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Young Plan

Young Plan

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The Dawes Plan (1924) had attempted to deal with the massive inflation and large-scale unemployment in Germany that had been caused by reparations ordered as part of the Treaty of Versailles. Although initially a success the Wall Street Crash created new problems for the German economy. In 1929 the Allied Reparations Committee asked an American banker, Owen D. Young, to investigate the situation.

Young's report suggested that the total amount of reparations should be reduced by about three-quarters and that Germany should make annual payments on a sliding-scale up to 1988. The Young Plan was accepted by all the governments concerned but it was severely criticized in Germany by right-wing politicians such as politicians like Adolf Hitler and Alfred Hugenberg. The President of the Reichsbank, Hjalmar Schacht, also disagreed with the plan and resigned from office.

Unemployment continued to grow in Germany and in 1931 it was decided to suspend all payments of reparations. The following year a conference of creditors at Lausanne cancelled reparations. By this time Germany had only paid one eighth of the sum originally demanded.

1929 German referendum

A referendum was held in Germany on 22 December 1929. [1] It was a failed attempt to introduce a 'Law against the Enslavement of the German People'. The legislation, proposed by German nationalists, would formally renounce the Treaty of Versailles and make it a criminal offence for German officials to co-operate in the collecting of reparations. Although it was approved by 94.5% of those who voted, voter turnout was just 14.9%, well below the 50% necessary for it to pass. [2]


PlanGrid is a construction productivity software. The platform provides real-time updates and seamless file synchronization over Wi-Fi and cellular networks. PlanGrid replaces paper blueprints, brings the benefits of version control to construction teams, and is a collaborative platform for sharing construction information like field markups, progress photos and issues tracking.

  • Ryan Sutton-Gee
  • Ralph Gootee
  • Antoine Hersen
  • Kenny Stone
  • Tracy Young

PlanGrid is a venture capital-backed company based in San Francisco, California that creates construction software for the iPad, android tablets, iPhone, [1] and Windows in the construction industry [2] by allowing field workers to store, view, and communicate with construction blueprints. [3] Its capability to deal quickly with blueprint changes is aimed at helping the construction industry deal with the costs of paper building plans. [4] [5]

The company is headquartered in San Francisco, and was founded in December 2011 by a group of construction engineers and software engineers. [6] The initial product, PlanGrid for iPad, launched March 2012, [7] its iPhone app launched in September 2012, [8] and its Android app launched May 2014.

PlanGrid's CEO, Tracy Young, was named to Fast Company's "Most Creative People in Business" in 2015. [9]

The company's board of directors include former Salesforce COO George Hu, [10] Sequoia Capital Partner Doug Leone, [11] and former Autodesk CEO Carol Bartz. [12]

Autodesk announced plans in November 2018 to acquire PlanGrid for US$875 million. [13] The acquisition was completed on December 20, 2018. [14]

In May 2015, PlanGrid raised a $18 million Series A from Sequoia Capital. [16]

In November 2015, PlanGrid raised a $40 million Series B led by Tenaya Capital. [17]

Activity 2. Class Timeline

Prior to this lesson, you will need to collect all of the family timelines to determine the oldest event and prepare your class timeline. On a roll of butcher paper, create the timeline by marking the years at uniform intervals 8-12 inches apart, depending on how many events you have and how many years you need to include. A physically long timeline will help students to understand the distant events, but it still needs to be manageable.

Have each student briefly share his/her timeline with the class. Point out the differences between families and the events that they chose to include. Ask questions that will help the children put time in perspective such as "Who has an event that happened this year? Who has an event that happened before they were born? I was born in ____ who has an event that happened before I was born?" You might also have the children line up in chronological order based on the oldest event on their timelines.

Show the children the timeline you have prepared. Depending on the size, it may be necessary to take it into the hallway or gymnasium to roll it out. Explain that while one important event is happening for one family, a different event may be happening at the same time to another family. We will put all of our events on this one timeline so that we can see how they are all related. One at a time, have students stand on a year that is on their timelines. With a marker, add each event to the timeline.

