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Siege of Andijan, to February 1498
The siege of Andijan (to February 1498) was the end result of a conspiracy in his original kingdom of Fergana that forced Babur to abandon Samarkand only 100 days after it fell into his hands after a siege that ended in November 1497.
In the aftermath of the siege Babur had great problems keeping his army together. Samarkand had been subjected to two sieges in two years, and there was very little booty for Babur's men. As a result of this many of Babur's men, including some of the leaders of the army began to return home to Fergana.
Amongst them was Sultan Ahmad Tambal, a recently promoted member of Babur's entourage. Once back in Andijan Tambal began to conspire with Auzun Hasan, one of the men Babur had left in charge while he conducted the siege of Samarkand. The two men decided to try and convince Babur to give command of Andijan and Akhsi to his brother Jahangir, a weaker figure that they could hope to dominate (Tambal would later succeed in this ambition). Auzan Hasan and Ahmad Tambal were not the only men to cast their eyes on Andijan. Babur's uncle Sultan Mahmud Khan (the Elder Khan) also wanted the city.
When Babur refused to grant the rebel's demands they led their army from Akhsi to Andijan, and began a siege of the citadel. The defence was commanded by Ali dost Taghai, the second of Babur's deputies in Andijan. His problems can only have been made worse by the presence of Babur's mother, grandmother and religious advisor in the citadel.
Just to make things worse Babur was now taken seriously ill, and for four days was barely able to speak and had to have water dropped into his mouth from wet cotton. During this illness a messenger from the rebels was allowed into his presence. Seeing that Babur looked to be close to death, this messenger rushed back to Andijan to pass on the good news. The messenger then repeated his information to Ali-dost Taghai under oath, leaving the defenders of the citadel with little choice but to surrender.
On the very same day Babur had recovered sufficiently to lead his army out of Samarkand. Seven days later, at Khujand, he learnt of the surrender of the citadel. At the same time his remaining supporters in Samarkand had lost control of the city, which was now seized by Sultan Ali Mirza, Babur's ally in the successful siege.
All was not yet lost. Babur still had his army, and he now gained the support of the Elder Khan, who agreed to bring an army from Tashkent to help Babur regain his throne. Babur's relief was short-lived. After advancing in Fergana the Khan entered into negotiations with the rebels, and agreed to withdraw. Even then Babur still had 1,000 men under his command, but most of their families were in Andijan. Over the next few days most of them left Babur's service, leaving him with a hard-core of 200-300 supports with whom he went into exile.
1499 in History
- Spanish conquistador Alonso de Ojeda discovers Curacao Island First engagement of the Battle of Zonchio between Venetian and Ottoman fleets Battle at Sapienza: Turkish fleet beats Venetians Switzerland becomes an independent state
Event of Interest
Oct 6 French King Louis XII occupies Milan
- Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier (Brittany). Breton-French-Latin dictionary written in 1464 by Jehan Lagadeuc was first Breton and French dictionary
Nov 23 Flemish pretender to the English throne Perkin Warbeck hanged for reportedly attempting to escape from Tower of London. Invaded England in 1497, claiming to be the lost son of King Edward IV
August 19, 1493: Maximilian I succeeds his father, Frederick III, as Holy Roman Emperor.
September 9,: Battle of Krbava Field in southern Croatia forces of the Ottoman Empire defeat those of the Kingdom of Croatia.
October 22, 1494: Ludovico Sforza becomes Duke of Milan and invites Charles VIII of France to invade Italy in support of his claim, beginning the Italian War of 1494–98
November 17, 1494: Italian War of 1494–98: Armies of Charles VIII of France enter Florence.
February 22, 1495: Italian War of 1494–98: King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne. A few months later, he decides to return to France, and leaves Naples with most of his army, leaving a force under his cousin Gilbert, Count of Montpensier as viceroy. Syphilis is first definitely recorded in Europe during this invasion.
May 26, 1495: A Spanish army under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba lands in Calabria with the purpose of ousting the French and restoring Ferdinand II of Naples to the throne.
June 28, 1495: Battle of Seminara: Córdoba and Ferdinand are defeated by a French army under Bernard Stewart, Lord of Aubigny.
July 3, 1495: Perkin Warbeck's troops land in Kent, in support of his claim to the English crown, backed by Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy. They are routed before Warbeck himself can disembark, and he retreats to Ireland and then to Scotland.
July 6, 1495: Battle of Fornovo: The French army under King Charles secures its retreat from Italy, by defeating a combined Milanese-Venetian force under Giovanni Francesco Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua.
July, 1496: Spanish forces under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba capture Atella after a siege. Among the prisoners is the French viceroy of Naples, the Comte de Montpensier. Ferdinand II of Naples is restored to his throne.
September 21–25, 1496: James IV of Scotland invades Northumberland in support of the pretender to the English throne, Perkin Warbeck.
October 20, 1496: Joanna, second daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, heiress to Castile, marries the archduke Philip, heir through his mother to the Burgundian Netherlands, and through his father to the Holy Roman Empire.
May, 1497: Cornish Rebellion in England incited by war taxes.
