierre, three feet deep and has received information that the snow is some five feet, on an average, above the Yellow Stone. From the same source we learn, that the Mormons of Pottawattamie county, Iowa, are making extensive arrangements for emigrating to the Salt Lake. He also reports that but few in the Southern part of Iowa design emigrating to California.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., May 18, 1849. No. ?

A LETTER FROM GOV. BOGGS. -- L. W. Boggs, at one time Governor of this State, has been, for three or fours past, a resident of California. He is alcalde of Sonora, and has been engaged in extensive business as a merchant. The Independence Expositor, of last Saturday, publishes the substance of a letter which has been recently received from him, by his son, Mr. H. C. Boggs. It is not of late date, having been written on the 20th of November last, but as its contents may serve to cheer the hearts of the gold hunters, now about setting out on a long journey, we extract the essential parts of it. He confirms, says that paper, most of the information received, as to the richness and extent of the mines says they extend over a country eight hundred miles in extent, and yielding immense quantities of the dust. He obtained, in a few months, upwards of $20,000 worth. Every body gets gold that wants it and he says there are no poor men in California. He thinks about seven thousand persons are engaged in digging gold between six hundred and a thousand of these are from Oregon. Gov. Boggs advises his sons here, to go to California this spring, without fail, and tells them to advise their relatives and friends to go also. He tells them that any business they may be engaged in here is unimportant, compared with what they can do in California.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., May 25, 1849. No. ?

The Monroe, crowded with Mormon emigrants just up from New Orleans, on reaching Jefferson City was compelled to lay up, for at that point she was deserted by passengers and crew. Some fifteen or twenty died on the passage up from St. Louis, among whom was one of the pilots, Mr. Joseph Ponto. The ravages of the disease among the emigrants after landing have been terrific. Upwards of thirty-five died in three days, and others at last accounts were given out by the physicians. The steamer Lightfoot passed up this morning having on board the balance of the Mormons.

Note: The deadly disease on board the boat was evidently cholera.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., June 1, 1849. No. ?

THE MORMONS. -- We want to call the reader's attention to the new and most extraordinary position of the Mormons. Seven thousand of them have found a resting place in the most remarkable spot on the North American Continent. Since the children of Israel wandered through the wilderness, or the Crusaders rushed on Palestine, there has been nothing so historically singular as the emigration and recent settlement of the Mormons. Thousands of them came from the Manchesters and Sheffields of Europe, to join other thousands congregated from western New York, and New York, and New England -- boasted descendants of the Pilgrim Fathers -- together to follow after a New Jerusalem in the West. Having a temple amidst the churches and schools of Lake county, Ohio, and driven from it by popular opinion, they build the Nauvoo of Illinois. It becomes a great town. Twenty thousand people flock to it. They are again assaulted by popular persecution -- their Prophet murdered -- their town depopulated -- and finally their temple burned! Does all this series of signal persecution to which they have been subjected destroy them? Not at all. Seven thousand are now settled, and in flourishing circumstances on the Plateau Summit of the North American Continent! Thousands more are about to join them from Iowa, and thousands more are coming from Wales! The spectacle is most singular, and this is one of the singular episodes of the great drama of this age. The spot on which the Mormons are now settled is, geographically speaking, one of the most interesting on the North American Continent. There is no other just like it, that we can recollect of, on the globe. Look at the map a little east of the Great Salt Lake, and just south of the South West Pass, and you will see in the north east corner of California, the summit level of the waters which flow on the North American Continent. It must be six thousand feet, perhaps more, above the level of the Atlantic. In this sequestered corner, in a vale hidden among the mountains and lakes, are the Mormons, and there rise the mighty rivers than which no continent has greater. Within a stone's throw almost of one another, lie the head spring of the Sweet Water and the Green River. The former flows into the Platte River that into the Missouri and that into the Mississippi and that into the Gulf of Mexico, becoming part of the Gulf Stream, and laves the shores of distant lands. The latter, the Green River, flows into the Colorado the Colorado into the Gulf of California, and is mingled with the Pacific. The one flows more than 2,000 miles the other more than 1,500. These flow into tropical regions. Just north of the same spot are the head streams of the Snake River, which flows into the Columbia, near lat. 46 deg., after a course of 1,000 miles. Just south are the sources of the Rio Grande, which, after winding 1,7000 miles, finds the Gulf of Mexico. It is a remarkable point in the earth's surface where the Mormons are, and locked in by mountains and lakes, they will probably remain and constitute a new and peculiar colony.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., June 15, 1849. No. ?