In order to add a wider perspective, you might want to include events from the larger world on your timeline. The EDSITEment-reviewed resource Internet Public Library has a link to This Day in History. You can find events for any day and search under categories such as entertainment, crime, or general interest, or by time periods such as Civil War and Cold War. Students might enjoy finding an event that occurred on their birthday or other important date from their timeline.

Once all the events are on the timeline, help students make visual comparisons of events as follows. Have a student walk the timeline to look for patterns, then have a student stand at the "present" end of the timeline and make an observation. For example, "We were all born pretty close together, but our parents were born at many different times." Students can visually "see" the past on this timeline. If they stand at the end of the timeline—the present—they can see that all the events in their lifetime are close to where they stand, but events such as the birth of a parent, or the year a grandparent immigrated to this country, are far away.

A Young People’s History of the United States

Book – Non-fiction. By Howard Zinn with Rebecca Stefoff. 2009. 464 pages.
A young adult version of the best-selling A People’s History of the United States.

Note: We were pleased to promote the special offer by Seven Stories Press for free copies of the e-book version of A Young People’s History of the United States for two days in March. That offer has ended, however the e-book can be purchased for $11.97 from the publisher and may also be available from your public library.

In paperback with illustrations, this is the young adult edition of Howard Zinn’s classic telling of American history. A Young People’s History of the United States by Howard Zinn with Rebecca Stefoff brings to U.S. history the viewpoints of workers, people who are enslaved, immigrants, women, Native Americans, and others whose stories, and their impact, are rarely included in books for young people.

Beginning with a look at Christopher Columbus’ arrival through the eyes of the Arawak Indians then leading the reader through the struggles for workers’ rights, women’s rights, and civil rights during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and ending with the current protests against continued American imperialism, Zinn presents a radical way of understanding America’s history. In so doing, he reminds readers that America’s true greatness is shaped by our dissident voices, not our military generals. [Publisher’s description.]

ISBN: 9781583228692 | Published by Seven Stories Press.

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Teacher Quotes

I knew A Young People’s History of the United States book was working when students started to come into upper-level classes talking about Claudette Colvin before Rosa Parks was mentioned!

The book is very accessible to my students and it’s a great way to differentiate the class materials.

Young, Owen D. (1874-1962)

Owen D. Young was born in Van Hornesville, New York, on October 27, 1874. He was 16 years old when his parents mortgaged the farm to send him to St. Lawrence University at Canton, N.Y., a Universalist educational institutional which was part of his family’s liberal religious lifelong affiliation. Upon graduation from college in 1894, he completed the three year Boston University law course in two years, graduating cum laude.

In 1896 Young joined the Boston Law office Charles H. Tylor and within a few years he became a partner and came to the attention of Charles A. Coffin, the first president of General Electric. In 1913, Charles Coffin invited Young to became General Electric’s chief counsel and vice president in Charge of Policy, an invitation Young accepted. In 1898, Young married Josephine Sheldon Emdonds, an 1896 Radcliffe College graduate, who born him five children: Charles, John, Josephine, Philip, and Richard.

In 1919, at the request of the government, Young created the Radio Corporation of America to combat threatened foreign control of America’s struggling radio industry during World War I. In doing so, Young helped establish America’s lead in radio and later television technology. He foresaw the necessity for a national communications network decades before others. In 1939, RCA demonstrated television for the first time at the New York World’s Fair.

In 1922, Young became GE’s president and chairman. He served in that position until 1939. Under Young’s leadership, General Electric became a leader in the manufacturing of home appliances and the electrification of rural America. This required the extension of GE’s advertising, marketing, distribution, and service facilities. Young’s diversification of General Electric improved the general welfare of GE workers and helped to cushion General Electric from the blows of the Depression.

In the mid-1920s, Young helped found the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) and helped to reorganize the Rockefeller Foundation. Young also served as deputy chairman of the New York Federal Reserve Bank.

Young participation in President Woodrow Wilson’s Second Industrial Conference following World War I marked the beginning of his counseling of five U.S. Presidents. Young served as a member of the German reparations commission in 1924, which drafted the Young Plan for handling reparation payments. In 1929, Time Magazine named Young its Man of the Year for his “Young Plan.” In selecting a Man of the Year in 1929 Time magazine declared, “The discerning citizen would pause long before putting any of them [the other contenders] ahead of Owen D. Young, apparently the one man, who could and did perform the year’s largest politico-economic job for the world’s leading nations.”