June 17, 1497: Cornish rebels under Michael An Gof are soundly defeated by Henry VII at the Battle of Deptford Bridge near London.
September 7, 1497: Second Cornish Uprising in England: Perkin Warbeck lands near Land's End on September 10 he is proclaimed as King in Bodmin.
September 28, 1497: John, King of Denmark, defeats Sten Sture the Elder at the Battle of Rotebro.
October 4, 1497: Leaders of the Second Cornish Uprising surrender to the King at Taunton the following day, Warbeck, having deserted his army, is captured at Beaulieu Abbey in Hampshire.
October 6, 1497: Sten Sture the Elder is forced to resign and end his 27-year term as Regent of Sweden. King John of Denmark and Norway is acknowledged by the estates as King of Sweden and formally elected on October 18, restoring the power of the Kalmar Union.
1498: Leonardo da Vinci completes painting The Last Supper on the refectory wall of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan.
July 22, 1499: Battle of Dornach The Swiss decisively defeat the army of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.
July 28, 1499: First Battle of Lepanto: The Turkish navy wins a decisive victory over the Venetians.
September 22, 1499: Treaty of Basel Maximilian I is forced to grant the Swiss de facto independence.
November 23, 1499: Perkin Warbeck, pretender to the throne of England, is hanged for reportedly attempting to escape from the Tower of London.
Anti-Mask Bonfires Are Ridiculous, But They’re Part Of A Long History
The “Million Maskless March” held in Fort Lauderdale, Florida recently featured protestors publicly burning Covid-19 masks to bring awareness to what the promoters consider a form of state-sponsored oppression. Organizers posted invitations to the event on Facebook, in apparent violation of the company’s rules against advertising events that go against accepted health practices. Whether the event will be considered a success in promoting the anti-science agenda of its organizers remains to be seen.
One thing that’s certain is that this is just one in a long history of property burning events by groups fearing science, the state, cultural change, and, ultimately, progress itself. As revolutionary as a mask burning event seems, this kind of event has been going on as long as people and possessions have existed, usually, to no avail.
Model Tyra Banks at a bra burning event. (Photo by Arnaldo Magnani/Getty Images)
The most salient versions of property destruction can be tied to social change that threatens the status quo of the powerful. Bra burning can be put into this category. As part of the women’s liberation movement a group called New York Radical Women protested at the Miss America Pageant in September, 1968, tossing oppressive items like fake eyelashes, hairspray, mops and, yes, bras into receptacles as symbols of the oppressive patriarchy. Women wanted the freedom to work, form families and relationships of their choosing, gain more volition in their life decisions. The event drew press and raised awareness, but also courted opposition that would ultimately defeat some key goals, such as the Equal Rights Amendment.
Teenagers hold a "Ban The Beatles" protest where they are burning records, books, and wigs due to . [+] remarks made by one of the British rock stars.
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In the 60s, the counterculture led a litany of bewildering change against the establishment, protesting the Vietnam war, ushering a new era of music, movies, and television, and driving changes in civil rights laws. Into this milieu came the comments of Beatle John Lennon, quoted as saying The Beatles had become “more popular than Jesus.” Those comments led to deejays seeking publicity in the American south to hold “Beatle burning” events, with southern former Beatles fans tossing albums, singles, and paraphernalia on bonfires as the group toured in America.
Girolamo Savonarola's execution on the Piazza della Signoria in Florence in 1498, 1498. Found in the . [+] collection of San Marco, Florence. (Photo by Fine Art Images/Heritage Images/Getty Images)
The most impactful burning event may come from Renaissance Florence, where the humanism and artistic innovation of the Renaissance caused a rebirth of classical Greek and Roman ideals, leaving behind a culture of religious dogmatism and fatalism. While Florence’s great riches and new celebration of humanistic ideas allowed geniuses like Giotto, Leonardo, and Michelangelo to flourish in its midst, a religious revival led by Dominican Friar Girolamo Savonarola created a backlash by the populace, who threw their rich garments and even artistic masterpieces onto a huge Bonfire of the Vanities which blazed in the main square of Florence, Piazza Signoria on February 7, 1497. The fervor, which even caused Renaissance masters like Sandro Botticelli to join its cult-like dictates, lasted only a few months, as true believers soon discovered that they were risking the very new ideas that had made their city great. The crowd turned on Savonarola and in May 1498, he was engulfed in flames in the same square and by the same mob that he had incited only a year earlier.
If history teaches us anything, it's that these burning events usually don’t end well. They’re catnip for press headlines, but they achieve very little of substance for their followers and risk a backlash that can engulf the cause they set out to promote. Burning masks to protest government authoritarianism is a form of authoritarianism itself. If enough followers discover that life without masks is far less desirable than the minor inconvenience of life with masks, they might turn on their instigators, and the bonfire of the inanities will end up where it belongs—on the ash heap of history.
How did Babur Successfully conquered India?