OFF FOR CALIFORNIA. -- John H. Hall, of Albany, N. Y. Dan'l Guilmartin, of St. Louis J. H. Hall, of Peoria, Ill. and David Shaw and Wm. Shaw together with Rev. Henry Kroh, of Cincinnati, (missionary chaplain to Monterey, Cal.,) Geo. Kroh, Frederic Budker, and Wm. H. Nordhold -- constitute a company of emigrants bound for California. They arrived in St. Joseph June 4th, and left Thursday, June 14th. If they should not get over by next fall, they intend to winter in the Mormon settlements on the Great Salt Lake. They go with ox teams, and have 8 yoke to 2 wagons -- two yoke of milk cows and two ponies. The wagons and tent are constantly ventilated at each end on the top, which, they say, has proved very beneficial to the health of the party thus far.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., July 20, 1849. No. ?


Yesterday we had a few moments conversation with Dr. Price of Keokuk county, Iowa, who left Fort Laramie on the 22d June. The Doctor left Council Bluffs in May last for California, and having seen quite enough of "the elephant," concluded to return from Fort Laramie. To him we are indebted for several items of intelligence which we lay before our readers.

The emigrants were detained in large numbers at the crossing of the Platte, 125 miles beyond Fort Laramie. Tow Mormons were engaged in ferrying them across, but were not able to cross over sixty wagons a day. The number of wagons arriving daily at that point greatly exceeded those that were able to get over, consequently the number detained were increasing, and it was feared that their would be much suffering from the want of grass, before they would be able to cross. Besides this the road would again be crowded, and the same difficulties that they had encountered at the commencement of their journey, would again occur. . The Doctor's company had abandoned the idea of getting to California this fall, and had resolved upon taking their teams as far as possible, and then take it on foot to Oregon, and go to California next spring.

From the best information Dr. P. could obtain, he estimates the number of persons who have died on the plains between this place and Fort Laramie at 300. The health of the emigrants had greatly improved, as he heard of but few cases of sickness on his return. He commenced taking the names of those who had died on the plains but was compelled to abandon it, as a majority of them were buried some distance from the road.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Aug. 3, 1849. No. ?

THE LAST TRAIN. -- On Saturday, the 14th of July, about noon, the last wagons left "Winter Quarters," and began to bend their way westward over the boundless plains that lie between us and the Valley of the Great Salt Lake. Slowly and majestically they moved along, displaying a column of upwards of three hundred wagons, cattle, sheep, hogs, horses, mules, chickens, turkies, geese, doves, goats, &c., besides lots of men, women, and children. In this company was the Yankee with his machinery, the Southerner with his colored attendant -- the Englishman with all kinds of mechanic's tools -- the farmer, the merchant, the doctor, the minister, and almost every thing necessary for a new country. Provisioned for nine months from the time of starting. They were led by Messrs. Geo. A. Smith and Ezra T. Benson. They have our best wishes for their prosperity and safety on the journey, and we hope they may be able to make for themselves comfortable homes in the distant and secluded valleys of our American Piedmont. --

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Oct. 5, 1849. No. ?

SAFE IN CALIFORNIA. -- We learn by the Alta Californian of the 2d of August, that Capt. Goodyear's party arrived at California, making the trip through in sixty-seven traveling days, from this place, to San Francisco. It was reported that the wagon trains would suffer severely. A small party had also arrived via Salt Lake, and these represent the Mormon settlements in a most flourishing condition with a prospect of a glorious harvest in every branch of agriculture save corn. The Mormons are very kind to the emigrants who pass through their domain. Needy emigrants are furnished, without reward, with provisions and fresh cattle, accompanied with hospitalities of the good Samaritans.

The party which came in by way of the Salt Lake, [missing words] that not ten wagons of the whole caravan will ever cross the mountains. Full one-half of the whole number are abandoned already, and the animals used to pack in provisions sufficient to sustain life. For one hundred miles after the Salt Lake party reached Mary's River, not a spear of grass could be found to sustain the cattle, and thousands perished before reaching the Sink.

Few or none of the emigrants had died from want of food, but their sufferings from want of water had been intense. In many places on the desert parties were compelled to bury themselves in sand up to their necks, and await the return of their friends, who went off in search of water. But none have died, and most of the parties, after abandoning everything but provisions, would reach Sacramento City.

Note: The 1849 emigration was the last that the Mormons "furnished, without reward, with provisions." In fact, the "small party" mentioned above, appear to have been treated better than most of the California and Oregon pioneers passing through the Saints' domain. Beginning with the winter of 1849-50, and continuing well into 1858, westward travelers reported increasing levels of hostility directed at them while passing through the Mormon land. See other emigrants' accounts for various reports of this change in reception in the land of "Deseret."

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Oct. 19, 1849. No. ?