From 1924 through 1932 his name figured prominently as a possible Democratic nominee for President of the United States, but he always declined and favored his friend Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

With regard to Young’s role in higher education, he was a trustee of the Universalist oriented St. Lawrence University from 1912 to 1934, serving as the president of the board for the last ten years. Today, the library at St. Lawrence University is named in Young’s honor.

Moreover, Owen D. Young was instrumental in plans for a state university system in New York. He was a member of the New York State Board of Regents, the governing body of New York’s educational system, and he headed the state commission that laid the groundwork for the State University System of New York.

Owen D. Young never forgot about his community roots. In 1930, he built the Van Hornesville, New York, Central School to consolidate all the small rural schools near his hometown and improve primary education. Young wanted the school to be a model of city and country advantages for rural education.

More than 20 colleges have awarded Young honorary degrees.

In 1939, Owen Young retired as president and chairman of General Electric. At his retirement, Young’s General Electric was one of the top 30 companies traded at the London Stock Exchange. Young peacefully returned to his family farm in New York, which in every real sense was very much still his home.

In 1942, Owen D. Young briefly returned as chairman of the board of GE until 1945.

Today, General Electric is ranked as the world’s second largest company with over 287,000 employees worldwide and the fourth most recognized brand in the world.

Young died on July 11, 1962 at 88 years old. A devoted lifelong Universalist, today the peace tower at the Universalist National Memorial Church in Washington D.C. is named in Young’s honor.

Young’s accomplished life attracted the attention of noted Abraham Lincoln biographer, Ida M. Tarbel. In 1932, she wrote her biography of Young titled, Owen D. Young: A New Type of Industrial Leader, in which she looked forward to a new type of business leader, who was an industrialist, lawyer, and diplomat.

Josephine Young Case, the daughter of Owen Young, along with her husband Everett Needham Case also penned a biography of her father titled, Owen D. Young and American Enterprise: A Biography. Josephine Young Case was a poet and the first women to be a director of the Radio Corporation of America, which had been organized by her father. Josephine’s biography describes her father as one of the major exemplars of the socially conscious business outlook. In reviewing the book, Foreign Affairs magazine wrote, “Owen D. Young rose from poor New York farmboy to preeminence as chairman of General Electric and respected international financial statesman. This stately and untroubled biography by his daughter and son-in-law describes Young’s intelligence, energy, integrity, and serenity. This is a story of an era which, despite wars and depression, did produce leaders devoted to family, community, and nation.”

Owen D. Young’s most important legacy was his efforts to use corporate power for socially progressive purposes. Owen D. Young was not only at the center of the technological and material innovations of his time, but also of its progressivism and efforts to devise private sector alternatives for the liberal state, the interventionist diplomatic establishment, and the activist community government.


The Dawes Plan was not inherently unsatisfactory to the reparation creditors. They gained what had eluded them since the end of the war—Berlin's voluntary agreement to pay reparation. And because the Dawes Plan did not reestimate Germany's total debt, they were spared a payment schedule based on estimates of German capacity in the aftermath of a financial crisis. Meanwhile it held potential advantages for Germany. Stresemann expected access to foreign capital, sustained Anglo-American mediation in favor of Germany, an end to the military occupation of the Ruhr, the beginning of the end of the military occupation of the Rhineland, and further downward revision of reparations before the payment of the first full Dawes annuity was due. He regarded the Dawes Plan as provisional, a temporary settlement, and envisioned a full examination of Germany's capacity to pay by the year 1928. This was in fact what Young intended. The American expert did not think that Germany could transfer the standard Dawes annuity. He expected the plan to become unworkable at that time, and a new scheme devised.

A Different Mirror for Young People: A History of Multicultural America

Book – Non-fiction. By Ronald Takaki, adapted by Rebecca Stefoff. 2012.
An adaptation for young readers of the classic multicultural history of the United States, A Different Mirror.