Babur was the leader of kabul and he was welcomed by sultan Ibrahim Lodhi’s Governer Dulat Khan Lodhi the Governer head of Punjab and his uncle Alam Khan Lodhi to attack sultan Ibrahim Lodhi who was the last leader of Lodhi line. It was there plot to expel Ibrahim from the position of Throne. Ibrahim Lodhi was the Son of Sikandar Lodhi and According to Historians he was a barbarous Cruel Ruler and every one of the nobles around him feared his temperament so were his uncles who knew his outrage and anger.
Babur around then (1504) was the leader of Kabul and to him it was a brilliant open door as he lost his Native capital Fargana and Samarkand which was the capital of his well known progenitor Timur. He attempted a few times to vanquish his lost domain where he got achievement at first yet his adversaries assaulted over and over so in this way he lost his enthusiasm for west so rationally he needed to overcome east yet sitting tight for the correct opportunity. So he asserted that he had appropriate to govern over the Punjab as his timur had vanquished it in past. With that supplication he attacked the north west boondocks of india over and over. Those were obviously, just minor endeavors. The Real Oppurchunaty for a greater attack came to him at the appropriate time. It was the faliure of Ibrahim Lodhi as the Sultan of Delhi which arranged way for Babur’s attack of India. Ibrahim Lodhi
Ibrahim was an autocrat as I said before his inner adversaries joined to put a conclusion to his run the show. Finally his uncle Alam Khan and Governer Head of Punjab Dulat Khan Lodhi sent a solicitation to Babur to walk against Ibrahim Lodhi. Dulat Khan and Alam Khan did not know the Intention of Babur. They just needed to utilize him against Ibrahim Lodhi yet to babur it was a tremendous opportunity. He was not the man to return and to pursue his fight against the sultan. His uncle and representative felt that Babur was a destitute drifter he would assault as he is the ideal match to battle Ibrahim Lodhi and later loot his capital and return to kabul yet bubar has some unique desire. In 1524 Babur involved Lahor. Coming to know about the intruder’s aim, Daulat Khan turned threatening. Babur, thusly returned to Kabul for a superior readiness . In 1525 he came back with a greater armed force and vanquished Punjab. In fear, Daulat Khan Lodhi submitted to babur. Babar next cutting edge towards Delhi. not a long way from Delhi towards the north there is a little town named Panipat. In an open field close it the destiny of india was chosen three times.
READ ALSO…The Great Warrior of all Time ‘Genghis Khan’
Babur First Battle of Panipat with Ibrahim Lodhi:
In November 1525 Babur got news at Peshawar that Daulat Khan Lodi had exchanged sides, and he drove out Ala-ud-Din. Babur at that point walked onto Lahore to go up against Daulat Khan Lodi, just to see Daulat’s armed force dissolve away at their approach.Daulat surrendered and was absolved. Accordingly inside three weeks of intersection the Indus River Babur had turned into the Master of Punjab.
Babur walked on to Delhi by means of Sirhind. He achieved Panipat on 20 April 1526 and there met Ibrahim Lodi’s numerically unrivaled armed force of around 100,000 Soldiers and 100 elephants. In the fight that started on the next day, Babur utilized the strategy of Tulugma, encompassing Ibrahim Lodi’s armed force and compelling it to confront mounted guns shoot specifically, and also unnerving its war elephants. Ibrahim Lodi Died During the fight, in this way finishing the Lodi dynasty.
READ ALSO…The Great Warrior of all Time ‘Genghis Khan’
Babur Established Mughal Emprire:
After the Battle, Babur possessed Delhi and Agra, took the royal position of Lodi, and established the framework for the inevitable ascent of Mughal Empire in India. Notwithstanding, before he turned out to be North India’s ruler, he needed to fight off challengers
Behind the History of Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur | End of Lodi’s Dynasty
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur was conqueror from Central Asia lived during (14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530. Babur is the first to set Mughal Dynasty in India. He was the first Mughal Emperor. He was a direct descendant of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur(Timurlane) from the Barlas clan, through his father, and also a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. He was also influenced by the Persian culture and this affected both his own actions and those of his successors, giving rise to a significant expansion of the Persianate ethos in the Indian subcontinent.
Though born as Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur, he was commonly known as Babur. He was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza. He ascended the throne of Fergana in 1495 at the age of twelve and faced rebellion from his own relatives. He conquered Samarkand two years later, only to lose the city of Fergana soon after. In his attempt to reconquer it, he lost control of Samarkand. In 1501, his attempt to recapture both cities went in vain as he was defeated by Muhammad Shaybani Khan. In 1504, he conquered Kabul, which was under the rule of the infant heir of Ulugh Begh. Babur formed a partnership with Safavid ruler Ismail I and reconquered parts of central Asia including Samarkand, only to lose[clarification needed] again to the Uzbeks.
After losing the city[clarification needed] for the third time, Babur turned his attention to creating his empire in north India. At that time, north India was ruled by Ibrahim Lodi of the Lodi dynasty. In 1524, Daulat Khan Lodi invited his nephew, Babur, to overthrow Ibrahim and become ruler. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 and so founded the Mughal empire. However, he again had to face opposition, this time from Rana Sanga of Mewar who considered Babur as a foreigner. The Rana was defeated at the Battle of Khanwa.