CALIFORNIA EMIGRATION. -- We publish from the St. Louis Union a publication addressed to the editor of that paper by A. W. Babbitt, Esq., formerly a citizen of Illinois, in relation to the California emigration, the government at Salt Lake, &c. Mr. B. states that the inhabitants of the Great Basin have formed a provisional government, which includes, in its boundaries, the whole of California east of the Sierra Nevada, and have elected all the necessary officers. He is elected to represent the interests of the inhabitants of that country in Congress, to which body he will present the application of the people, for an organization by act of Congress. All persons having friends who have gone to California, will be relieved of their anxiety on behalf of them, when they learn, through Mr. B., who is most reliable authority, that the graves, with which, according to letters heretofore published, it has been represented the whole route was [strewn] are, in most cases, only the graves of the surplus provisions which, according to the usual custom of the mountaineers, have been buried. Mr. Babbitt's count of wagons is much larger than the estimates that have been made. They were conjectured to be a little over 8,000, with four persons to a wagon, on an average. Mr. B. says that, on going and returning, he passed 15,000, and he thinks about four to each. This would make about 60,000 persons. There must be deducted from this, however, 1,000 or more wagons for the Government which would make the number of emigrants about 55,000. Mr. B. says the number of deaths has been small. The letter will be found interesting and worthy of an attentive perusal.

To the Editor of the Union:

Knowing that a deep interest is felt in the minds of the community in relation to the overland emigration to California, or the gold regions, and having had an opportunity of witnessing their progress for some fifteen hundred miles on their way, and having witnessed some incidents connected with the emigration, which have been exaggerated, I thought it would not be uninteresting to your readers to lay before them a few facts which may be of some benefit to the next emigration that may go out.

I left the States with the United States mail on the 26th May, with a guard of five men, twelve horses, and a light carriage. I crossed the Missouri river at the Council Bluffs and went up as far as fort Laramie on the north side of the Platte. On my way to Fort Laramie, I passed on the north side of the river, and counted on the south side upwards of six thousand waggons, mostly in good health, and the teams in good order that far on the way. Here commenced the sacrifice of property by way of discharging freight and by frequently abandoning the craft, for I think I am safe in saying that five hundred waggons were either burned or left standing by the road side, and other goods and provisions to an astonishing extent, the most valuable of which were carefully interred in the style of a grave, with head and foot stone, with inscription of name and age of the person, together with the kind of disease the person died with. This kind of mortality being learned among the Mormons at the Great Salt Lake, they being somewhat inclined to marvellous deeds, sent out companies who gave resurrection to many bodies even before dissolution. --

From Fort Laramie to the Great Salt Lake, the distance of five hundred and fifty miles I passed four thousand teams on my way out. I learned of some twelve deaths two were killed by the Indians, one at the crossing of the South Fork of the Platte, the other on the South side of the river seven were drowned and the other died of sickness. When I arrived at the Great Salt Lake, I found that I was not ahead of the emigration. I was informed that Capt. Paul's company arrived there on the 16th day of June, with a company of pack mules, and that some five hundred teams had already passed through on their way to the [west coast?] I stayed at the city of the great Salt Lake, in the Great Basin country. I [found] the settlements in the valley of the Great Salt Lake in a very thriving condition, crops came in well, as far as they are ready for harvest, and corn and other fall crops looked well. Goods were selling low, and mechanical labor high. Capt. Davis, from St. Louis, sold out his goods at auction, and many others, on arriving there, followed his example. While at the Great Salt Lake city, a celebration took place in commencement of their city and settlements. There was estimated 7,000 people present. The dinner table was filled to a length of 3,000 feet. A liberty pole was erected some 125 feet above the ground and a beautiful flag with the stars and stripes, was raised to the top, measuring in length 65 feet. It was saluted with cheers and with a roar of nine pieces of cannon. The day passed off finely, in which the emigration took a part with great satisfaction.

Good order prevailed in the Mormon settlements. They have organized a provisional State Government called the State of Deseret. They have also a mint in operation, in which they are coining 20, 10, 5 and 2 1/2 pieces of the pure metal, with their own stamp upon them.

I left the city of the Salt Lake on the 27th of July and arrived at the States the first day of September. On my return, I met about 5000 teams including the Mormon emigration. I found the feed entirely gone from Fort Bridger to Laramie, the distance of 400 miles, and the general opinion among the emigration that I met this side of the South Pass, was that they would have to remain in the Mormon settlements until spring. This side of Laramie I met several government teams, loaded principally with corn, for the new Fort, on Bear river. The officers in command informed me that it cost the government $12 per bushel to haul it through while the Mormons were receiving theirs within fifty miles of the Fort, for $2 per bushel. I also met some 400 or 500 Mormon wagons on the north side of the Platte they were the last emigrants I saw. One company, on the day before I met them, had a stampede of their teams while under way. One woman was killed and several persons badly wounded. The Mormons reported to me only five deaths in their emigration thus far 4 of the cholera and one killed. The cholera was very bad among the emigrants on the south side of the Platte river, between the head of Grand Island and Fort Laramie, but had entirely disappeared west of that point. The cholera was the more fatal among the Indians than among the whites

One thing all the emigration complained of, that they took too heavy wagons, and too many traps and fixings.