The ‘mirror’ that Ronald Takaki holds up to the United States reflects a multicultural history of oppression and exploitation, but also struggle, solidarity, and community. In the most profound sense, this is a people’s history of our country. Takaki shows what has torn us apart, yet what knits us together. This young people’s version of A Different Mirror will introduce a new generation to Takaki’s pathbreaking scholarship. — Bill Bigelow, curriculum editor, Rethinking Schools and codirector, Zinn Education Project

A longtime professor of Ethnic Studies at the University of California at Berkeley, Ronald Takaki was recognized as one of the foremost scholars of American ethnic history and diversity.

When the first edition of A Different Mirror was published in 1993, Publishers Weekly called it “a brilliant revisionist history of America that is likely to become a classic of multicultural studies” and named it one of the ten best books of the year. Now Rebecca Stefoff, who adapted Howard Zinn’s best-selling A People’s History of the United States for younger readers, turns the updated 2008 edition of Takaki’s multicultural masterwork into A Different Mirror for Young People.

Young Clan

Young Clan Crest: A lion rampant issuant Gules holding a sword, Proper.

Young Clan Motto: Robore Prudentia Praestat (Prudence excels strength).

Young Clan History: John Yong de Dyngvale witnessed a Charter by the Earl of Ross in 1342. The surname derived from being a junior with a distinguished father, similar to being called “Younger.” Various representatives of the name appear in the 14th and 15th centuries – Symone Young in Elgin in 1343 Adam Zung in 1413 Walter Young in Edinburgh in 1428, and Alexander Yong was Chaplain of the Holy Trinity in Aberdeen in 1439.

Peter Young was born in Dundee in 1544, and on the recommendation of the Regent Moray was appointed Assistant Preceptor to the infant James VI, later becoming the King's Almoner.
Peter's son, Alexander, was given extensive grants of land in Ireland, and another son, also Peter, was appointed to the Embassy to Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.

Originally the family owned an estate at Easter Seton in East Lothian, but in 1670 moved to Auldbar in Angus. In 1743, this estate passed to the Chalmers family, who were related through marriage. Clan Young of Auldbar became dormant in the 18th century, but, in 1988, with permission from the Lord Lyon King of Arms, Edward A. Young III of Orlando inaugurated Clan Young in the USA.

Andrew Young (1807-89) was an Edinburgh and St Andrews schoolmaster who wrote There is a Happy Land. James Young (1811-83) manufactured oil from shale in West and Mid Lothian and became known as “Paraffin Young.”In 1870, he founded the Chair of Technical Chemistry at Anderson's College in Glasgow. Douglas Young (1913-73) was born at Tayport in Fife and became a lecturer in Classics at Aberdeen University, St Andrews University, and MacMaster University, Ontario. He wrote A Braird o' Thristels (1947), The Puddocks (1958), and The Burdies (1959).
Brigadier Peter Young (1915-1988) commanded the 9th Arab Legion in Jordan and was reader in Military History at the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst. In 1968, he founded the Sealed Knot Society. Lieutenant General Sir David Young, born in 1926, was General Officer Commanding Scotland and Governor of Edinburgh Castle from 1980 to 1982.

Surname distribution in Scotland: The Young surname is widespread throughout the country with the highest concentrations in Perth and Kinross (Perthshire and Kinross-shire), Fife, Falkirk, Stirlingshire, Clackmannanshire, Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, Edinburgh City, the Lothians (Linlithgowshire, Edinburghshire and Haddingtonshire), Dumfries and Galloway (Dumfriesshire, Kirkcudbrightshire and Wigtownshire).

Places of Interest: Aldbar or Auldbar Castle at Brechin, in Angus, was a four-storey 16th century tower which was acquired by the Youngs in the 17th century. It was demolished in 1965.

Controversy and Decline

As the Young Lords Party grew and expanded their operations, one branch of the organization became known as the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Workers Organization. The PPRWO was explicitly anti-capitalist, pro-union, and pro-communist. As a result of these stances, the PPRWO came under scrutiny by the U.S. government and was infiltrated by the FBI. The extremism of certain factions of the party led to increased member infighting. The Young Lords Party's membership declined, and the organization was essentially disbanded by 1976.

Watch the video: 2. The Dawes Plan u0026 The Young Plan (June 2022).