Babur married several times. Notable among his sons are Humayun, Kamran Mirza and Hindal Mirza. He died in 1530 and was succeeded by Humayun. According to Babur’s wishes, he was buried in Bagh-e-Babur at Kabul in Afghanistan. Being a patrilineal descendant of Timur, Babur considered himself as a Timurid and Turk, though Uzbek sources claim him as an ethnic Uzbek. He is considered a national hero in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Many of his poems also have become popular folk songs. He wrote his autobiography, Baburnama, in Chaghatai Turkic and this was later translated to Persian during Akbar’s reign.
Babur was born as Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muḥammad (Arabic: ظهیرالدین محمد), but was more commonly known by his nickname, Bābur (بابر). He had the royal titles Badshah and al-ṣultānu ‘l-ʿazam wa ‘l-ḫāqān al-mukkarram pādshāh-e ġāzī. Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn (“Defender of the faith”) Muḥammad was an Arabic name and difficult to pronounce for the Central Asian Turko-Mongols, therefore the name Babur was adopted.
According to historian Stephen Frederic Dale, the name Babur is derived from the Persian word babr, meaning “tiger”, a word that repeatedly appears in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh and had also been borrowed by the Turkic languages of Central Asia. This thesis is supported by the explanation that the Turko-Mongol name Timur underwent a similar evolution, from the Sanskrit word cimara (“iron”) via a modified version *čimr to the final Turkicized version timür, with -ür replacing -r because of need to provide vocalic support between m and r. The choice of vowel would nominally be restricted to one of the four front vowels (e, i, ö, ü per the Ottoman vowel harmony rule), hence babr → babür, although the rule is routinely violated for words of Persian or Arabic derivation.
Contradicting these views, historian W. M. Thackston argues that the name must instead be derived from a word that has evolved out of the Indo-European word for beaver, pointing to the fact that the name is pronounced bāh-bor in both Persian and Turkic, similar to the Russian word for beaver (бобр – bobr).
Babur’s memoirs form the main source for details of his life. They are known as the Baburnama and were written in Chaghatai Turkic, his mother-tongue, though, according to Dale, “his Turki prose is highly Persianized in its sentence structure, morphology or word formation and vocabulary.” Baburnama was translated into Persian during the rule of Babur’s grandson Akbar.
Babur was born on 14 February [O.S. ] 1483 in the city of Andijan, Andijan Province, Fergana Valley, contemporary Uzbekistan. He was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza, ruler of the Fergana Valley, the son of Abū Saʿīd Mirza (and grandson of Miran Shah, who was himself son of Timur) and his wife Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, daughter of Yunus Khan, the ruler of Moghulistan (and great-great grandson of Tughlugh Timur, the son of Esen Buqa I, who was the great-great-great grandson of Chaghatai Khan, the second born son of Genghis Khan).
Babur hailed from the Barlas tribe, which was of Mongol origin and had embraced Turkic and Persian culture. He converted to Islam and resided in Turkestan and Khorasan. Aside from the Chaghatai language, Babur was equally fluent in Persian, the lingua franca of the Timurid elite.
Hence Babur, though nominally a Mongol (or Moghul in Persian language), drew much of his support from the local Turkic and Iranian people of Central Asia, and his army was diverse in its ethnic makeup. It included Persians (known to Babur as “Sarts” and “Tajiks”), ethnic Afghans, Arabs, as well as Barlas and Chaghatayid Turko-Mongols from Central Asia. Babur’s army also included Qizilbāsh fighters, a militant religious order of Shi’a Sufis from Safavid Persia
Rule in Central Asia
In 1494, at eleven years old, Babur became the ruler of Fergana, in present-day Uzbekistan, after Umar Sheikh Mirza died “while tending pigeons in an ill-constructed dovecote that toppled into the ravine below the palace”. During this time, two of his uncles from the neighboring kingdoms, who were hostile to his father, and a group of nobles who wanted his younger brother Jahangir to be the ruler, threatened his succession to the throne. His uncles were relentless in their attempts to dislodge him from this position as well as from many of his other territorial possessions to come. Babur was able to secure his throne mainly because of help from his maternal grandmother, Aisan Daulat Begum, although there was also some luck involved.
Most territories around his kingdom were ruled by his relatives, who were descendants of either Timur or Genghis Khan, and were constantly in conflict. At that time, rival princes were fighting over the city of Samarkand to the west, which was ruled by his paternal cousin. Babur had a great ambition to capture it and in 1497, he besieged Samarkand for seven months before eventually gaining control over it. He was fifteen years old and for him, this campaign was a huge achievement. Babur was able to hold it despite desertions in his army but later fell seriously ill. Meanwhile, a rebellion amongst nobles who favoured his brother, back home approximately 350 kilometres (220 mi) away robbed him of Fergana. As he was marching to recover it, he lost the Samarkand to a rival prince, leaving him with neither Fergana nor Samarkand. He had held Samarkand for 100 days and he considered this defeat as his biggest loss, obsessing over it even later in his life after his conquests in India.