I met Doctor White and company, nine miles west of the South Pass, on the 4th day of August, in good health, and, as he reported, his family. There were two ladies with him, and he said nothing about any deaths. He intended stopping at the Salt Lake for winter.
Very respectfully your's,

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Oct. 26, 1849. No. ?

"The State of Deseret," is the name given by the Mormon settlers in the valley of the Great Salt Lake, U. California -- to the new nation they are founding on the western slope of the American chain of mountains. It signifies, according to the Mormon interpretation, the Honey Bee, indicative of Industry and the kindred virtues.


Vol. ? Jefferson, Mo., Saturday, November 17, 1849. No. 4?

The Schism in the Mormon Church.

Day before yesterday we received a visit from William Smith, brother of "Joe Smith," the founder of the Mormon church, who came to inform us that he felt aggrieved by some recent publications in the Organ -- among which, besides an editorial article, was a communication of Mr. N. H. Felt.

Mr. Smith asserts that he has never been excommunicated by any authorized act of the church that the mantle of the first prophet, Joseph Smith, has fallen upon the son of Joseph, who is now a youth of 17, living at Nauvoo, and whom he, William, represents as Regent, during the minority of the young prophet.

Mr. Smith did not deny that the Salt Lake Mormons were true to the doctrines of Mormonism, but, he insists that they are animated by a deadly hostility toward the United States, and have taken a solemn oath on the altar to carry those hostile feelings into act, whenever it is possible for them to do so.

Upon Brigham Young, Mr. Smith reflected very severely -- alleging that he (Young) had swindled the "Mormon batallion" out of their bounty money.

By request of Mr. Smith, we insert the following extract from an appeal to the public, signed by himself and Mr. Sheen:

We would advise or recommend, that if the government grants those Salt Lake Mormons a territorial government, that they appoint men who are not members of this Salt Lake church, or the government will find that they are most desperately bitten by these wolves in sheep's clothing. We are in favor of them having a government but we think the government and laws should be administered by judicious and honest men, and not by traitors and conspirators against the rights and liberties of American citizens. But if the government will not heed our advice, and will appoint a Salt Lake Mormon to be Governor of that territory, let them appoint A. W. Babbit, Esq., to that office, for we believe that he would be the most faithful servant of the government that can be found among the Salt Lake Mormons.
Presidents of the church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

With but little room for comment, we can only add that the history of the Mormon church, like that of all others, shows the impossibility of saving such bodies from heresy and schism even at a very early period of their career.

Note 1: While the above excerpt reads much like a portion of William Smith's 1849 "Remonstrance Against the Admission of Deseret," the document's recommendation, favoring the appointment of Elder Almon W. Babbit as Governor of Utah, is missing from officially published versions of the text. Smith sent two versions of his petition to Washington, D. C., but only his memorial to Congress was ever printed and distributed by the Government (in 1850). So, perhaps the mention of Babbit (Isaac Sheen's brother-in-law) occurred only in the version of the memorial Smith sent to the President. As events unfolded, during the spring of 1850, Elder Sheen learned of William Smith's clandestine adventures into "spiritual wifery" and quickly withdrew from Smith's church. Sheen then wrote to the appropriate authorities in Washington, D. C., asking that his name be removed from the "Remonstrance" however, the document was already published by then.

Note 2: The advice given by William Smith and Isaac Sheen, that the U. S. Government appoint Sheen's brother-in-law, Almon W. Babbit, to be the first Governor of the proposed Utah Territory, put Elder Babbit into an untenable position, in respect to his top leader, Brigham Young and the LDS Church hierarchy at Salt Lake. As things turned out, Babbit was appointed in July, 1849 by the Mormons to serve as the representative in Washington for their proposed "State of Deseret." Babbit arrived in Iowa, from Salt Lake City, on Sept. 3, 1849 and then proceeded on to Washington, D. C. After Babbit arrived in the capital, he entrusted the constitution for the proposed state of Deseret, to Senator Stephen A. Douglas, who placed the matter before the Senate on Dec. 27, 1849. The Mormons' proposal was eventually rejected in place of the State of Deseret, the Federal Government created, Utah Territory, on Sept. 9, 1850, with Brigham Young appointed to serve as its first Governor.

