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The war of the Roses was a civil war for the conquest of the English throne, fought between 1453 and 1485.
In it they faced the royal family of Lancaster, whose coat of arms has a red rose, and that of York, which bears a white rose.
It originated in the dispute between English feudal lords to compensate for the loss of their territories in France in the Hundred Years War. For 30 years, the British Crown alternates between the two houses, which causes a weakening of the nobility.
The Lancaster Red Rose
The York White Rose
The conflict began when Richard, Duke of York, the greatest English feudal lord and aspirant to the throne, imprisons Henry VI, King of England and a member of the Lancaster family.
The York was defeated in 1460 at the Battle of Wakefiel. A year later, Edward IV, also from York House, takes the Lancaster throne at the Battle of Towton, but ends up betrayed by the nobility and is forced to return it to Henry VI.
The king is killed in 1471 at the Battle of Barnet, along with other members of Lancaster's royal house. Two years later, Edward IV also dies, and Richard III seizes the throne and orders his nephews, first in line of succession. The war ends in 1485 when Henry Tudor defeats Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth.
The new king then unifies the two wings of the nobility, for he is the son-in-law of Edward IV, of the York house, and attached to the Lancaster by his mother. The Parliament, which had as its main base of support a decimated and ruined feudal nobility, is emptied.
Henry Tudor ascends the throne of England under the name of Henry VII thus initiating the Tudor dynasty (1485-1603), restoring royal authority and implanting absolutism in England.
The Tudor Rose, uniting both emblems, created at the end of the civil war.