In 1501, he laid siege on Samarkand once more, but was soon defeated by his most formidable rival, Muhammad Shaybani, khan of the Uzbeks. Samarkand, his lifelong obsession, was lost again. He tried to reclaim Fergana but lost it too and escaping with a small band of followers, he wandered to the mountains of central Asia and took refuge with hill tribes. Thus, during the ten years since becoming the ruler of Fergana, Babur suffered many short-lived victories and was without shelter and in exile, aided by friends and peasants. He finally stayed in Tashkent, which was ruled by his maternal uncle. Babur wrote, “During my stay in Tashkent, I endured much poverty and humiliation. No country, or hope of one!” For three years Babur concentrated on building up a strong army, recruiting widely amongst the Tajiks of Badakhshan in particular. By 1502, Babur had resigned all hopes of recovering Fergana, he was left with nothing and was forced to try his luck someplace else.
Kabul was ruled by Ulugh Begh Mirza of the Arghun Dynasty, who died leaving only an infant as heir. The city was then claimed by Mukin Begh, who was considered to be a usurper and was opposed by the local populace. In 1504, by using the whole situation[clarification needed] to his own advantage, Babur was able to cross the snowy Hindu Kush mountains and capture Kabul the remaining Arghunids were forced to retreat to Kandahar. With this move, he gained a new kingdom, re-established his fortunes and would remain its ruler until 1526. In 1505, because of the low revenue generated by his new mountain kingdom, Babur began his first expedition to India in his memoirs, he wrote, “My desire for Hindustan had been constant. It was in the month of Shaban, the Sun being in Aquarius, that we rode out of Kabul for Hindustan”. It was a brief raid across the Khyber Pass.
In the same year, Babur united with Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqarah of Herat, a fellow Timurid and distant relative, against their common enemy, the Uzbek Shaybani. However, this venture did not take place because Husayn Mirza died in 1506 and his two sons were reluctant to go to war. Babur instead stayed at Herat after being invited by the two Mirza brothers. It was then the cultural capital of the eastern Muslim world. Though he was disgusted by the vices and luxuries of the city, he marvelled at the intellectual abundance there, which he stated was “filled with learned and matched men”. He became acquainted with the work of the Chagatai poet Mir Ali Shir Nava’i, who encouraged the use of Chagatai as a literary language. Nava’i’s proficiency with the language, which he is credited with founding, may have influenced Babur in his decision to use it for his memoirs. He spent two months there before being forced to leave because of diminishing resources it later was overrun by Shaybani and the Mirzas fled.
Babur became the only reigning ruler of the Timurid dynasty after the loss of Herat, and many princes sought refuge from him at Kabul because of Shaybani’s invasion in the west. He thus assumed the title of Padshah (emperor) among the Timurids—though this tile was insignificant since most of his ancestral lands were taken, Kabul itself was in danger and Shaybani continued to be a threat. He prevailed during a potential rebellion in Kabul, but two years later a revolt among some of his leading generals drove him out of Kabul. Escaping with very few companions, Babur soon returned to the city, capturing Kabul again and regaining the allegiance of the rebels. Meanwhile, Shaybani was defeated and killed by Ismail I, Shah of Shia Safavid Persia, in 1510.
Babur and the remaining Timurids used this opportunity to reconquer their ancestral territories. Over the following few years, Babur and Shah Ismail formed a partnership in an attempt to take over parts of Central Asia. In return for Ismail’s assistance, Babur permitted the Safavids to act as a suzerain over him and his followers. Thus, in 1513, after leaving his brother Nasir Mirza to rule Kabul, he managed to get Samarkand for the third time and Bokhara but lost both again to the Uzbeks. Shah Ismail reunited Babur with his sister Khānzāda, who had been imprisoned by and forced to marry the recently deceased Shaybani. He returned to Kabul after three years in 1514. The following 11 years of his rule mainly involved dealing with relatively insignificant rebellions from Afghan tribes, his nobles and relatives, in addition to conducting raids across the eastern mountains. Babur began to modernise and train his army despite it being, for him, relatively peaceful times.
Babur began relations with the Safavids when he met Ali Mirza Safavi at Samarqand their good relations lasted even after Babur was approached by the Ottomans. The Safavids army led by Najm-e Sani massacred civilians in Central Asia and then sought the assistance of Babur, who advised the Safavids to withdraw. The Safavids, however, refused and were defeated during the Battle of Ghazdewan by the warlord Ubaydullah Khan.
Babur’s early relations with theOttomans were poor because the Ottoman Sultan Selim I provided his rival Ubaydullah Khan with powerful matchlocks and cannons. In 1507, when ordered to accept Selim I as his rightful suzerain Babur refused, and gathered Qizilbash servicemen in order to counter the forces of Ubaydullah Khan during the Battle of Ghazdewan. In 1513, Selim I reconciled with Babur (fearing that he would join the Safavids), dispatched Ustad Ali Quli the artilleryman and Mustafa Rumi, the matchlock marksman, and many other Ottoman Turks, in order to assist Babur in his conquests this particular assistance proved to be the basis of future Mughal-Ottoman relations. From them, he also adopted the tactic of using matchlocks and cannons in field (rather than only in sieges), which would give him an important advantage in India.