Note 3: See also William B. Smith's 1850 warning notice -- which purportedly revealed the Utah Mormons' depredations upon emigrant wagon trains traveling to the American west coast. That supplementary notice was first published in Smith's A&M Herald and was subsequently reprinted in numerous other newspapers -- for example, in the Mar. 13, 1850 issue of the Trenton State Gazette.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., December 7, 1849. No. ?

FROM FORT HALL. -- A letter written from Fort Hall, says - The first company of emigrants reached Fort Hall on the 22d June, commanded by Capt. Paul of St. Louis -- the last company about the 15th of September. Some left this place on the 1st of October for Oregon. A government train arrived here from Oregon on the 20th September. Mr. W. Martin, formerly of Platte City accompanied it. He represented every thing in Oregon as very high -- labor from $3 to $10 per day. Gold was plenty in Oregon, and daily arriving in abundance from California. He knows a man who returned to Oregon, and who in one day dug 10 1/2 pounds. He met Col. Hall and others from St. Joseph and Platte City, 400 miles this side of the gold mines on the 25th August, completely worn out with fatigue. Mr. Martin came the Southern Oregon route, which intersects the California road about 350 miles this side of the California mines. He represents that portion of the road as very good. Captain Standsburg [sic - Stansbury?], U. S. Topographical Engineer, was at Fort Hall, but would leave in a few days to commence his survey of the Salt Lake and the interior basin.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., December 14, 1849. No. ?

MORMON SCHISM. -- William Smith, brother of Joe the Mormon prophet, asserts that the Saints of the Salt Lake City are inspired with feelings of deadly hostility, and implacable enmity towards the United States, and that they have taken a solemn oath at the altar to take vengeance on them when ever proper opportunity presents itself. He says that the mantle of the prophet has fallen on the prophet's son Joseph Smith, aged now 17 years.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., December 21, 1849. No. ?

IMPORTANT TO CALIFORNIA EMIGRANTS. -- A well known mountain man by the name of Thomas Forsyth, lately from the Salt Lake, states that the Mormons have discovered a route occupying only some 20 or 30 days to cross the Desert and Sierra Nevada, on which there is an abundance of wood and water at every stage, and of easy crossing. It is said that parties of Mormons had made the whole distance from Sacramento to Salt Lake, with packed mules, in fifteen days.

If these statements are true, the Emigrants to California will no longer hesitate which of the two to choose, the sickly and expensive route via the Isthmus, or according to this, the now pleasant and safe one, via the Salt Lake. If the Mormons have not made false reports in order to draw the travel through their settlements, the difference is greatly in favor of this route. -- Persons going to California next spring, should endeavor to obtain reliable information on this subject. --

Vol. IV.   Liberty, Mo., Jan. 11, 1850. No. ?

In the Senate a message in writing was received from the President.

Numerous memorials and petitions were presented, among them one from citizens of Kentucky claiming to be the legitimate successors of Joe Smith the Mormon Prophet, objecting to the establishment of the Government of Deseret, and charging the people of Salt Lake with treasonable designs, they having taken secret oaths to avenge the death of Joe Smith upon the nation, and to pursue that design until the end of time. Mr. Underwood read in connection with the memorial, an extract from a statement made in the St. Louis Republican, which stated that the citizens of Deseret were [lawlessly] trying citizens of Missouri on a charge of aiding the expulsion of the Mormons from Missouri -- that they were exacting duties upon the effects of California emigrants passing through their city. Mr. Underwood thought the statement gave coloring to the memorial.

Mr. Douglass said he had seen the statement, and interrogated Babbit, the Representative from Deseret, who explained, saying that the citizens of Salt Lake having formed a government found it necessary to establish means [for] revenue, and had imposed a duty upon [all goods] brought into the city, whether Mormon or not, but no duty was exacted on goods going through.

The memorial was referred to the committee on territories.

Note 1: The "memorial" here spoken of was the remonstrance written by William B. Smith, the younger brother of Joseph Smith, jr. See the Nov. 17, 1849 issue of the Jefferson City Enquirer for an extract from the document, in which Elders William B. Smith and Isaac Sheen accuse the Salt Lake Mormons of being "traitors and conspirators against the rights and liberties of American citizens." Nevertheless, Smith and Sheen recommend the appointment of Almon W. Babbit (Sheen's Brighamite brother-in-law) to the office of "Governor of that territory," should it be organized by Congress. Babbit was sent as Deseret's representative to Congress, but not officially recognized as such in Washington. His explanation of the imposition of commodity duities by the State of Deseret is a facile one -- in fact, many emigrants of that period were charged a tax for merely crossing through the Mormon realm, whether they wintered in "the Valley" or not. Goods brought into Salt Lake City and used or consumed there by lingering emigrants were taxed and the pioneers were charged addituional fees for their remaining in Deseret during the inclement season.