Formation of the Mughal Empire
Babur still wanted to escape from the Uzbeks, and finally chose India as a refuge instead of Badakhshan, which was to the north of Kabul. He wrote, “In the presence of such power and potency, we had to think of some place for ourselves and, at this crisis and in the crack of time there was, put a wider space between us and the strong foeman.” After his third loss of Samarkand, Babur gave full attention on conquest of India, launching a campaign, he reached Chenab in 1519. Until 1524, his aim was to only expand his rule to Punjab, mainly to fulfil his ancestor Timur’s legacy, since it used to be part of his empire. At the time parts of north India was under the rule of Ibrahim Lodi of the Lodi dynasty, but the empire was crumbling and there were many defectors. He received invitations from Daulat Khan Lodi, Governor of Punjab and Ala-ud-Din, uncle of Ibrahim. He sent an ambassador to Ibrahim, claiming himself the rightful heir to the throne of the country, however the ambassador was detained at Lahore and released months later.
Babur started for Lahore, Punjab, in 1524 but found that Daulat Khan Lodi had been driven out by forces sent by Ibrahim Lodi. When Babur arrived at Lahore, the Lodi army marched out and was his army was routed. In response, Babur burned Lahore for two days, then marched to Dipalpur, placing Alam Khan, another rebel uncle of Lodi’s, as governor. Alam Khan was quickly overthrown and fled to Kabul. In response, Babur supplied Alam Khan with troops who later joined up with Daulat Khan Lodi and together with about 30,000 troops, they besieged Ibrahim Lodi at Delhi. He easily defeated and drove off Alam’s army and Babur realized Lodi would not allow him to occupy the Punjab.
First battle of Panipat
Babur started his campaign in November 1525. He got news at Peshawar that Daulat Khan Lodi had switched sides and drove out Ala-ud-Din.[clarification needed] Babur then marched onto Lahore to confront Daulat Khan Lodi, only to see Daulat’s army melt away at their approach. Daulat surrendered and was pardoned, thus within three weeks of crossing the Indus Babur became the master of Punjab.
Babur marched on to Delhi via Sirhind. He reached Panipat on 20 April 1526 and there met Ibrahim Lodi’s numerically superior army of about 100,000 soldiers and 100 elephants. In the battle that began on the following day, Babur utilised the tactic of Tulugma, encircling Ibrahim Lodi’s army and forcing it to face artillery fire directly, as well as frightening its war elephants.
Ibrahim Lodi died during the battle thus ending the Lodi dynasty.
Babur wrote in his memoirs about his victory :
By the grace of the Almighty God, this difficult task was made easy to me and that mighty army, in the space of a half a day was laid in dust.
After the battle, Babur occupied Delhi and Agra, took the throne of Lodi, and laid the foundation for the eventual rise of Mughal Rule in India however, before he became India’s ruler, he had to fend off challengers, such as Rana Sanga.
Battle of Khanwa
The Battle of Khanwa was fought between Babur and the Rajput ruler Rana Sanga on 17 March 1527. Rana Sanga wanted to overthrow Babur, whom he considered to be a foreigner ruling in India, and also to extend the Rajput territories by annexing Delhi and Agra. He was supported by Afghan chiefs who felt Babur had been deceptive by refusing to fulfil promises made to them. Upon receiving news of Rana Sangha’s advance towards Agra, Babur took a defensive position at Khanwa (currently in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh), from where he hoped to be able to launch a counterattack later. According to K. V. Krishna Rao, Babur won the battle because of his “superior generalship” and modern tactics: the battle was one of the first in India that featured cannons. Rao also notes that Rana Sanga faced “treachery” when a Silhadi man converted to Islam and joined Babur’s army with a garrison of 6,000 soldiers.
Personal life and relationships
There are no descriptions about Babur’s physical appearance, except the paintings from his memoirs which were made during the reign of his grandson Akbar, when he translated it. Babur claimed to be strong and physically fit, saying to have swam across every major river he encountered, including twice across the Ganges River in North India. Unlike his father, he had ascetic tendencies and did not have any great interest in women. In his first marriage, he was “bashful” towards Aisha Sultan Begum. later losing his affection for her. However, he acquired several more wives and concubines over the years, and as required for a prince, he was able to ensure the continuity of his line Babur treated them and his other women relatives well. In his memoirs, there is a mention of his infatuation for a younger boy when Babur was 16 years old. According to the historian Abraham Eraly, bisexuality was common and pederasty high fashion among the central Asian aristocrats of the time.
Babur’s first wife, Aisha Sultan Begum, was his cousin, the daughter of Sultan Ahmad Mirza, his father’s brother. She was an infant when betrothed to Babur, who was himself five years old. They married eleven years later, c. 1498-99 AD. The couple had one daughter by her, Fakhr-un-Nissa, who died within a year in 1500. Three years later, after Babur’s first defeat at Fergana, Aisha left him and returned to her father’s household. In 1504, Babur married Zaynab Sultan Begum, who died childless within two years. In the period 1506-08, Babur married four women, being Maham Begum (in 1506), Masuma Sultan Begum, Gulrukh Begum and Dildar Begum. Babur had four children by Maham Begum, of whom only one survived infancy. This was his eldest son and heir, Humayun. Masuma Sultan Begum died during childbirth the year of her death is disputed (either 1508 or 1519). Gulrukh bore Babur two sons, Kamran and Askari, and Dildar Begum was the mother of Babur’s youngest son, Hindal. Babur later married Mubaraka Yusufzai, a Pashtun woman of the Yusufzai tribe. Gulnar Aghacha and Nargul Aghacha were two Circassian slaves given to Babur as gifts by Tahmasp Shah Safavi, the Shah of Persia. They became “recognized ladies of the royal household.”
During his rule in Kabul, when there was a relative time of peace, Babur pursued his interests in literature, art, music and gardening. Previously, he never drank alcohol and avoided it when he was in Herat. In Kabul, he first tasted it at the age of thirty. He then began to drink regularly, host wine parties and consume preparations made from opium. Though religion had a central place in his life, Babur also approvingly quoted a line of poetry by one of his contemporaries: “I am drunk, officer. Punish me when I am sober”. He quit drinking for health reasons before the Battle of Khanwa, just two years before his death, and demanded that his court do the same. But he did not stop chewing narcotic preparations, and did not lose his sense of irony. He wrote, “Everyone regrets drinking and swears an oath (of abstinence) I swore the oath and regret that.”
Death and legacy
Babur died at the age of 47 on 5 January [O.S. 26 December 1530] 1531, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Humayun. After death, his body was moved to Kabul, Afghanistan where it lies in Bagh-e Babur (Babur Gardens).
It is generally agreed that, as a Timurid, Babur was not only significantly influenced by the Persian culture, but that his empire also gave rise to the expansion of the Persianate ethos in the Indian subcontinent.
For example, F. Lehmann states in the Encyclopædia Iranica:
His origin, milieu, training, and culture were steeped in Persian culture and so Babur was largely responsible for the fostering of this culture by his descendants, the Mughals of India, and for the expansion of Persian cultural influence in the Indian subcontinent, with brilliant literary, artistic, and historiographical results.
Although all applications of modern Central Asian ethnicities to people of Babur’s time are anachronistic, Soviet and Uzbek sources regard Babur as an ethnic Uzbek. At the same time, during the Soviet Union Uzbek scholars were censored for idealizing and praising Babur and other historical figures such as Ali-Shir Nava’i.
Babur is considered a national hero in Uzbekistan. In 14 February 2008, stamps in his name were published in the country to commemorate his 525th birth anniversary. Many of Babur’s poems have become popular Uzbek folk songs, especially by Sherali Jo‘rayev. Some sources claim that Babur is a national hero in Kyrgyzstan too. Babur is also held in high esteem in Afghanistan and Iran. In October 2005, Pakistan developed the Babur Cruise Missile, named in his honor.
One of the enduring features of Babur’s life was that he left behind the lively and well-written autobiography known as Baburnama. Quoting Henry Beveridge, Stanley Lane-Poole writes:
His autobiography is one of those priceless records which are for all time, and is fit to rank with the confessions of St. Augustine and Rousseau, and the memoirs of Gibbon and Newton. In Asia it stands almost alone.
Babur is popularly believed to have demolished the Rama Temple at Ayodhya, India, and built Babri Masjid there. However, three inscriptions which once adorned the surface of the mosque indicate that it was constructed on the orders of Mir Baqi, not Babur. Baqi was one of Babur’s generals who led forces sent to the region during his reign. In 2003, the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) was asked to conduct a more detailed study and an excavation to ascertain the type of structure that was beneath the rubble of Babri Masjid. According to a news report in The Week, the ASI report indicated “no mention of a temple, only of evidence of a massive structure, fragments of which speak about their association with temple architecture of the Saivite style.”
Do You Know Valentine's Day Has Its Importance In Mughal History, Read What Happened On 14 February
While February 14 is celebrated as Valentine’s Day – the day of love throughout the world, the videos of Priya Prakash Varrier has given India to celebrate it with more vigour than ever before. But February 14 also holds greater significance in the history of India than just being a day of love. This date shaped the history of sub-continent which also gets reflected even today.
The story of Mughals in India draws a greater significance in the history of India and February 14 is an important date in history of Mughal empire as this majority of the big events that shaped the Mughals from a fugitives of Fargana in central Asia to the rulers of one of biggest and most prosperous empire of medieval world.
Here is how February 14 shaped Mughals and with them the history of India:
1. Babur- The founder of Mughal empire was born on 14 February
Babur whose full name was Zahir-ud Din was born this day in 1483 in today’s Andijan in Uzbekistan. He was the direct descendant of Mongol emperor Taimur. Babur was the eldest son of the governor of Fergana Umar Sheikh Mirza. He ascended the throne of Fergana in 1494, but faced rebellion. He conquered Samarkand in 1496 but lost it soon to the rebellions.
Due to defeat he had to live Fergana and in 1504, he established himself in Kabul and from there he kept a watch on India. He came to India and defeated Ibrahim Lodhi the Delhi Sultan in first battle of Panipat in 1526 and established Mughal dynasty in India.