Note 2: See the Jan. 4, 1850 issue of the Washington, D. C. Congressional Globe for a transcript of the Dec. 31st Senate debate on this issue.

Note 3: Although Elder Babbitt attempted to answer the accusations made against the Mormons for taxing emigrants passing through Deseret, he seems to have avoided answering Smith and Sheen's charges that the Salt Lake Mormons were "traitors and conspirators." Babbitt was a relative of Isaac Sheen -- see Sheen's May 20, 1850 letter to the Cincinnati Daily Commercial, his letter in the May 17, 1850 issue of the Washington Union, etc. Babbitt, while Secretary of Utah Territory, was reportedly killed "by the Indians," at the end of Aug., 1856, on the Nebraska plains. Some writers have postulated a Mormon complicity in this murder.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., January 11, 1850. No. ?

Washington, Dec. 31.
In the Senate, a message in writing was received from the President. Numerous memorials and petitions were presented, among them one from citizens of Kentucky, claiming to be the legitimate successors of Joe Smith, the Mormon Prophet, objecting to the establishment of the government of Deseret, and charging the people of the city of Salt Lake with treasonable designs, they having taken secret oaths to avenge the death of Joe Smith upon the nation, and to pursue that design until the end of time.

Mr. Underwood read in connection with the memorial, an extract from a statement made in the St. Louis Republican, which stated that the citizens of Deseret, were lawlessly trying citizens of Missouri on a charge of aiding the expulsion of the Mormons from Missouri -- that they were exacting duties upon the effects of California emigrants passing through their city. -- Underwood thought the statement gave coloring to the memorial.

Mr. Douglass said he had seen the statement and interrogated Babbit, the representative from Deseret, who explained, saying that the citizens of Salt Lake, having formed a government, found it necessary to establish means of revenue, and had imposed a duty upon all goods brought into the city, whether Mormon or not, but no duty was exacted on goods going through -- the memorial was referred to the committee on Territories.

Notes: Compare the above report with the transcript of debate in the Senate on Dec. 31st, as published in the Jan. 4, 1850 issue of the Washington, D. C. Congressional Globe.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., January 25, 1850. No. ?

THE ENCHANTING LAND. -- Most of the California emigrants complain of great privations between the sink of the Mary's river and Truckey's river and we see that the Mormons report having cleared out a new route some 300 miles near and better. -- Some time since, Thompson of Arrow Rock, generally known as old Phil Thompson, a noted pilot and ranger for the last 30 years, as in this place, and from a friend, we learn the following items: --

Thompson piloted the Mormon battalion through Cook's route during the Mexican war -- he is perfectly familiar with the whole western wild -- and he knows of a route (probably the new Mormon one,) supplied all the way with wood and water, turning off somewhere to the south of the Great Salt Lake, by which the wagons can be travelled in 75 days from our settlements to California. He will pilot out a company in the spring.

On coming back from the Cook enterprise, Thompson followed Doniphan's trail down the Rio del Norte, till he overtook our troops at Chihuahua. There he found an old priest, with whom he had been well acquainted more than twenty years before, in Sonora, whence the Padre being a Jesuit, had been banished on the breaking up of the Missions in California.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., February 15, 1850. No. ?

MORMON GOLD. -- The St. Louis Intelligencer says, that the Mormon $20 gold pieces have recently been tested at the Philadelphia mint, and that they are only worth $17, and not $20, as they import on their face. A large number of this coin has been in circulation in this place, and it behooves our merchants and farmers to keep a look out. They are good for $17. This coin is gotten up by the Mormons at the Salt Lake, and may be known as follows: On one side of it are the words "Twenty Dollars," and the letters G. S. L. C. P. G., with two hands clasped in the centre. On the reverse is an eye with a cross above it and around the coin the words "Holiness to the Lord."

Note 1: This warning from the Philadelphia mint was first published in the Philadelphia Ledger see its paraphrase in the Feb. 13, 1850 issue of the Painesville Telegraph.

Note 2: For a caustic remark regarding Mormon "coining" (or specie counterfeiting) see the Jan. 12, 1850 issue of the Warsaw Signal. The Feb. 2, 1850 issue of the Ohio Defiance Democrat also carried an article on these coins. The precious metal intended for gold coinage requires the admixture of a small percentage of base metal, in order to give the soft gold some minimal durability. The Mormons, as reported by the U. S. Mint assayers, were rather overgenerous with copper, etc., in concocting their coin alloys in Deseret -- to the result that Brigham Young could make an immediate 25% profit, simply by exchanging his locally minted coins (having the appearance of gold), for the official (purer and relatively weightier) gold money issued by the U. S. Government.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Mar. 8, 1850. No. ?