2. Akbar the Great ascended to the throne on 14 February
The third ruler of Mughals was Akbar and he too had ascended to the throne on this day in 1556 when he was just 13. His father Humayun was banished by Shershah Suri after repeated defeats. His ascended to the throne in Kalanur in Punjab and after defeating Hemu in 1556 in Panipat, he became the emperor of India. Akbar ruled for a long time and he encouraged art, culture and harmony with other religion as he himself married several Rajput women in order to establish harmony between Hindus and Muslims.
3. Shahjahan too ascended to throne on this day
Shahjahan became fifth emperor of Mughals on this day 1628. Shahjahan’s tenure was mostly peaceful like his father Jahangir’s and that’s why he employed resources of the state to construct monumental building like the Red Fort in Delhi and the famous Taj Mahal which is again the most monumental monument of love ever forged in the history.
4. Dara Shikoh had defeated Shuja
After the death of Shahjahan, the four Mughal princes went for war against each other to capture the throne. Dara Shikoh was the eldest son of Shahjahan and the most supported one too. On this Dara Shikoh had beaten his brother Shuja in the battle of Bahadurpur. Dara Shikoh was defeated by Aurangzeb and Murad during the Battle of Samugarh, 13 km from Agra on 30 May 1658. And rest is history that how Aurangzeb became the emperor.
The Negotiations with the Government
Some of the gunmen made contact with top government officials, and began negotiating with Uzbekistan's interior minister, Zokirjon Almatov. According to a witness who was inside the hokimiat, the contact was initiated when the city prosecutor gave Abduljon Parpiev Almatov's phone number, and urged Parpiev to call Almatov, saying he was certain the government would come to listen to their demands once officials realized how big a crowd had gathered.  The witness said that Parpiev called Almatov,  and negotiations began.
This and one other witness familiar with the negotiations, who were interviewed separately by Human Rights Watch, both said that Parpiev demanded that the government respect the human rights of the population, stop illegal arrests and persecutions, and release illegally arrested persons, including Akram Yuldashev. Parpiev also asked Almatov to send a high-ranking government representative to the square to listen to and address the grievances of the population.  Almatov apparently responded by suggesting that the government open a corridor to Kyrgyzstan to allow the protesters to leave the country-a strategy used in the past to end a stand-off with armed Islamic militants in Central Asia,  Parpiev tried to explain that this is not what the protesters wanted, saying "Don't look at it like this, you have to come and meet the people and listen to their demands."  Almatov said he would consider the demands, and call back. According to two separate witnesses, Almatov called back about thirty minutes later and said that the government would not negotiate. 
Aside from the negotiations that took place between the gunmen and the Minister of Interior, there is no indication that the government engaged in any contact with the protesters. All of the witnesses interviewed by Human Rights Watch said that no authorities-other than a few local officials who were taken hostage and thus forced to speak-came to address the people, listened to their demands, or requested that they leave the square.
During his military career, Timur, (also known as Tamerlane) exhibited none of the chivalry associated with Saladin. In fact, he is widely known for his extraordinary cruelty which he got a chance to display regularly during his many conquests. Born in modern-day Uzbekistan in 1336, Timur founded the Timurid dynasty and conquered wide tracts of land from India to Russia and the Mediterranean. He only knew war and had no time for surrender or mercy for those he conquered.
Timur was a member of the Barlas tribe, a Mongol subgroup that had been involved in the campaigns of Genghis Khan&rsquos son, Chagatai, in Transoxania, before settling in the region. Timur&rsquos dream was to restore the Mongol Empire of Khan and began his mission in around 1370 after turning against one-time ally Amir Husayn, who was also his brother-in-law. Over the next decade, he fought against the Khans of Jutah and occupied Kashgar in 1380. He helped the Mongol khan of Crimea fight the Russians and his troops took Moscow before defeating Lithuanian troops in a battle near Poltava.
His brutal invasion of Persia began in 1383, and he conquered Khorasan and the whole of Eastern Prussia within two years. His thirst for blood and territory only grew stronger, and between 1386 and 1394, he conquered Armenia, Iran, Mesopotamia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. Timur even found time to dethrone the Khan of the Golden Horde, and he occupied Moscow for a year in 1395. While he was away, a huge revolt broke out in Persia which Timur suppressed with his typical level of brutality. He gleefully destroyed cities, massacred entire populations and used their skulls to build towers.
Next, he invaded India in 1398 because he said the Sultans were too nice to the Hindu population. He destroyed the army of the Delhi Sultan in December and razed the city. After briefly returning home and presumably growing bored, Timur invaded Syria in 1399 and took Aleppo, Damascus, and Baghdad by 1401. After invading Anatolia and winning at the Battle of Ankara in 1402, he returned to Samarkand when the Sultan of Egypt and co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire both offered submission.
Far from being finished, Timur set his sights on an invasion of China which began in December 1404. Fortunately for his latest enemy, he fell ill and died in February 1405. According to historians, his conquests resulted in the death of 17 million people which was the equivalent of 5% of the world&rsquos population at that time.