THE ROUTE TO CALIFORNIA. -- Nothing is of so much importance to persons emigrating to California, as the proper route to be pursued after leaving Fort Laramie. -- As there are hundreds who will leave St. Joseph in the spring for that country, we have taken some pains to publish in the "Gazette" from time to time, the suggestions and recommendations of persons who have crossed the plains. Mr. Montanye, who has lately returned from California furnishes the St. Louis Union with some facts which may be of great advantage to emigrants. He left the States last spring about the last of March, and arrived at Sacramento City on the 25th of August. In going out Mr. M. took the route leading by Chimney Rock and the Salt Lake. From the States to this rock, the emigrants were followed by the cholera, which carried them off by the hundred.

The party arrived at the city of the great Salt Lake on the 16th of July. At that time there were seven thousand inhabitants in the city, and including the residents of the city, and surrounding country, it was estimated there were seventeen thousand Mormons in the valley. The city, which is five miles from the mountains and twenty miles from the Great Salt Lake, can only be approached from the side through a narrow canyon, and is left by the departing emigrant on the side beyond, through a similar passage. A beautiful stream of pure water from the mountains, which enters the city through one of these canyons, is so disposed of as to keep a small, constant current of bright, cool water passing down either side of each street.

The city is a handsome one, and is beautifully laid out. As no rain falls in the valley for six months during each year, the farmers necessarily resort to irrigation to assist vegetation.

Salt Lake is a beautiful sheet of water, and from a centre rises a large island, which towers up to a great height, forming a lofty mountain. From this mountain gush out some of the finest fresh water springs in the world. The Island is the shepherd's home. There the Mormons have vast herds of fine cattle, which are tended by regular shepherds.

The water of the Lake is so strongly impregnated with salt, that it lightly buoys objects upon its surface, and man finds it impossible to sink. It is much resorted to for bathing purposes. During each autumn it casts upon its shores vast quantities of saline matter and on the succeeding summer the sun's bright rays evaporate the water retained in the deposit, and leave a bank of the purest, whitest salt in the world. This may be shoveled up by the ton. Just beyond the limits of the present site of Salt Lake City, the Mormons had, until recently, many acres of ground enclosed within the walls of a strong fort, but all fear of molestation from either whites or Indians, having subsided, they are razing the walls and using their materials in the construction of dwellings. About eighty rods from the city there is a spring sixty feet in diameter, with a temperature above blood heat, which is much resorted to by all classes, as a bathing place.

Two miles beyond this spring is another, which flows with sufficient boldness to turn a mill, and boils like a cauldron, so extremely hot that it will scald the flesh if brought in contact with it. The weather is delightful in the valley, and so mild in winter that the cattle, which are suffered to run at large in the canebrakes, are fat and fine in the spring, and yet the range of mountains five miles distant from the city have perpetual snow upon their summits. There are three rivers traversing the valley, and all terminate in Salt Lake.

After travelling 300 miles beyond Salt Lake city, the emigrant reaches the beautiful valley of Humboldt river. Beyond this you meet with no food for cattle until within 20 miles of the sink. Beyond this rise the Sierra Nevada mountains. and at last [you] find yourself among the gold diggers.

But the best route is by way of the Fort Hall road until within ten miles of the Fort where Capt. Hedgepeth [sic - Hudspeth?] has made a cut off, which saves about a hundred miles travel. The road is good, food and water plenty, and you again intersect the Fort Hall road ten miles this side of its junction with the Salt Lake road.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., Fri., Mar. 29, 1850. No. ?

A COMPROMISE. -- We learn from the St. Louis papers of the 20th, that a compromise has been made of the slavery question. A resolution has passed the Senate, appointing a committee of thirteen to prepare a compromise, of which Mr. Clay is Chairman. The terms of the compromise it is said will be -- California to come on as a State. The territorial governments established by the will of the people in Deseret and New Mexico to be legalized judges and other officers to be appointed by the President. The boundary of Texas to be definitely settled, and Texas to be paid a reasonable indemnity for all the territory east of the Rio Grande to be ceded by the United States. New slave States to come in out of Texas as fast as that State consents to the division, and the parts thus set apart have the requisite population.

Vol. V.   Liberty, Mo., May 24, 1850. No. ?

The St. Louis Intelligencer of the 5th says: During the past three or four days not less than one thousand emigrants of the Mormon persuasion have passed this city on their way to the Great Salt Lake. They are mostly English emigrants and from appearances, quite intelligent as a body and such as would make good citizens in any country.

The Burlington Hawkeye says that the number of emigrants to California from that county alone, the present season amounted to four hundred and one, without counting women and children. According to this ratio, instead of three thousand, at least ten thousand must have left that State.

Vol. V.   Liberty, Mo., May 31, 1850. No. ?

We are informed by a gentleman lately from Kanesville, Iowa, that the Mormons are crowding the whole country between the Big Platte and Missouri rivers, and that new towns among them are springing up and peopling almost California-like. They have raised some $15,000 to send on this spring's emigrants to Deseret but as the money has been put into the hands of speculators to procure the [profits?], it will not go a great way towards sending off the great body of their people. The rest of them will remain on our frontiers until year after year they canmove forward to their land of promise.

Many of them do not conceal their feelings of hostility for our government. They feel that they are a peculiar people, and when once well settled in the fastness of the Great Salt Lake region, we may fear a great deal of trouble from them. -- Brunswicker.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., July 10, 1850. No. ?

The United States mail steamship Crescent City, arrived at New York, on the 24th June, bringing fifteen days later intelligence from California.

Emigrants from the Salt Lake. -- A party of several hundred Mormons, from the Salt Lake, arrived at Stockton in the latter part of April. The Alta California says:

Our informant learned, from members of the company, that crossing the snowy mountains was attended with serious difficulty and the most fatiguing hardships. This is the first company of white men that have penetrated California this year, from the region of Salt Lake, and they came into the settlements of California destitute and exhausted, having lost everything in the snows of the Sierra Nevada. They report a winter of fearful severity, lingering in the valley of the great Salt Lake.

Their people had experienced many trials, and encountered much wretchedness during the season. Snow had fallen and remained upon the ground in many places to the depth of three and four feet. A large emigration were preparing to leave for California, and fears are entertained that the journey has been undertaken too early for the safety or welfare of the emigrants.

Many of the last year States emigrants had wintered at the Salt Lake, and would push through to California as soon as practicable. It is the intention of a large body of Mormons, we are credibly informed, to locate at a point known as Rancho del Chino South a short distance from Los Angeles. There they will establish a trading post having purchased the Rancho, it is rumored, and furnish supplies to emigrants coming into the country by the Southern pass.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., July 24, 1850. No. ?


Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., July 31, 1850. No. ?

SALT LAKE CITY. -- A gentleman now in Deseret writing to his family, gives the following description of the Mormon city.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., Nov. 27, 1850. No. ?

FROM SALT LAKE. -- Mr. Brown in the employ of Holliday & Warner, merchants at Salt Lake, arrived at Weston a few days since. He left about the 1st of October. He brings but little news. The Mormons had heard of the appointment for Utah and were highly pleased, especially with that of Brigham Young for Governor.

John Owens, of the firm of Rich, Wilson & Co., had lost forty-seven mules. They were stolen by the Crow Indians.

The Indians on the route are said to be quiet, and game abundant.

Vol. ? St. Joseph, Mo., Dec. 25, 1850. No. ?


In Tuesday evening last, several persons arrived at this place from the Salt Lake. They experienced much difficulty in getting in, a full account of which we publish below, handed us by one of the gentlemen who came in.

The merchants from [Utah?] who left Salt Lake on the 22d October have arrived, after a long & tedious trip. They had cold weather nearly all the way, and were in the snow 27 days. The party consisted of 15 men. They traveled each day to keep from being closed in among the mountains, having to pass through the notorious Hells Gate, Devils Gate, and over the Devils Backbone, before they reached the open country. they however reached Kearney safely after losing seven mules, five of which were found frozen the next day. From Kearney to St. Joseph they were in the snow, except a few miles, all the way. The merchants left the mail as Scotts Bluffs, but it reached Kearney before they left, and is now somewhere between Kearney and St. Joseph -- it being impossible to get to Independence by the usual route along the Blue. The September outward mail was met at Strawberry creek in the storm in rather a bad fix. Their mules having begun to give out, and they out of provisions. They were supplied with enough to take them to Fort Bridger, which will be about as far as they will get this winter, unless they go in on snow-shoes. This mail had the appointment of Brigham Young, and the other officers for Eutaw, and will be very welcome to the Valley.

Several parties of Gold Diggers had returned before they left the Salt Lake, but did not bring near as much dust, as their brethren expected. Mr. Rich's company, which was said to have been the most successful, was expected every day. The Indians had robbed a party of seventeen men who got in the day before the merchants left. Money was plenty, but the bad success of the Gold Diggers had made business a little dull. Messrs. Middleton and Thompson were much pleased with the kindness they met among the Mormons, and Mr. Horner being a member of their Church, of course met a brother's welcome. The officers at Forts Laramie and Kearney extended every favor and kindness that lay in their power, and are spoken of by the merchants as gentlemen, who do honor to the Army, and deserve every one of them a brevet and extra pay.

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